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FOUB NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS 




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FOUR 
NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS 

IN LONDON 

AND 

THEIR ORGANISER 



CHARLES LOWE, M.A. 



WITH PORTRAITS AND ILLUSTRATIONS 



T. FISHER UNWIN 

PATERNOSTER SQUARE 

MDCCCXCII 



A /-f.-i 



p'AiaauBRAh 

BOSTON COUSfit 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTEE I. 

INTRODUCTION, 



PAGE 

Work and worth — Biographical — Characteristics — Objects and motives- 
Previous Exhibitions . . . . , . ,13 

CHAPTEE II. 

THE AJMEEICAN EXHIBITION, 
1887. 

Opportuneness of Exhibition — How it originated.— Nature of preparatory 
stages — Preliminary work and public opinion— Formation of Cabinet — 
General Goshorn — Mr. Washburne — Letter to President Cleveland — 
Anglo-American staff — American headquarters and Exhibition organ — 
Continental and American opinion — Another tour in America — 
Difficulties ahead — Objections in High quarters — Postponement of the 
Exhibition — ^Disastrous effects of postponement — In America again — 
West versus East — Exhibition site — Buildings and grounds — Mechanism 
of the Exhibition — Classification of Exhibits — Industrial Exhibits — 
Public verdict on Exhibits — Fine Art section — Hunting Trophies — The 
Gardens — Outside attractions — The Arena — Buffalo Bill — The " Wild 
West" — The Welcome Club — Opening Ceremony — Mr. Gladstone — 
Prince and Princess of Wales — The Queen at the Exhibition — Anglo- 
American relations — Public patronage — Eesults of Exhibition — Press 
Opinion — -Working-men's Saturdays — International Arbitration — A 
QompUment to Mr. Whitley . . ... . .31 



8 CONTENTS, 

CHAPTER III, 

THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 

1888. 

PAGE 

A Letter from Crispi — King Humbert — Italy in the witness-box — Anglo- 
Italian view of Exhibition — Preliminaries — Italian sympathy and 
English support— Opportuneness of Exhibition — Propagandism in 
Italy— And its results — Signer Bonghi — Mr. Whitley at Eome — Govern- 
ment support to Exhibitors — Interview with King Humbert — Prince of 
Naples Hon. Presideut — Work in London — Exhibitors and exhibits — 
Entering port— A bitter disappointment — Opening Ceremony — Exhibi- 
tion Buildings — Classification of Exhibits — Fine Art section— " Casa 
Guidi " and Eobert Browning — Principles of Classification — Industrial 
Exhibits — Public opinion of JExhibition — Instruction and Recreation- 
Welcome Club — Outdoor Attractions — Rome of the Ctesars and the 
Savoys — .The Coliseum — Vast numbers and variety of Visitors — Facili- 
ties to Working-men — Anglo-Italian fraternisifig — Queen Margherita — 
Italian Charities Fete — A complimentary Banquet — Report to the 
Italian Government — The Juries — Italian wine trade — Close of Exhi- 
bition and report to Crispi — Thanks from the Exhibitors — And from 
the Chambers of Commerce — The Moral of the Exhibition — A second 
Italian Exhibition — Italian Gratitude to Mr. Whitley — Material results 
and Moral rewards . , . . , , ,121 

CHAPTER IV. 

THE FBENCH EXHIBITION. 
1890. 

History of the Idea — Another turn of the Kaleidoscope — Initiatory Circular — 
Sympathy and co-operation in France — ^French Committees — Classifi- 
cation of Exhibits — Committee work — Organising work and Obstacles 
overcome — Opening Ceremony — Exhibition buildings and grounds — 
Industrial Exhibits— Fine Art section — Press Opinion on Fine Art 
section — Completeness of Life-picture — The " Wild East " — Outside 
Attractions, " France in Miniature" — How Exhibitions are run — French 
Charity Fete— The 14th of July — French Committees at Welcome Club 
—Close of Exhibition— Results— French Gratitude to Mr. Whitley— A 
typical " John Bull " . . . , 225 



CONTENTS. 9 

CHAPTEE V. 

THE GERMAN EXHIBITION. 

1891. 

PAGE 

A Reconnaissance in Germany— Inherent difficulties of task— German 
economic progress — A German Object-lesson — Initiatory Circular- 
German co-operation in London and Berlin — Initial difficulties— Official 
apathy and semi-official opposition — Propagandism and Progress — A 
' ' Dichter- Album ' ' — Final Triumph — Opening ceremony and speeches- 
Banquet to German committees— Aspect of Exhibition and grounds— 
Classification of Exhibits— Industrial Exhibits— Hunting Trophies— Re- 
ception room and statuary tableau— Fine Art section, how organised- 
Fine Art exhibits — Opinions of the Press — Outside Attractions, 
"Germany in Miniature" — "Germania" — Miracles of work and mas^ 
give heads — German brain-workers and hand-workers on Exhibition— 
. German Charities Fete— German Music and German Muscle— Testi- 
monials from Exhibitors— Close of Exhibition— Letter from Duke of 
Saxe.Coburg — The Emperor and the Exhibition — His Majesty's 
omission— A Court Artist on the Exhibition— A German voucher for 
Mr. Whitley . . . . - . • .293 

SUMMARY 394 

PLAN OF EXHIBITION BUILDINGS, &e 400-401 

SUPPLEMENT, AMERICAN EXHIBITION 401 

SUPPLEMENT, ITALIAN EXHIBITION 449 

SUPPLEMENT, FRENCH EXHIBITION 500 

SUPPLEMENT, GERMAN EXHIBITION 511 

INDEX 537 



LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS. 



Photogeavure Portrait of Mr. Whitley 



Frontisj)iece 



THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 

H. s. RUSSELL (PORTRAIT) .... To face page 38 

VINCENT A. APPLIN (PORTRAIT) . . . ,, 42 

MACHINERY GALLERY . . . . „ 68 

TROPHIES HALL . . . . . " . „ 77 

w. F. CODY (portrait) .... ,,83 

the welcome club .. . . . , ,, 87 

"red shirt" (portrait) .... ,,96 

the prairie-schooner . . . " . ,, 102 

exhibitors' TESTIMONIAL TO MR. WHITLEY . * „ 110 

TESTIMONIAL FROM WELCOME CLUB COMMITTEE . ,, 120 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 

H.M. THE KING OF ITALY .... 

H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF NAPLES 

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND STAFF 

VESTIBULE HALL , . 

FAENZA POTTERY PAVILION .... 

ROMAN FORUM AND PALAZZO DEI SIGNORI 

THE COLISEUM ..... 

GLADIATORS ...... 

EXHIBITORS' TESTIMONIAL TO MR. WHITLEY 

GOLD MEDAL PRESENTED TO MR. WHITLEY BY ITALIANS 



122 
141 
146 
155 
170 
179 
18f 
183 
203 
218 



12 LIST OF ILLUSTBATIONS. 

THE FEENCH EXHIBITION. 

GUSTAVE SANDOz (poeteait) . . . . To face page 230 

OPENING CEEEMONY ..... ,, 237 

VESTIBULE HALL ..... ,', 242 

VIEW IN MAIN GALLEEY (sHOWINTr BRONZE EXHIBITS) „ 250 

THE AEENA (" WILD EAST") .... „ 268 

FRENCH JURY . . . . . . „ 278 

EXHIBITOES' TESTIMONIAL TO MR. WHITLEY . „ 285 

THE GEEMAN EXHIBITION. 

H.R.H. THE DUKE OF SAXE-COBUEG GOTHA . . ,, 811 

FIRST VISIT OF PRESIDENTS AND OFFICERS . „ 812 

PRESS LUNCHEON . . . . . „ 314 

OPENING CEREMONY ..... „ 322 

FACADE OF MAIN BUILDING . . . . „ 328 

INDUSTRIAL SECTION . . . . „ 331 

DO. DO. ..... „ 834 

vestibule hall ..... „ 388 

main gallery . . . . . . ,, 840 

the gardens, band-stand, schleswig-holstein house, &c. ,, 351 

heidelberg castle, &c. . . . . ,, 352 

"germania'' (arena) .... „ 855 

gymnastic display . . . . . ,, 367 

choral union of the frankfort teachers' society ,, 870 

exhibitors' TESTIMONIAL TO MR. WHITLEY . . „ 374 

MEDAL AWARDED TO EXHIBITORS ... „ 381 



CHAPTEB I. 

INTKODUCTION. 

"i'riends among journalists have often invited me to write a little 
history for them of our Exhibition work at Earl's Court, but I have 
never found the time to do so, and, to be frank, I would rather con- 
tribute my humble share towards making history than write it." — Mr. 
Whitley, at the German Athenceum, October 29, 1890. 

IF good and beneficent actions are worth re- 
membering, then surely it is fit and work and 
proper that due space in the chronicles worth, 
of a time, already crowded with the personal records 
of great achievements, should be devoted to the work 
of a man whose doings well entitle him to a place 
in the hearts of his grateful countrymen. That 
man is Mr. John Eobinson Whitley, the originator 
and organiser of the four National Exhibitions which 
have done so much to familiarise Englishmen, who 
never travelled in any of these countries, with the 
arts, the industries, the products, the life and 
customs of America, Italy, France, and Germany 
—nations the most diverse and representative. On 



14 iNTBODUCTION. 

a photograph of himself, which the German Emperor 
presented to the Postmaster- General of the Empire, 
Herr von Stephan, the author of the Universal 
Postal Union and other remedies against inter- 
national isolation and ignorance, His Majesty wrote 
these words : — ^" Intercourse between the nations is 
the main characteristic of this nineteenth century of 
ours at its close. The barriers separating nations 
are thus overthrown, and new relationships established 
between them." 

Now, surely, few have done more to promote the 
progress of this " international intercourse " than the 
man who, in spite of enormous difficulties, which 
only invested his object with a greater charm, and 
without any profit to himself beyond the satisfaction 
of having been engaged in a good work, has year 
after year presented his fellow-countrymen with 
living pictures of foreign nations in miniature — 
pictures in which the elements of instruction and 
recreation were harmoniously combined. If such 
a man is not a public benefactor, to whom, then, 
should the term . exclusively apply ? And if a 
man proves himself to be a praiseworthy citizen, 
ought not honourable mention of his services to be 
placed on fair record ? We think it should, and 
we propose to do so, letting facts speak for them- 
selves, without comment or embellishment on our 
part, and using, by preference, the words of other 
witnesses as the basis and backbone of our simple 
narrative. 



INTBODUCTION. 15 

And first as to the personality of Mr. John 
Eobinson Whitley, who is a native of York- ^^q. 
shire (where he was born in 1843), and has graphical, 
inherited all the virtues, physical and mental, of 
that fine and famous breed of Englishmen. '^ Fit 
Via Vij' the motto of the Whitley family, seems 
singularly appropriate in the light of its Exhibition 
member's Samson-like physique and resistless force 
of character. He was educated partly in England, 
and partly in France and Germany, and there 
were but few in this latter country of Turn-Vereine 
who could hold their own at gymnastics with the 
stalwart young Yorkshireman. Subsequently he had 
opportunities of travelling through the chief countries 
of Europe, which enabled him to become an excel- 
lent linguist, speaking French, German, and Italian 
with fluency — an accomplishment which simply 
proved indispensable to him in the task of organising 
his life-pictures of these three nations. And as for 
his insight into the practical mechanism of such 
work — that was acquired when, as manager of his 
father's engineering business, he went with products 
of the firm successively to the Paris Exhibition of 
1867, to that of Moscow in 1872, of Lyons in the 
same year, of Vienna in 1873, and of Paris in 1878- 
It was here (in Paris) that Mr. Whitley's aptitude 
for affairs was recognised by about fifty of the 
leading exhibitors, British and other, who paid 
him the compliment of asking him to represent their 
interests, a trust he fulfilled with the greatest sucpess. 



16 INTBODUCTION. 

Ill-health from overwork induced him to relin- 
quish his share in the family business, and to 
seek rest, combined with new ideas, in travel ; 
and it was during this period that he made him- 
self acquainted, among other things, with the art 
treasures of Paris, Florence, Naples, and Rome. 
The technical experience he thus amassed was 
further increased when Mr. Whitley entered into a 
temporary partnership with Mr. Frederick Walton, 
the inventor of " linoleum," with the object of 
developing Mr. Walton's patents for an adaptation of 
this material, in a modified form, to decorative pur- 
poses. To the new ornamental fabric Mr. Whitley 
gave the name of " Lincrusta- Walton," a title by 
which it is now known as extensively as linoleum itself. 
In the process of developing the manufacture and 
use of this novel and artistic product, Mr. Whitley's 
influential connections, mercantile and social, in all 
parts of Europe and America, rendered comparatively 
easy for him the task of creating a new and artistic 
industry in Paris and New York. Works for the 
manufacture of the new material were erected, and 
while adding a new industry to those which pre- 
viously flourished in the busy marts selected for the 
process of production, Mr. Whitley introduced from 
them to the other centres of wealth and civilisation a 
method of tastefully adorning domestic interiors which 
is now as popular as it has proved successful. The 
organisation of this new and artistic industry occu- 
pied Mr. Whitley about three years. 



INTRODUCTION, 17 

Such the comprehensive trahimg that was un- 
consciously preparing him for the serious character- 
work of his life, a work for which he ^^*^^^' 
possessed and acquired qualifications that could 
scarcely he found combined in any other single man. 
Overflowing energy and incisive edge, a keen busi- 
ness faculty, a high degree of administrative skill, a 
daring spirit of enterprise, a personal knowledge of 
foreign countries and customs, great linguistic 
acquirements, refined perceptions in art coupled 
with a sense of being at home in all the fields of 
modern industry, a philanthropic heart, dauntless 
courage and an inflexible will— these are qualities, 
it must surely be admitted, which rarely go to the 
making up of any one character, and which rendered 
Mr. Whitley just the very man to undertake the task 
of bringing home to the minds and doors of his 
fellow-countrymen the life of foreign nations in 
concrete and concentrated form. A keen judge of 
character wrote of him: — "In business it is impos- 
sible to come into contact with him without feeling 
that he is a born organiser and administrator, 
combining in a rare degree a wonderful regard for 
detail with resistless energy and the faculty of 
persuading others to see things as he does. This 
latter power may well be the result of a naturally 
sympathetic temperament, which enables him to 
enter into the feelings of those with whom he has 
to deal, and to satisfy their just claims and wishes, 
often by personal sacrifices, without losing sight of 

2 



18 ■ INTBODUCTION. 

the great objects to which his efforts are, from time 
to time, directed. He judges character with rapid 
intuition ; and his great and varied experience in the 
management of large bodies of men has given him a 
facihty possessed by few persons for directing opera- 
tions of magnitude; while his talent for unsparing 
hard work, and his cheery and genial manner 
have made him generally popular with those who 
have been brought into immediate relations with 
him." 

And perhaps we had better complete this personal 
portraiture by quoting the following characterisation 
of Mr. Whitley from the Phrenological Magazine ;— 

" The photograph of this gentleman indicates several strong 
points of character. He is well sustained by a high degree of vital 
temperament, and has an ample amount of blood, breathing power, 
and digestive apparatus. He is full of animal life, is warm and 
ardent, if not impulsive and excitable, throws a great amount of 
feeling into everything he does, and cannot be a half-and-half kind 
of man. The entire base of his brain is large and has a strong hold 
on life, and he believes in living as he goes along. He has great 
executive power, is in his element when he is pushing business, or 
business is pushing him. He does not mind opposition and ordinary 
obstacles ; they only nerve him to greater work. 

"He possesses great perceptive power, is a practical man governed 
by observation and experience, he soon surveys the whole field, 
knows what is going on around him, and keeps the run of affairs 
of the day. He is a good judge of stock and the quality of things, 
he lays his plans quickly, is able to make the most of his situation, 
and if necessary could put much in a small space. 

He has the power to organise, systematise, and arrange matters. 
He makes correct calculations as to profit, loss, cost, and so forth. 



INTBODUCTION. 19 

Possesses a high order of ingenuity and versatility of talent, and can 
do many different things equally well ; lie is not much given to 
abstract thought, but readily takes an idea and applies it in some 
tangible form. He is characterised for intuition, is a quick 
discerner of character, motives, truth, and the most practical way 
of coming at a subject, has strong imagination, much general 
scope of mind, and is liable to take liberal if not extravagant views 
of things. 

He is versatile in his manner, and far from being awkward or 
odd. He is lively, wide awake, and sympathetic, is easily interested 
in what is taking place, at once falls into sympathy with other 
persons, and has the power of exerting quite a distinct influence 
over others. He has great magnetic power, has all the indications 
of ambition and desire to excel, has also the indications of hope and 
enterprise, but none too much fear and restraint. His danger is in 
going too far rather than not far enough, of attempting to do too 
much rather than the reverse. His power lies in his brain and 
nervous system as well as in a high order of lung and heart power, 
which aid greatly in sustaining the brain in its efforts. He has fair 
conversational gifts and is youthful and easy in his manner and 
address, and draws people to him rather than repels them from 
him." 

Physiognomical Studies delineates Mr. Whitley's 
chief characteristics as follows : — 

"He possesses an enormous front head, the length from the ear 
to the outer corner of the eye denoting a quick intellect and mar- 
vellous powers of comprehension. The eyes are set deep in their 
sockets, denoting great shrewdness and keenness of perception. The 
downward projection of the eye-brow at the outer corner indicates 
contest, and ambition to excel. The straightness of the eye-brow 
at the inner, extremity means truth and sincerity. The fulness 
in the centre of the forehead is due to the development of the 
organ of memory. The , transverse wrinkle over the top of the 



20 INTBODUCTION. 

nose indicates authority and command. The nostril has a proud 
and spirited curl. The thinness of the bridge of the nose means 

generosity." 

It is with such a mental, moral, and physical 
Objects and equipment that Mr. Whitley addressed 
Motives, himself to his life-task, as to the real 
nature and objects of which he himself had better 
be heard. In an address to the members of the 
" German Athenaeum," in London (October 29, 
1890), he said:— 

" The Exhibitions at Earl's Court are solely the outcome of 
private initiative. Being a strong believer in private initiative and 
individual effort, I make reference to this point with a profound 
feeling of pride and satisfaction. Civilisation has its dark as well 
as its bright sides, and one of its dark sides is that as soon as men 
are imbued with a desire to realise a conceived ideal (no matter 
how noble it may be), if there is the slightest possibility of its 
bringing its own reward in the form of material gain, or increased 
worldly possessions to those who devote themselves to the working 
out of the idea, many rush to the conclusion that nothing but the 
greed of fame or fortune is the mainspring and reason of the 
arduous efforts such idealists may put forth. 

" Those who rush to this conclusion do not appear to under- 
stand that the very pursuit and realisation of a congenial idea 
constitute in themselves a deep fount of exquisite pleasure. As 
well might one endeavour to maintain that all men who hunt 
the bear or the bison do so simply for the hides of the poor brutes, 
or that the artist has no other enjoyment in conveying his con- 
ceptions to canvas than that of reflecting upon the number of 
' bawbees ' it will bring him. This series of National Exhibitions 
is novel in character, and on that account I have had to be 
prepared to encounter adverse criticism from those who are 
unacquainted with our ideal or with our intentions. Men who leave 



INTBODUCTION. 21 

old and beaten tracks, in all countries and in all ages, must be 
tenacious of purpose and brave with the courage and enthusiasm of 
their own views, if they mean to conquer. It is comforting to re- 
member that just those persons who do not see into what the picture 
will develop which the artist has in his mind, or what net result to 
the history of humanity will accrue from the efforts of organisation, 
are the very persons who, later, are the loudest in praise of the work 
when completed ; and very often those enterprises which meet with 
strenuous opposition on the part of the persons they are chiefly to 
benefit are afterwards hailed with thanks and blessings through all 
time. 

"No one need be surprised when I say that if an Exhibition 
may be compared to a bed of roses, it may be so likened not only 
for its perfume, but also for its thorns. I remember one friend's 
remark about Exhibition work : ' C'est viagnifique, viais ce n'est pas 
la guerre.' That friend only saw the outer wrappings, for no 
heavier work has ever fallen to the lot of soldiers in war-time than 
that which falls upon two or three of the men who lead in Exhibi- 
tion work ; and when I have completed my self-imposed task, I can 
assure you that any other combination of labours I may hereafter 
undertake will appear to me easy in comparison with that of orga- 
nising the National Exhibitions at Earl's Court. . . . 

" I am certainly not wrong in declaring that no Exhibition ever 
produced practical results for the exhibitors unless the organisers 
had previously laid all their plans, had previously realised exactly 
the object to be attained, and had previously determined not to be 
deterred by any power on earth from the accomplishment of their 
work, for although Exhibition work is to all appearance a peaceful 
task, there is no peace for him who undertakes it. His existence 
is a prolonged battle, and if ho quails before the spear thrust or the 
bullet, he may as well save himself much pain and infinite worry 
by exemplifying in his conduct the old adage, that prudence is the 
better part of valour. If, however, he can collect himself and 
resist the first attacks of those who, despite his intention of helping 
and benefiting them, waylay him with hidden weapons and lie in 
ambush for him, he will perhaps learn to despise their methods of 



22 INTBODUCTION. 

warfare, and to prefer, nay, almost to welcome with fierce joy the 
onslaught of his bitterest, but open foes. They at least fight with 
the edge of the sword and in the light of day, and the bravest wins 
the field. But it is the poisoned shaft of the false friend which is 
most to be feared; and such shafts are numerous, as those well 
know who, after the heat and burden of the day, find time and 
leisure to draw them from their bleeding flesh. . . . 

" For organising an Exhibition, the most indispensable requisite 
is patience. Committees, heads of departments, exhibitors, agents, 
contractors or soudisant contractors, all ask to be received and to 
have their claims immediately granted. In order to be moderately 
successful, an organiser of Exhibitions should begin by throwing 
the ideas contained in his brain into a kaleidoscopic condition, so 
that, by means of a mental shake, he may obtain an ever-constant, 
yet ever- varying combination, taking care always to have an arrange- 
ment ready for the exigencies of the moment. In the course of 
time this sort of intellectual gymnastics comes to be almost natural 
and even amusing. And, indeed, the psychological condition of one 
who is called to this work would produce an interesting series of 
illustrations if the photographer's art could reproduce the evolutions 
of the brain as well as those of the body. . . . 

" Not one of the Exhibitions at Earl's Court has received any 
subsidy from any Government or corporation. We have neither 
had the benefit of a guarantee fund, nor the loan of a battalion of 
trained assistants. What has been done has been done by two or 
three men, and the portion of work which I allotted to myself has 
been so heavy that, unless I had found intense pleasure in it, I 
should long ago have suspended it. What has chiefly sustained 
me and enabled me to keep up a sufficient head of steam to carry 
me through the work has been the encouraging reflection that, 
perhaps, when the quartette of ' Life-Pictures ' representing 
some of the arts and industries of America, Italy, France, and 
Germany shall have been painted, or, if you will, when the volume 
in four chapters shall have been written and bound, then a few of 
what Goethe would haVe called schdne Seelen may recognise that 
the aim of my heavy woi'k has been construction and not destruc' 



INTRODUCTION, 25 

tion, and that, though I shall have fought four battles, it will have 
been without the loss of one life. ... 

*' What almost makes one blush to acknowledge one's reasons for 
the efforts put forth is the fact, that what we are pleased to term 
* business ' and * business methods ' so rule the world now-a-days, 
that a man makes confession of the real motives which inspire 
what he thinks his magnum opus, as I am now doing for the first 
time, in a spirit almost of contrition, and with a prayer to be for- 
given. If the greed of gold had been the moving factor in my 
efforts to paint realistic pictures of the working life of foreign 
nations at Earl's Court, then assuredly the first Exhibition of the 
series would, so far as I am concerned, have also been the last ; 
and if the series has not been up to that standard of excellence 
which one would have wished, it should be remembered that, so 
far from receiving even moral support from Governments and 
Principalities, we have had, with the exception of Italy, to struggle 
against their coolness. 

*' One of the greatest anomalies I know, and one which I am 
unable to fathom, is that, whilst some Governments are un- 
willing to patronise (even to the extent of lending a few exhibits 
from their unique collections of works of art) undertakings of 
such an important character as Exhibitions organised by private 
and peaceful initiative, yet the same Governments will readily 
support bodies of men who by private initiative open out 
commerce in distant lands at the point of the sxvord ; and, indeed, 
support them so thoroughly, that those Governments themselves 
will eventually direct these purely commercial operations, and 
levy taxes upon the people wherewith to defray the cost. Yet this 
state of things — this huge anomaly — is such an accepted axiom, 
that it is almost considered as impertinent, or at any rate as indi- 
cative of mere enthusiasm, when men come forward to establish 
closer and more friendly relations with foreign peoples without the 
use of the sword, and ivithout levying a tax upon either life or 
property, when men, in short, would rather assist in causing those 
conglomerations of humanity we call * Nations ' to ivork together, 
than to incite them to maim and slay each other. 



ii'- mTUODUCTtOn. 

" I have long been convinced of the utter inutility of endeavouring 
to reform this state of things— this huge anomaly — by the praise- 
worthy but chimerical projects of Peace and Philanthropical 
Societies and other cognate organisations. I prefer to endeavour to 
demonstrate by deeds what mere talk will never prove, that is to say, 
that the oftener we bring artists, manufacturers, and merchants of 
one country into close and intimate contact with buyers in other 
countries, the sooner shall we reduce aimless fighting and friction to 
a minimum, and convert wasting passions into well-ordered power 
for the good of the greatest number. The thirst for blood won't 
come to men who are absorbed in hard and honest work. I am 
proud to aid in fostering emulation between different nationalities, 
for whilst this kind of emulation occupies their energies they will 
have neither the time nor the taste for butchering one another. 
Bringing men from one country to work with men of another does 
more for pestce than writing dozens of books about the horrors of 
war. For my own part, after ten years' labour as an engineer, 
and ten years more of mercantile experience in London, I felt, 
before commencing the organisation of the American Exhibition of 
1887, that, of all spheres open to me, the carrying out of my 
favourite idea, viz., the organising of a series of National Exhibi- 
tions in London, Tournaments of Labour, so to speak, would 
afford me the greatest satisfaction, because it appeared to me that 
one of the highest forms of human effort is to extend the know- 
ledge and usefulness of arts, industries, and commerce. It seemed, 
and still seems to me, that he who spends years of hard work in 
practically inducing nations to enter into closer working relations 
with one another, does perhaps fully as much for the good of man- 
kind and for the progress of civilisation, as if he were to limit 
himself to writing theoretical treatises on the subject in his 
study. 

" When I shall have completed my task next year, and shall have 
retired into private life, I shall not, from a pecuniary point of 
view, have been enriched by the series of National Exhibitions 
held in London ; on the contrary, the realisation of my favourite 
idea will have cost me many thousands of pounds. And with 



mTBODUCl^ION. 25 

pride I confess it, for it will always be a source of immense 
satisfaction to me to remember, that I have been the means of 
bringing the ivorkers of four of the greatest nations in the world into 
close and worthy relations with my own countrymen, and I really 
cannot conceive of any more useful method of spending one's efforts 
and means." * 

Surely Prince Albert the Good could not have 
been animated by higher or sounder mo- previous 
tives than those, when he set himself to ^^^1^^*^°^^^- 
bring about the Great International Exhibition of 
London in 1851, and thus inaugurate a new era of 
international rapprochement and world- shrinkage. 
But though this great World-Fair constituted a new 
departure in itself, it had been preceded by national 
exhibitions reaching even into dim antiquity. For 
do we not read, in the Book of Esther, that 
Ahasuerus, in the third year of his reign, " showed 
the riches of his kingdom and the honour of his 
excellent majesty many days, even a hundred and 
four score days " ? Moreover, exhibitions not inter- 
national, except in the sense that they consisted to 
a large extent of the spoils of conquered countries, 
were held at Eome during the last days of the 
Eepublic and the infancy of the Empire; but the 
invasion of the barbarians was fatal to any of the 
triumphs of peace, and there were no exhibitions 

* Mr. Whitley voluntarily relinquished, from the outset, his right to 
participate in whatever pecuniary surplus might accrue from the Exhi* 
bitions, to those providing the funds, by announcing to the respective 
Committees, previous to the opening of each of the Exhibitions, his 
intention to present to such Institutions, as they might select, any pecu- 
niary surplus resulting to himself from bis own personal investment of 
funds, in connection with his Quartette of Life-Pictures. 



26 INTRODUCTION. 

from tlie time of Nero till the Middle Ages were well 
advanced. At Venice, in 1268, during the Dogeship 
of Lorenzo Tiepolo, there was a good industrial 
exhibition, accompanied by a procession of the trades 
and an aquatic fete. The fairs held at Leipzig and 
Nijni Novgorod in Europe, as well as at Tantah, 
half-way between Cairo and Alexandria, during the 
Middle Ages, had many of the characteristics of 
modern exhibitions ; while at Leyden, in 1689, the 
Dutch held a singular fair, at which they exhibited a 
great number of the most curious products of the 
East. 

Of modern exhibitions the iirst of the series, as 
far as we can gather, was held in London in 1756, 
when the Society of Arts offered prizes for improve- 
ments in the manufacture of tapestry, carpets, and 
porcelain ; while five years later a similar exhibition 
was got up by the same Society, the objects shown 
being agricultural and other machinery, and a gentle- 
man was engaged to explain the merits thereof. In 
1797 a collective display of the art factories of 
Sevres, the Gobelins, and of the Savonnerie, was 
commenced within the deserted walls of St. Cloud ; 
and the last three days of the same year witnessed 
an official " exposition " in the Champs de Mars, on 
which occasion Napoleon, who had just returned 
from his successful campaign in Italy, caused the art 
spoils from Venice, Eome, and Milan to be paraded 
through the streets. A second official exhibition 
was held in 1801 in the Louvre, and this time 



INTBODUGTton. %% 

juries of specialists examined the objects shown, 
awarding gold medals. " There is not an artist or an 
inventor," wrote the jury, "who, once obtaining thus 
a public recognition of his ability, has not found his 
reputation and his business largely increase " — and 
the words were remarkable. After various other 
exhibitions held at Paris in the following years, the 
series was interrupted by the wars of the Empire till 
1819, when the fifth was again held in the courtyard 
of the Louvre, under the presidency of Louis XYIII. 
there being 1,622 exhibitors ; while in 1849, the final 
one of the series boasted of no fewer than 4,500 com- 
petitors. 

Meanwhile, the same idea had taken root in 
Bubhn, where a series of triennial exhibitions, said 
to have had very satisfactory results on Irish trade, 
was started in 1827 by the Eoyal Dublin Society. 
In the following year a National Depository was 
opened in the Eoyal Mews, Charing Cross, " for the 
exhibition of specimens of new and improved produc- 
tions of artisans and manufacturers of the United 
Kingdom," but the project did not succeed. During 
the first half of the present century a number of 
national exhibitions had been held in various parts 
of Germany, and in particular one at Berlin in 1844, 
which drew to it 3,040 exhibitors ; and, indeed, exhi- 
bitions confined to the products and manufactures of 
the country in which they were held had taken place 
in almost every country of Europe long before 1851 
—the year in which the Prince Consort made quite a 



28 mTBODtJCTION. 

new departure with his huge and memorable World- 
Fair, and which marks the commencement of what 
has been called the Era of Exhibitions. 

The Great London Exhibition was followed by 
those of New York and Dublin in 1853 ; Melbourne 
and Munich in 1854; while in 1855, during the 
Crimean war, the French followed suit with their 
grand industrial gathering at the Palais de I'lndustrie, 
which is still standing on the Champs Elysees. After 
that there were national exhibitions in various Euro- 
pean countries, but the next great World-Fair was 
held in London in 1862 (the Poet Laureate inditing 
an ode, and Sir Sterndale Bennett composing the 
music for the opening) ; while Dublin again imitated 
the example of London in 1865, and Paris in 1867 
sought to eclipse her exhibition glories of 1855. 
Between 1867 and 1870 there were minor exhibitions 
in various parts of Europe, and annual exhibitions of 
various kinds in London between 1870 and 1874 ; 
but the next great International Exhibition, or Welt- 
AtcssteUung, took place at Vienna in 1873, the num- 
ber of exhibitors being nearly 26,000. Then came, 
in 1876, the Grand Centennial Exhibition at Phila- 
delphia (in celebration of the hundredth anniversary 
of American Independence), where the display of 
machinery was the finest ever made, and the number 
of visitors approached ten millions. Two years later 
Paris again took up the tale with an International 
Exhibition on a still greater scale than any of its 
predecessors ; while, in 1879, Sydney led the way for 



INTBODUCTION. 29 

the Southern Hemisphere, and was followed next 
year by her sister-city, Melbourne. During the next 
five years no fewer than fifty exhibitions were held 
in various parts of the world.* 

In 1883 South Kensington began a series of most 
successful Exhibitions, under the patronage of the 
Prince of Wales and the direction of Sir Philip 

* The following is a List of tlie Exhibitions that were held in 
various parts of the world from 1880 to 1885 : — Food, Agricultural Hall, 
October, 1880 ; Light, Alexandra Palace, October, 1880 ; Fisheries (Inter- 
national), Berlin, 1880; Earthenware, Cement, &c. (International), Berlin, 
1880 ; General (International and National), Brussels, 1880-81; Building, 
Agricultural HaU, April, 1880 ; Millers, Cincinnati, May, 1880 ; Light, 
Glasgow, October, 1880 ; Fisheries, Norwich, 1881 ; Wool, Crystal 
Palace, 1881; General (International), Melbourne, 1880; Agriculture, 
Montreal, 1880 ; Applied Arts, Paris, 1880 ; International, Sydney, 1880 ; 
International, Adelaide, 1881; Textiles, Atalanta, Georgia, October, 1881 ; 
Medical and Sanitary, South Kensington, 1881 ; Industrial Art and 
General, Moscow, 1881 ; Ecclesiastical Art, Newcastle, 1881 ; Electrical, 
Paris, 1881 ; Candles and Soap, Berlin, 1882 ; Agricultural and Indus- 
trial, Bordeaux, 1882 ; Gas Heating, Brussels, 1882 ; Small Industries, 
Ehrenfeld, 1882 ; Patent and Samples (General), Frankfort, 1882 ; Indus- 
trial Art, Lille, 1882 ; Naval Engineering, Agricultural Hall, 1882 ; 
SmoTce Abatement, South Kensington, 1881-2 ; International, New Zea- 
land, 1882; Furniture, Paris, 1882; International (General), Amster- 
dam, 1883; Hygienic, &c., Berlin, 1883; Foreign Products, Boston, 
U.S.A., 1883 ; Industrial, Gaen, 1883 ; Water Supply, Cagliari, 1883 ; 
International, Caracas, 1888 ; Irish Industries, &c., Cork, 1883 ; InduS' 
trial and Mining, Denver, Colorado, 1883 ; Mining, Madrid, 1883 ; 
Fisheries, South Kensington, 1883 ; Building, Agricultural Hall, 1883 ; 
Furniture, Agricultural Hall, 1883 ; General, Louisville, 1884 ; Mari- 
time, Nice and Marseilles, 1883-4 ; Bailway Appliances, Paris, 1883 ; 
Industrial and Electrical, Prague, 1883 ; Electrical, Vienna, 1883 ; 
General (National), Zurich, 1883 ; Lace, Fans, &c., Brussels, 1883 ; Inter- 
national, Calcutta, 1883 ; Colonial, Melbourne, 1884 ; Building, Agri- 
cultural Hall, 1884 ; Health, South Kensington, 1884 ; Decorative Arts, 
Paris, 1884 ; Electrical, Philadelphia, 1884 ; General, Eouen, 1884 ; 
International, New Orleans, 1884-5 ; Mechanical, Vienna, Teplitz, 
Nuremberg, 1884-5 ; National (General), Turin, 1884 ; Commercial and 
Industrial, Antwerp, 1885 ; National (Hungarian), Buda-Pesth, 1885 ; 
Pottery, Delft, 1885 ; Industrial, Konigsberg, 1885 ; Inventions, South 
Kensington, 1885. 



3D INTBOD UCTION. 

Cunlifie-Owen. The first of this series, the Fisheries 
Exhibition (popularly called '' The Fisheries "), was. 
held in 1883, followed by the Health Exhibition (or 
^' Healtheries ") in 1884, the Inventions Exhibition 
in 1885, and concluded by the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition (the " Colinderies ") in 1886. It was at 
the first meeting of the Eoyal Commission of the last 
named that Lord Derby remarked: "There was a 
time, a few years ago, when it was said exhibitions 
were played out; and that it would be well, for 
a time at least, to discontinue them. I do not know 
whether that feeling was ever justified by the facts; 
it may have represented a passing phase of opinion 
in London, but it is not the case now. We have 
had recent experience, and we have seen that what- 
ever the ostensible object of the Exhibition, whether 
appliances of health, fisheries, forestry, or whatever 
the subject may be, the interest that is felt in these 
exhibitions is unabated and ever increasing." 

It was under the motive force of this conviction 
that Mr. Whitley addressed himself to the task of 
achieving what had never been attempted before 
— a fascinating enough problem for a man over- 
flowing with courage, energy, and initiative power 
■ — namely, to organise in the heart of his own country 
an Exhibition confined exclusively to the " arts, 
inventions, manufactures, products, and resources " 
of another. 



CHAPTEE II. 

THE AMEEICAN EXHIBITION. 
(1887.) 

" When was ever suoli an Exhibition held in a foreign country, without 
Government assistance, by any other nation in the wliole annals of the 
world ? " ■•' — The Nineteenth Century, June, 1887. 

" United by a common language, a common spirit of commercial enter- 
prise, and a common regard for well-regulated liberty." — Canning. 

" It has always been a favourite idea of mine to bring the life of the 
Old and the New World face to face." — Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

NEW departure in tlie history of Exhibi- 
tions was made in the year 1887, 102 

Opportune- 
years after John Adams, the first ness of 

Minister of the United States who came on 

a friendly mission to Great Britain, presented his 

credentials to King George III. This anniversary 

also received an additional, and, indeed, its main 

interest, from the fact of its being the Jubilee Year 

of Queen Victoria ; and it was, therefore, a charming 

coincidence that the triumphs and celebrations of this 

memorable year should have included an Exhibition 

in London of the progress in arts and industries made 

* Beferring to the Exhibition which is the subject of this chapter. 



32 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

by one of Mother England's oldest and greatest of 
daughters — an Exhibition which was at the same 
time an outward and visible sign that the unhappy 
estrangement between parent and offspring, origina- 
ting in the reign of Her Gracious Majesty's grand- 
father, had now at last, in this Jubilee Year of hers, 
given place to mutual feelings of perfect reconcilia- 
tion. And could anything thus have been happier 
than the time and manner of this result ? 

It came about in this way. In the month of 
jjow it April, 1884, Mr. Whitley found himself in 
originated. ]^g^ York after a tour undertaken for the 
restoration of his health, that had been some- 
what impaired by twenty years of hard work — 
a tour which had extended to the West Indies, 
Mexico, California, and other portions of the 
United States. Whilst in New York, on the 
homeward journey from San Erancisco, he acci- 
dentally learnt, that several American gentlemen 
meant to organise in London, for the following year, 
an Exhibition of the arts, manufactures, and pro- 
ducts of North, Central, and South America. Said 
Mr. Whitley * :— 

" This interested me much, ' for, having quite recovered my 
health, I was wiUing to engage in an undertaking which promised 
congenial employment for my activity ; and this idea of an American 
Exhibition in the British Metropolis was exceedingly attractive to 
me, for I felt sure that, if it were properly managed, it ivould afford 

* In an address to a meeting of manufacturers held in the rooms of the 
Board of Trade, Philadelphia, November 19, 1885, 



THE AMEBICAN EXHIBITION. 33 

me most interesting employment, as my experience at great inter- 
national exhibitions was such as to justify my conviction, that an 
American Exhibition in London would be most popular. ... I 
was aware of the vast progress made by Americans in manufactures 
and commerce, and I had a strong desire to associate myself with 
them in the future, and to assist them to extend their relations with, 
the Old World, and in the British Colonies ; for I felt and feel sure 
that Europe, with its teeming millions, already looks to the United 
States as the vanguard in the march of both material and moral 
progress, and I preferred, on the occasion of my re'commencing active 
work, to associate myself with those in the foremost ranks, rather 
than remain in the rear guard. I saw what an excellent oppor- 
tunity such an Exhibition would afford to Americans for making an 
official debut in the biggest market-place of the Old World, and it 
was the reverse of unpleasant to picture to myself the great possi- 
bilities for the best good of the United States, and the United 
Kingdom, from such a national undertaking, if only carried out 
with judgment, honesty of purpose, and energy." 

Mr. Whitley accordingly put himself into com- 
munication with the gentlemen who had preparatory 
originated the idea, and he offered to stages. 
render them such assistance as he could, on con- 
dition that the Exhibition should not be of the 
international character they contemplated, but be 
confined to exhibits from the United States; for it 
seemed to Mr. Whitley that it was time to initiate 
a thoroughly new departure in exhibitions, viz., that 
of one nation exhibiting alone in the metropolis of 
another. Eventually they agreed to this modifica- 
tion, and work was at once commenced ; but though 
thus begun in 1884, and intended to bear full fruit 
in 1886, it was 1887 before it reached its com- 

3 



34 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

pletion, for reasons which will afterwards be de- 
tailed. 

Meanwhile it may be said that the inherent diffi- 
culties of the organising task undertaken by Mr. 
Whitley proved of a nature that would have deterred 
or defeated all but those possessed of the stoutest 
and most determined hearts. As he himself once 
truly said * : — " An Exhibition organiser does not 
need to be a genius. He must merely possess good 
health and the fixed determination that nothing 
shall stop him. The work is special only because of 
the multitude of details. You will be able to form 
some idea of what I mean when I mention to you 
a detail connected with one department of the 
work : — during the organisation and direction of the 
American Exhibition alone, I enjoyed the privilege 
of being compelled to read 27,000 letters, most of 
which had to be answered. ... I pass over the 
period which elapsed between my finding myself 
with the entire organisation of an Exhibition upon 
my hands and the opening day. If I tried your 
patience by giving a detailed history of that period, 
it would be simply a record of one long 'uphill 
struggle,' and I well remember wondering, at the 
opening ceremony, whether I were still a man or 
had become a machine. I may briefly state that 
four months before the Exhibition opened, the site 
at Earl's Court and West Brompton was a cabbage 
garden. We had more than 2,000 men in two 
* In his Address at the German AthensBum, October 29, 1890. 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 35 

gangs — one set working by day, and one by night. 
I was navvy, clerk, host, and cicerone by turns, and 
occasionally found myself fast asleep, from sheer 
fatigue, as I stood." But this is anticipating 
somewhat. 

Mr. Whitley's proposal having been accepted, 
practical work began by his consulting Preliminary 
some of the most prominent men in Great ^^^^^^ 
Britain as to how such an undertaking was opinion, 
likely to be received by the English public, which, of 
course, would contribute by far the larger number 
of visitors to see this practical evidence of the 
progress made by ^Americans in arts and industries. 
The result was that a number of gentlemen, repre- 
senting almost every class of society in England, 
declared, that they thought such an Exhibition as 
the one proposed would not only be of the greatest 
possible interest and value, but extremely popular 
with the masses. Kepresentative Americans were 
next consulted, and the answer from the other side 
of the Atlantic was identical with the one received 
from Englishmen, though much more modest ; for 
Americans desired to know, first of all, whether even 
a peaceful invasion on their part, such as contem- 
plated, would really be welcomed in the Old World. 
The better to prove to the people of America that 
they would be most cordially received with the truest 
hospitality and friendship, a Council of Welcome was 
immediately formed by Mr. Whitley in England, con- 
sisting of .about a thousand gentlemen distinguished in 



36 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

art, literature, science, manufactures, and commerce; * 
while the Press of the Anglo-Saxon world, with 
The Times at its head, hailed the proposed under- 
taking in words of warmest appreciation, and within 
about a twelvemonth of the time when the proposal 
was first mooted, it had been made the subject of 
about 8,000 laudatory articles in the newspapers of 
the two countries. 

It having thus been demonstrated, in a general 
way, that there were no insuperable objections to the 
undertaking on the part of the British public, it 
became necessary to determine the best manner 
of organising and developing the whole scheme. 
Hitherto all great Exhibitions had been under the 
fostering care of one Government or another. But 
it was naturally unbecoming that the United States 
Government should take the initiative, and ask per- 
■mission for an official Exhibition to be held in the 

* The following were the Vice-PreBidents of the Honorary Council of 
Welcome: — His Eminence Henry Edward, Cardinal Manning; His Grace 
the Duke of Eoxburghe ; His Grace the Duke of Manchester, K.P. ; His 
Grace the Duke of Northumberland ; His Grace the Duke of Wel- 
lington ; His Grace the Duke of Sutherland, K.G. The following 
were the Executive Committee : — Lord Eonald Gower ; John E. 
Whitley, Esq. ; Sir H. P. De Bathe, Bart. ; E. North Buxton, Esq. ; 
Sir Charles Clifford, Bart. ; Sir J. J. CoghUl, Bart. ; Wilkie CoUins, 
Esq. ; Sir Joseph Fayrer ; Sir John E. Heron-Maxwell, Bart. ; Henry 
Irving, Esq. ; Dr. Morell Mackenzie ; Sir John E. Millais, Bart. 
Colonel Paget Mosley ; Major S. Flood Page ; J. H. Puleston, Esq., 
M.P. ; Sir David Salomons, Bart. ; Henry Seton-Karr, Esq., M.P. ; 
Gilead Smith, Esq. ; Sir Sydney Waterlow, Bart. ; Charles Wyndham, 
Esq. The Honorary Secretary was J. Stephen Jeans, Esq. It is inter- 
esting to note that Lord Charles Beresford joined the Council of Welcome 
November 20, 1884, by letter from Bab-el-Kebir, near Wady-Halfa — which 
was " peace and war" with a vengeance. 



THE AMEBiCAN EXHIBITION. S7 

Metropolis of the United Kingdom, just as it would 
have been equally absurd to expect that the British 
Government should invite American citizens to come 
and exhibit in London evidences of their wealth and 
progress in civilisation, seeing that, however much 
an Exhibition of this kind might prove interesting 
to the individual Englishman, it could not possibly 
concern the British Government as such. It there- 
fore devolved upon private persons to take the 
initiative, either in an individual or in a corpo- 
rate capacity. It was, of course, evident that the 
adoption of this course would provoke criticism 
from all those who had been in the habit of 
looking for governmental aid in such undertakings. 
This prospective criticism, however, only acted 
as an additional incentive to Mr. Whitley, and 
the American colleagues whom he had invited to 
associate themselves with him, to demonstrate what 
individual effort could accomplish. The plans of 
organisation were presented in detail to the principal 
United States Consuls resident in Europe — "those 
watch-dogs of American interests abroad" — and, 
without exception, the enterprise was commended 
in the warmest and most unreserved terms by these 
gentlemen, who well knew what would be the re- 
quirements for a thorough representation of the 
ever-increasing industries and resources of the New 
World.* 

* Letters of the warmest commendation and encouragement were 
received by Mr. Whitley, among others, from the United States Consuls 
at St. Petersburg, Bradford, Berne, Munich, Dlisseldorf, Leeds, Frankfort- 



38 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Of course, the National Government could not be 
asked to give any pecuniary assistance ; to have 
done this would have been to abandon the funda- 
mental principle of the idea. But its originators 
hoped that so complete a display of the products 
and resources of the States and Territories of the 
Union could be made, that any capitalist seeking 
an investment, or any discriminating man desirous 
of fixing his home there, would, after several visits 
to the proposed Exhibition, be in a position to arrive 
at a reliable conclusion as to what it would be best 
for him to do ; and that in this way the Exhibition 
would become, as it did, a national undertaking in 
the broadest and best sense of the term. 

To carry out to a successful issue so great an 
undertaking as an Exhibition in London 

Formation ^ 

of of the " arts, inventions, manufactures, and 
products " of so vast a country as the 
United States of America, it was manifest to Mr. 
Whitley, that one of his first tasks must be to call 
to his assistance the best and most trustworthy men 
obtainable on both sides of the Atlantic — to form his 
Cabinet, so to speak ; and the chief of the Ameri- 
can section of this Cabinet was ultimately found in 
Colonel Henry S. Eussell, of Boston, a man of the 

on4he-Main, Genoa, Palermo, Bristol, Moscow, DresdeD, Stockholm, 
Glasgow, Manchester, Liverpool, Stettin, Dundee, Newcastle-iipon-Tyne, 
Dublin, Sheffielcl, Nottingham, Vienna, Cardiff, Bordeaux, Eheims, 
London, Brussels, Belfast, Marseilles, Barcelona, Constantinople, Paris, 
Birmingham, Eotterdam, Cognac, Bremen, Antwerp, Havre, Cadiz, 
Leghorn, Bologna, Edinburgh, Eome, Catania, Berlin, Malta, Falmouth, 
Southampton, &c. 




\.F>o)K a fJtoio^raph by G. Gabrielli. 



HENRY S. RUSSELL. 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 39 

greatest integrity and worth, as attested by so good 
a judge of character as James Kussell Lowell. 

Another valuable acquisition to the American 
Committee was made in the person of General 
General A. J. Go shorn, of Cincinnati, who, ^oshom, 
having been Director- General of the great Phila- 
delphia Centennial Exhibition of 1876, was a tower 
of organising strength. He wrote Mr. Whitley as 
follows : — 

" Cincinnati, 

" 25i7i November, 1885. 
" Dkar Sik,— I was extremely pleased to meet you last week in 
New York, and I now wish to convey to yourself and your 
colleagues my thanks for all the particulars which you have 
communicated to me regarding the important work you have 
undertaken. It is a new work both in its essence and in its 
arrangement, and I am sure that it will promote greatly the 
material interests of our country, and more especially of those 
industries which will take steps to be worthily represented at the 
Exhibition. Everything promises that the Exhibition will be a 
complete success, and that it will be to the advantage of exhibitors 
to join you. You may count on my sympathy and full encourage- 
ment in the great work you have undertaken. 

"A. J. GoSHOEN. 

The Hon. E. B. Washburne, too, ex-Minister 
of the United States at Paris, consented j^^. 
to become prominently associated with an^^^^^^™®' 
undertaking which, as he himself said at a banquet 
given him by the supporters and promoters of the 
Exhibition in Philadelphia, " the City of Brotherly 
Love," "would conduce to a better knowledge of 



40 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

the resources and capacities of our country, and bind 

together two great nations in closer ties of amity and 

goodwill." * Finally, and above all, Mr. Whitley 

succeeded in procuring: for his scheme the 

Letter to j. o 

President countcnance and patronage of the Hon. Grover 
' Cleveland, President of the United States, 
with whom he had two interviews in the course of his 
various visits to America, and to whom he addressed 
the following letter, which, though dated from 
Philadelphia at a subsequent period, had better be 
quoted, in part, here : — 

" I desire to convey to you some faint expression of the pleasure 

* Replying to the toast of liis health at this banquet, Mr. Washburne 
said : " I accepted, Mr. Chairman, the position of the president of the 
American Exhibition in London, so honoui'ably tendered, only after much 
Hesitation. I believed that the position should have gone to a man of 
more exjperience in such matters, but virhen I saw the names of all the 
honourable gentlemen and experienced administrators who are associated 
with it, I yielded my first impressions. I found that I was to be 
associated with gentlemen whom I deemed it a high honour to be con- 
nected with in such an enterprise, and one which promised so much to my 
country. The proposition of an American Exhibition in England, in the 
heart of the greatest city in the world, was a happy inspiration ; it gives 
our country an opportunity to make known to England and to all Europe 
what has been our progress in the arts, the sciences, and in maniifactures, 
and in the development of all those great industries which have been 
subordinated to the uses and purposes of man. There were, I believe, 
10,000,000 admissions to the Centennial Exhibition ; of this number, I 
am told, it has been estimated that not more than 1 per cent, were 
Europeans. If the Centennial did so much to make America known 
abroad, how much will be accomplished by this American Exhibition, 
where, of the millions who will go to see it, not more than 1 per cent, 
will be Americans — all the rest being foreigners. It will tell the story of 
her greatness to the furthermost ends of the earth. England stretches 
out her hand of welcome. Let us grasp it in the spirit in which it is 
proffered. Let us show to the whole world how much has been accom- 
j)lished where liberty, regulated by law, has been sublimated to the highest 
degree." 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 41 

you have afforded my colleagues and myself by being associated, 
as Honorary President, with the first American Exhibition of the 
Art:^, Manufactures and Eesources of the United States ever held 
beyond the limits of the national territory. By accepting this 
position you recognise and encourage American commerce, and 
foster American industries. 

" By similar action the rulers of Europe, who can justly lay claim 
to enlightenment, have always had cause for self-congratulation, 
whether the Exhibition of which they were the Honorary 
Presidents happened to be governmentally managed or not. In 
this instance it was obvious that an Exhibition held in the British 
metropolis, and exclusively devoted to the Arts, Inventions, 
Manufactures, Products, and Eesources of the United States, 
could not be initiated by the Government of this country, and 
hence the United States Government has not been askei, and will 
not be asked, to vote any funds for the undertaking. But it will 
be invited to become an exhibitor in the same manner as the 
great Corporations, Eailroads, and private firms have been invited 
to become exhibitors. Just in the same way as the people of 
Great Britain are now daily applauding the efforts of the Prince 
of Wales to extend England's friendly relations with other Powers 
by the three annual Exhibitions he has held in London ; and just 
ill the same way as the British people are further applauding the 
Prince's efforts to aid, through the forthcoming Colonial and 
Indian Exhibition, in bringing about a federation of the British 
Empire, so the American people will recognise the interest you 
take in the welfare of your own country by extending your coun- 
tenance to this new departure, fraught as it is with so much 
prospective advantage to American trade and industries. 

" Under the active and cordial guidance of the Hon. E. B. Wash- 
burne, of Illinois, Gen. A. J. Goshorn, of Cincinnati, and the other 
officers of the Exhibition, you may safely rely upon the American 
Exhibition in London becoming one of which Americans will have 
every reason to be proud." 



i2 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Certainly Mr. Whitley's Cabinet, whether active 

or honorary, could not have been filled by 

American better men in America than President 

Cleveland, Mr. Washbnrne, Colonel Eussell, 

and General Goshorn, Major Burnet Landreth, Col. 

E. A. Buck, Mr. W. D. Guthrie, &c. ; while in 

England he was fortunate in being able to enlist the 

practical sympathy and support of such men as 

Lord Eonald Gower, Mr. John Priestman, Mr. Alfred 

Pickard, and Mr. Vincent A. Applin.* 



* A memorandum, written by Mr; Whitley in 1887, says : " After I 
originated the idea of the Exhibition in its present form, Mr. Alfred 
Pickard joined me, and has done nothing else since. Two months later 
Mr. Applin joined us, and has done nothing else since. One month after 
Mr. Applin came, Lord Eonald Gower joined us. Three months later 
Mr. Speed was invited by me to represent our enterprise in the United 
States. This was in November, 1884, and in December of the same year 
Mr. Priestman joined us. Some time during 1885 Major Burnet Landreth 
fortunately became associated with us ; and almost simultaneously Mr. 
Guthrie, Colonel Buck, Colonel Griffin, Mr. Bierstadt, and Governor 
Furnas joined. In September, or October, 1885, Colonel Eussell joined 
us, also Mr. William Goldring, and finally in 1886 the following gentle- 
men were induced to join the standard : Mr. Eufus M. Smith, Mr. John 
Sartain, Dr. Norvin Green, Mr. John Lucas, Mr. Thomas Cochran, Mr. 
N. K. Fairbank, General John E. Carson, Mr. H. T. Coleman, Mr. W. 
H, Thomson, Colonel William Edwards, Colonel L. N. Dayton, Mr. John 
English Green, and Mr. W. Lee Thornton, whilst Mr. Alfred Johnson and 
Mr. T, C. Penfield joined us since the commencement of this year (1887)." 

With regard to the personalities of the above-named gentlemen, 
the following details were published at the time of the Exhibition : 
Colonel Henry S. Eussell, of Boston, the President of the Exhibition, 
is one of the most highly esteemed men in New England. James Eussell 
Lowell, late Minister to England, said of him, " During our Civil War he 
was a gallant soldier, and in private life he has always been an excellent 
and useful citizen. I have known him all his life, and never knew any- 
thing of him but good." Colonel Eussell is a man of large resources, 
and is prominently identified with the Bell Telephone interests in 
America. Writing in October, 1885, to Mr. Whitley, Mr. Edward 




\,Froin a photograph by Fli.t d'Alessakdri, Rome. 
VINCENT A. APPLIN 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 43 

At the invitation of a number of those who 
contributed to make the " Centennial " American 
the success it was, the Organising Board quSers 
selected Philadelphia as its headquarters jj^jJ^J^on 
in the United States, that it might profit organ, 
by the valuable assistance of many who had 
gained experience in the management of the great 
International Exhibition of 1876, and who, indeed, 
looked upon the proposed American display in 
London as a natural sequence of that great gather- 
Atkinson, the well-known statist of Boston, U.S., said: "I congratulate" 
you upon the appointment of Col. Henry S. Eussell as President of 
the American Exhibition, proposed to be held in London nest May. 
When he accepts this offer his name will give a reason for confidence in the 
management of the Exhibition which may have been somewhat lacking 
in this section up to this time. His appointment and acceptance may 
therefore give such assurance of adequate contributions from the manu- 
facturing sections of the East as will render the Exhibition a true 
exponent of American art, industry, and manufactures." — Captain 
Burnet Landreth, of Philadelphia, is a member of the great seed firm of 
D. Landreth and Sons. He served with distinction during the wars of 
the rebellion, and his experience as a soldier developed in him great 
abilities as an executive of&cer. He was Chief of the Bm-eau of Agri- 
c^ilture at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, and gave to that depart- 
ment remarkable prominence and importance. — Mr. John Gilmer Speed 
is a well-known journalist, having been managing editor of the Neiu 
Yorh World. He is the author of a "Life of Keats," and editor of 
his letters, and was connected with the United States Transport Bureau 
at the Centennial Exhibition. — Lord Ronald Gower, brother to the 
Duke of Sutherland, was educated with the Prince of Wales, has 
travelled widely, and is a sculptor and art connoisseur of repute. His 
book, " My Eeminiscences," bears evidence of the breadth of his views 
on all matters of international interest. He has been also for a long 
time trustee of the National Gallery. — Mr. Vincent Augustin Applin 
is a member of the Incorporated Law Society, and Solicitor of the 
Supreme Court. His thorough knowledge of English law made his 
services invaluable to the enterprise, and his devotion to and efficiency 
in the work have been most admirable. During several weeks' en- 
forced absence of Mr. Whitley, in December, 1886, the whole of his 



4A NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS iN LOI^DON. 

ing. The better, moreover, to popularise and 
promote the Exhibition idea, no less than with 
the view of meeting the numerous inquiries which 
were constantly being received in reference to 
it, as well as in order to keep intending ex- 
hibitors, Members of the Council of Welcome 
and of the General Council, and others fully 
advised of the progress made by the Executive 
Council, it was determined to publish a monthly 
journal ; and the first number of The American 
Eagle * was issued March 4, 1885 — that being 



work rested upon Mr. Applin's shoulders. — Colonel J. T. Griffin, of New 
York, had been for 25 years identified prominently with the manufacture 
and improvement of agricultural machinery, and was the pioneer in 
introducing the result of American ingenuity in that direction to Great 
Britain, Europe, and the Colonies. He was one of the founders of the 
Agricultural Engineers Association in England, of which he was for 
three successive years president. He has likewise been identified with 
the promotion in London of many large companies, for the purpose of 
developing the resources of his native country. — Mr. E. A. Buck, of New 
York, is well known as the Editor of the Binrit of tJie Times, and 
prominently identified with several railway enterprises. His journal is 
the authority in America on all American sports and kindred matters, 
and he is himself an enthusiastic sportsman as well as an able man of 
business. — Mr. WilHam Lee Thornton is an Englishman, though born in 
Russia. He was a Director of Thornton's Woollen Mills Company, and 
interested in various industrial enterprises in Eussia. — Mr. William D. 
Guthrie, of New York, is a member of the firm of Seward, Da Costa, 
and Guthrie, one of the most prominent legal firms in the United 
States, acting, as they do, for such institutions as the Bank of England, 
the Cunard Steamship Company, the Adams Express Company, and 
other corporations of equal standing and importance. Mr. Guthrie, by 
his legal acumen and eloquence, has placed hiixiself at the very front 
of the junior Bar, and has still found time to identify himself with many 
other public movements as well as important private enterprises. — Mr. 
John Priestman is well known as the European Manager of Bradstreet's 
Mercantile Agency, a position of great responsibility. 
* On the opening of the Exhibition this organ dropped the " Eagle," 



THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 45 

the day of the inauguration, as President of the 
United States, of Mr. Grover Cleveland, during 
whose administration the American Exhibition was 
to be held. The monthly issue was about 15,000 
copies, which were sent to the members of the 
Council of Welcome, and of the General Council 
of the American Exhibition ; to all Members of 
Legislature in Great Britain and America, to leading 
manufacturers, merchants, and agriculturists in the 
United States, Governors of States and Territories, 
Mayors of the principal United States Cities, the 
Editors of the principal journals and magazines in 
Europe, America, and the Colonies, to United States 
Ministers and Consuls throughout the world, and to 
the principal Bankers, Hotel Proprietors, Railroad 
and Steamship Companies, &c., of Europe and the 
United States. 

Desirous of making arrangements on the Continent 
of Europe for securing that practical help continental 
which would come from popularising a ^ ^^^ 

i^ r o American 

knowledge of the forthcoming enterprise, opinion. 
Mr. Whitley visited several foreign countries, 
and completed the preliminary preparations for 
a visit to the Exhibition by the teeming popula- 
tions of the European States. On every hand, 
from prince to peasant, he received the most 
hearty assurances of support, the President of the 
Erench Republic even suggesting the holding in 

and became The American — " The Daily Official Programme and 
Journal of the Exhibition." 



46 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Paris of a similar American display, as one which 
would be very popular and warmly welcomed.* 
Wherever, too, in the United States the objects 
and details of the undertaking had been discussed, 
they had been favourably received by the repre- 
sentative manufacturers, merchants, and citizens 
generally, from Maine to California, and from the 
Lakes down to the Gulf of Mexico ; and volumes 
of newspaper cuttings exist to prove that no great 
undertaking had ever been commented upon by the 
public and the Press less unfavourably than the 
proposed American Exhibition. 

Taken in connection with the offers of assistance 
fi'om the principal Governors of States and Mayors 
of American Cities, and with the reports of United 
States Consuls in Europe respecting the importance 
of the Exhibition, the following short extract from 
the Eeport of the Board of the United States Com- 
missioners at the "World's Industrial and Cotton Cen- 
tennial Exposition" (New Orleans), was most encou- 
raging. " The Committee thinks, however, that to 
the United States this American Exhibition is of so 
much vaster importance than any other ever held or 

* A Paris telegram to The Times, dated April 10, 1885, said : — 
" Mr. John Eobinson Whitley, Director- General of the American 
Exhibition, which opens in May, 1886, in London, and Lord Ronald 
Gower, a member of the Esecutive Council, were entertained at 
luncheon to-day by President Grevy, in the Palace of the Elysee. The 
President of the Eepublic takes a deep interest in this the first Ex- 
hibition held in Europe by the Transatlantic Sister Eepublic, and 
suggests that a similar Exhibition in Paris would be most popular and 
most warmly welcomed." 



THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 47 

projected, that it should be the hounden duty of 
every citizen of our country to contribute in every 
way possible to the end that the Exhibition of next 
year may be a thorough and faithful exposition of 
the arts, manufactures, products, and resources of 
every State and Territory of the Union." Accord- 
ingly a memorial was unanimously adopted and 
signed on the 25th of April, 1885, in New Orleans, by 
the above-mentioned Board, praying that the Presi- 
dent of the United States and the Governors of the 
various States and Territories should use their best 
endeavours to see "that the arts, manufactures, 
products, and resources of the whole country be 
properly displayed at the American Exhibition in 
London " ; praying also that the Congress of the 
United States would make suitable provision for 
an of&cial exhibit, and assist the States and Ter- 
ritories in their efforts to display their material 
achievements and resources. The memorial further 
petitioned that Congress would see fit to authorise 
the use of public vessels in transporting the ofi&cial 
exhibits of the National Grovernment, the States and 
the Territories, to and from London. As it turned 
out, the prayer of this memorial was never fulfilled 
in its entirety, thanks to the combined effects of 
malice and misrepresentation, coupled with other 
causes ; but none the less was this petition a signal 
proof of the popularity of the Exhibition idea 
throughout the States. 

But as the United States Government was not 



48 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

and could not have been asked to vote any funds for 
the undertakmg itself, it was necessary to provide 
them from other sources. The funds required for 
preparatory work were at once subscribed, Mr. 
Whitley himself making the largest contribution.* 
Thus the work of organisation went on rapidly 
and well, on both sides of the Atlantic ; 

Another 

Tour in and in September, 1885, Mr. Whitley 
again sailed for New York, whence he 
undertook another tour among the chief centres of 
industry in America. Amongst other well-known 
Americans who promised to exhibit was Mr. George 
M. Pullman, who personally entertained Mr. Whitley, 
showing him over the town of Pullman, near Chicago, 
which was even then of such extent that the tl-ip 
could be made on a locomotive. Mr. Pullman offered 
to exhibit a model (covering an area of about 10,000 
sq. feet) of his beautiful little city ; but this exhibit, 
like many other interesting ones, was not sent to 
London owing to the postponement of the Exhi- 

* Some weeks before the opening of the Exhibition Mr. Whitley 
determined to arrange, if possible, for some well-known firm of 
accountants, not only to audit the books of the undertaking, but also 
to Tceep the books, his desire being not to incur even a moral re- 
sponsibility in this connection. After conferring with Messrs. Tur- 
quand. Youngs, Weise, Bishop, and Clarke, the well-known accountants, 
of Coleman Street, he gave that firm the preference and engaged 
their services. From March, 1887, until the close of the German 
Exhibition in October, 1891, Messrs. Turquand, Youngs, and Co., 
therefore superintended the whole of the accounts, the importance 
of which may be estimated by the fact that about half a million 
pounds sterling passed through their hands during that period. Their 
management of the book-keeping of the Exhibitions was beyond all 
praise. 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 49' 

bition, concerDing which more anon. Of this tour 
the culminating point was reached at Philadelphia, 
where, in the Board of Trade Booms, thanks to 
the influence and exertions of Mr, Burnet Landreth, 
Mr. Whitley addressed a representative meeting of 
manufacturers, exporters, and others on the objects 
of his proposed Exhibition. It was on this occa- 
sion that he was offered a complimentary banquet 
by a "Council of Welcome" in Philadelphia;* 

* Of this complimentary banquet (Nov. 21, 1885) the Philadelphia 
Press gave the following account : — " Thirty-one gentlemen in evening 
dress sat around a big oval table in the banqueting-room of the Hotel 
Belle vue, Philadelphia, last night. Big bushes of chrysanthemums and 
carnations filled the centre of the table, and ropes of ivy were strung 
from chandelier to chandelier, over the heads of the company. At the 
centre of the table, in the President's chair, sat Thomas Cochran, 
President of the Guarantee Trust Company. At his right was the 
broad-shouldered, fine-featured Director- General of the American Ex- 
hibition to be held in London nest summer, John Eobinson Whitley, in 
compliment to whom the company had assembled. Besides Mr. Whitley 
and Mr. Cochran, the chairman, there were at table : — The Hon. 
William D. Kelly, Hon. Thomas H. Dudley, James Dobson, W. A. Paton, 
Thomas Dolan, Charles Emory Smith, Thomas M. Walter, General 
Grubb, John Dobson, Thomas Donaldson, A. E. Ford, Henry C. Terry, 
Samuel Horner, jun., Thomas D. Wattson, William H. Nixon, Ealpli F. 
Cullinan, E. C. Knight, Joseph M. Wilson, J. Henry Zeilin, Colonel 
H. S. EuBsell (of Boston), John G. Speed (of New York), Simon H. 
Stern (of New York), Frederick Godholz, Burnet Landreth, John Lucas, 
Frank Wells, Mayer Sulzberger, Julius Chambers, and Jerome Carty. 
Mr. Cochran, in a few introductory remarks, said that he would do all 
he could to promote the success of the Exhibition, and to remove pre- 
judices that he understood existed against it. Mr. Stern spoke enthu- 
siastically of the prospects of the enterprise, and added, ' It is impossible, 
in my opinion, that the Exhibition can be anything but a success.' 
Mr. Whitley himself, in a conservative tone, explained the purpose and 
scope of the proposed show. Judge Kelly said : ' Let us, as a people, 
give prosperity to this Exhibition, and show the English people that by 
the planting of their insular seeds in a country which invites to activity 
and the best impulses, man has been developed and may be developed.' 
Mr. Dudley responded to the toast of ' Commerce,' Charles Emory 

4 



50 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

and from this banquet lie hastened home to London 
(in December, 1885) with his schemes so far matm'ed, 
that httle now remained to be done save the 
allotment of space and the issuing of orders for the 
construction of the buildings at Earl's Court, where 
a site, combining more advantages than any other in 
the United Kingdom, had at last been selected for 
the American Exhibition. 

It was when the preparations for the Exhibition 
Difficulties ^^^ reached this advanced stage, towards 

ahead. ^]^g ^^^^ q£ ^885, that a difficulty cropped 
up which at first threatened to frustrate the whole 
enterprise. This was the postponement of the 
Exhibition from 1886 to 1887, in spite of the 
cogency of the reasons which had induced its 
organisers to select the former of these years, and 
which had also found favour with the public of 
both countries. Had it not been determined to 
hold the American Exhibition at the same time as 
the British Colonial and Indian Exhibition at South 
Kensington (in 1886), the great American nation 
would have been the only one amongst the English 
speaking races unrepresented in the British metro- 

Smitli to 'The Press,' Frank Wells to the 'Educational Features of 
Exhibitions,' Colonel Eussell to 'New England,' and John Lucas to 
the ' Consular Service.' The occasion altogether was a decided success." 
During his various visits to the principal American cities Mr. Whitley 
had been made an honorary member of the follovping clubs: — "The 
Century," the "Union League," and the "Saturday Night" Clubs, of 
New York; the "Somerset," the " Union," and the " St. Botolph" Clubsj 
Boston ; the " Chicago Club " and " Union Club," Chicago ; the " Union 
League House," Philadelphia ; the " Queen City Club," Cincinnati ; the 
"Pendennis Club,-"' LouisvUle (Ky.) ; and the "Hartford Club," Hartford. 



TBE AMEBICAN EXHIBITION. 51 

polls; and was not America every bit as much an 
English colony, albeit free and independent, as Aus- 
tralia ? As one American versifier put it : — 

" To thee, Mother England, it is meet 
That we, who from thy womb inherited 
The blood of nations ; from thy tongue our tongue, 
And from thy books the justice of our laws, 
Should in maturer years our offerings bring, 
And at thy feet our fruit of progress lay." 

Besides, it was calculated that one Exhibition would 
aid the other, as the opportunity of inspecting both 
would double the practical value of each, no less 
than the advantage and enjoyment of all their 
visitors. In 1886 large numbers of visitors, in- 
cluding some of the wealthiest Princes, Rajahs, 
Parsees, &c., were expected from India, and this 
was thought to be an additional inducement to hold 
the American Exhibition in that year, as thus 
affording an opportunity, for the first time, of 
bringing American sellers into direct communication 
with buyers from the East. " The year 1886," 
wrote The Times, " will apparently be a busy one 
in Exhibitions, and there is a certain fitness in the 
proposal that a great Colonial and great American 
Show should take place simultaneously." 

But though the synchronous holding of the two 
Exhibitions was thus looked upon ap- 
provingly by the outside public, the idea in high 
encountered anything but favour among 'i^^^*^®^^- 
the direct promoters of the Colonial Show, who 



52 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

feared tliat the success of an undertaking in which 
the Prince of Wales was known to be most deeply 
interested might be imperilled by something in 
the nature of a competitive enterprise. Mr. Whitley 
and his friends, to whom the fears and wishes 
existing in those high regions were duly communi- 
cated in an indirect and unofficial manner, were 
thus confronted with a very grave difficulty, and 
there ensued much anxious cabling between London 
and New York. For it was clear that the postpone- 
ment of the Exhibition would expose its authors 
to the risk of forfeiting many exhibitors, as also to 
the certain loss of a considerable sum of money, 
while " marking time*" 

The correspondence between Consul - General 
Waller and Mr. Whitley * sufficiently ex- 

Postpone- , , . . 

meiit of the plained from what high authorities came 

Exhibition, jij// p i -\ -i • ti 

that " consensus oi counsel and advice 
which ultimately influenced the Executive Council's 
decision — but only faintly indicated the pressure 
which had been brought to bear against holding the 
American Exhibition simultaneously with the 
Colonial and Indian Exhibition. As, however, the 
Executive Council had everything ready for carrying 
out the original intention of opening the American 
Exhibition on the 1st of May, 1886, the pressure 
was naturally unwelcome, and it was not until the 



'■'• This correspondence will be found in tlie Supplement (p. 438), and 
must be read in the light not so much of what it says as of what it 
leaves unsaid. 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 53 

" unison of opinion " for holding the Exhibition a 
year later had received the warm support of His 
Excellency the Hon. E. J. Phelps, United States 
Minister to Great Britain, and of Governor T. M. 
Waller, the United. States Consnl-General in 
London, that the Executive Council felt justified 
in seriously considering so important a change in 
their plans. The argument of courtesy, however, 
to the Management of the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition (preparations for which were initiated 
prior to those of the American one) gained the 
day and decided the question. So the English 
Director- General of the Exhibition determined, 
though at the prospect of very great pecuniary 
sacrifice to himself and detriment to his plans, to 
defer to the well-known desire of the illustrious 
patron of the Colonial Gathering, and telegraphed 
across the Atlantic that the Exhibition had been 
postponed till the year 1887.* 

The result was what many had feared, and some 
foreseen. In the States postponement Disastrous 
was, naturally enough, held to be tan- ^^l^^^^^^ 
tamount to doubt and failure, and a large ^^nt. 
number of intending exhibitors at once withdrew 

'■' As The Times wrote: "The Executive Council of the American 
Exhibition announce that the date of opening the Exhibition has been 
changed from May 1 of the present year to May 2, 1887. The considera- 
tions which have influenced the Executive Council are, it is stated by 
Mr. J. E. Whitley, the Director-General of the Exhibition, largely based 
upon the claims of the Colonial and Indian Exhibition to undivided 
support and attention this year. From the correspondence that has 
passed between Mr. Whitley and Consul- General Waller it is clear that 



64 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

their names. Thus the enterprise was threatened 
with total collapse, and this particular kind of 
danger was increased by the secret play of those 
unworthy motives and passions which spring from 
personal jealousy, malice, and misrepresentation. 
That motives of this character had been busily at 
work was clearly proved a few months later, when 
General G-oshorn, of Cincinnati, suddenly withdrew 
his name from the General Council, although at 
first he had been one of Mr. Whitley's warmest 
supporters. Comparing, therefore, the letter * which 
General Go shorn had written him in November, 
1885, with the one (24th of June, 1886) in which 
General Goshorn now announced his inexorable 
resolve to cut his connection with the Exhibition 
enterprise, it was no wonder that Mr. Whitley, in 
replying to the General, referred to his defection as 
"the niost disheartening and embarrassing contre- 
tein2:)s which had arisen since the commencement 
of our work"; adding, that he "should have 
supposed that he (the General) would be the 
last man to jump ashore almost as soon as his 
foot had touched the deck of a ship bound upon 
so fruitful and beneficent a mission." On the other 
hand, it was, perhaps, some little comfort for 
Mr. Whitley to know how Colonel H. S. Eussell 
(who had now become President of the Exhibi- 

tlie action of the council in deferring the Exhibition is intended, and it 
is hoped that it may be considered, in the hght of an International 
courtesy." 

''" See p. 39 ante. 



THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 55 

tion) had written to its Director in America (Mr. 
Landreth) : — 

" To my mind any of us will be acting dishonourably if we turn 
tail on Mr. Wliitley till we know from him that we are to stop. 
For myself, I have seen no indication of his inability to carry out 
all he has set forth. One year ago I made full inquiry, here and 
in England, as to his character and ability, and I have never had 
the least cause to change the very favourable impression which I 
received from all. Let us be fair, and not desert him now before 
he shows any weakness." 

Another most vexatious thing with which Mr. 
Whitley also had to contend was the with- j^^ America 
drawal of President Cleveland from the again. 
Honorary Presidency of the Exhibition, the first 
citizen of the United States himself having also 
been successfully worked upon by the foes of the 
enterprise. But, far from disheartening him, these 
difficulties only served to render Mr. Whitley all the 
more determined to achieve his aim and belie his 
detractors. He at once returned to America, and, 
accompanied by his most trusted lieutenant and 
friend, Mr. Applin, visited some of the most im- 
portant States and cities, including Boston, Hartford, 
New York, Washington, Chicago, Cincinnati, Louis- 
ville, Philadelphia, &c., lecturing, persuading, ques- 
tioning and being questioned, removing false 
impressions, and bringing back stray sheep to 
the fold. But many of the most valuable and 
representative had already wandered away beyond 
recovery, especially in the Eastern States, and in 



56 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

spite of all his exertions, the prospect was by no 
means so encouraging as it might have been. 

On the second occasion of his visiting Washing- 
west versus ^on, Mr. Whitley was sitting at an hotel 

East. window, waiting for a promised inter- 
view with President Cleveland, when his attention 
was arrested by the passing of a strange proces- 
sion. It was not a circus, though somewhat like 
one, perhaps, at first sight, but only the " "Wild 
West " Show of a personage (more of whom 
hereafter) popularly known as " Buffalo Bill " 
— a Show which presented living and moving 
pictures of a fast-vanishing phase of national exist- 
ence, on the ever - receding frontier - line between 
the territory of the white man and the happy 
hunting-grounds, or "reservations," of the redskins. 
While contemplating this curious pageant, this 
presentation of the conflicting forces of semi- 
savagery and civilisation, a sudden thought struck 
Mr. Whitley. "Why not console ourselves," he 
asked, " for the defection of the Eastern States by 
enlisting on our side those of the West ? Is not 
' Buffalo Bill,' with his cowboys and his Indians, 
every bit as much a genuine product of American 
soil as Edison's telephones or Pullman's railway 
cars ? * And is it not even more unique and 
quite as interesting ? Would not the people of 

-'• Among the promised exhibits thus lost through the cruel opposition 
to Mr. Whitley's scheme, originating in England, and espoused in 
America, was a model of the town of Pullman, occupying an area of 
about IQjOOO squarp feet — not to mer)tion the Pullman Car industries, 



THE AMEBICAN EXHIBITION. 57 

England hail with delight an opportunity of seeing, 
at first hand almost, a phase of American life 
familiar to them only in the romances of Fenimore 
Cooper?" 

No sooner thought than done, and the following 
day "Buffalo Bill" had agreed to come over to 
London with all his 2^^'}''^onnel of rough-riders and 
redskins, and all his panoramic appurtenances of 
forest and prairie-life in the Far West. " Probably," 
said Mr. Whitley afterwards, " the boss cowboy, 
' Buffalo Bill,' was never more surprised in his life, 
by either Indians or buffaloes, than he was by me, 
on the day I walked through a morass of mud in a 
field near W^ashington City, and told him that if he 
would bring his picture of life in the ' Wild West ' 
to London, I would ensure him a hearty welcome, 
pay his expenses, and reward his services hand- 
somely. He is not a man easily frightened, and he 
accepted the invitation. His success was so great, 
that I was afraid he would destroy the harmony of 
the whole, for this ' Wild West ' hue stood out in 
such bold relief, that it threw the other parts of our 
picture into the shade, and increased our regret at 
the large Eastern firms having left us in the lurch." 
This regret was all the deeper, that it was useless 
bemoaning the cruel misrepresentations of those who 
were the cause of those Eastern manufacturers having 
withdrawn from participation in the Exhibition ; for, 
interesting and novel as this Wild West "exhibit" 
might prove, yet nothing was ever farther from Mr, 



68 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Whitley's original conception of the picture of 
" America in Miniature," which he set himself to draw 
than the introduction of such a predominance of 
deep "local colour." The manufacturing States of 
the East having, however, been frightened off, it was 
useless repining, and Mr. Whitley therefore sensibly 
determined to cut his coat according to his cloth. 
But nothing caused him more acute disappointment 
than being compelled to modify his picture in so 
radical a manner, and he fervently "made oath" that, 
in succeeding exhibitions of the "national" series, 
the arena section should not stand out so prominently 
as to be out of proportion with the rest. 

It has previously been said that, four months 
Exhibition before the Exhibition opened, the site of it 
^^*®- at Earl's Court and West Brompton was 
a huge cabbage-garden ; and within this brief in- 
terval, thanks to the energy with which Mr. Whitley 
superintended the working of 2,000 men in two 
gangs — one set labouring by day, and one by night 
— it had been tastefully laid out and substantially 
covered with all the buildings and appliances 
necessary for the success of the forthcoming Show. 
"It is interesting to myself," said Mr. Whitley 
in 1890, "to look back and recall the difficulties I 
had in bringing the railway companies who own the 
land to understand the advantages to themselves 
of such a series of Exhibitions, and then to compare 
their views at that period and the views they hold 
to-day, when, from being a no-rent-producing asset. 



THU AMEBICAN EXHIBITION. 59 

that land is now so productive to the District 
Eailway Company that their competitors, the Metro- 
pohtan Eailway Company, seriously think of taking 
a leaf from their book, and erecting exhibition 
buildings at Wembley Park." But he did at last, 
by dint of much hammering and arguing, succeed in 
proving to his landlords, "who are several of the 
most important railroad companies in England," 
that their interests were identical with those of the 
Exhibition Management ; and this he proved so 
conclusively that "not only have they placed this 
unique site at our service at a merely nominal rent, 
but are also cordially affording us every assistance 
in the way of approaches, stations, advertising, &c." 
And certainly the site was as advantageous as 
it was unique. Occupying the triangular space, 
twenty-four acres in extent, between Earl's Court, 
West Brompton, and West Kensington, the Exhibi- 
tion grounds, with four railway stations in their 
immediate vicinity, were thus placed in direct 
communication with the whole of England, Scotland, 
and Wales. At these four railway stations no fewer 
than six hundred trains were timed to arrive daily, 
at the service of the ten millions of people living 
within one hoar's distance by rail of the Exhibition, 
as well as of the five millions living within half an 
hour's journey, not to speak of the 150,000 strangers 
who, it was calculated, entered the City of London 
daily. Altogether, for accessibility, the site at Earl's 
Court, with its four railway stations and five 



60 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

entrances, was probably not equalled by any other 
in the United Kingdom. 

The main Exhibition building was constructed of 
iron and glass, in the simplest yet most 
and substantial manner, the length of the 
^°^" ■ principal gallery being 1,140 feet, and its 
width 120 feet. Annexed was a refreshment saloon 
90 feet wide by 240 feet long, and close to it 
the Eine A.rt Building, consisting of seven rooms, 
which, owing to the immense value of the works 
they were erected to contain, were built of jprick 
and rendered perfectly fireproof. Without taking 
into account the gangways, passages, and the rooms 
required for the display of paintings and statuary, 
a covered space of from about 7,000 to 8,000 
square metres with wooden flooring was available 
for exhibition purposes ; also 3,000 square metres of 
wall space in the large Industrial Gallery, and from 
2,000 to 3,000 square metres of wall space in the 
Fine Art Galleries. Moreover, from 2,000 to 3,000 
square metres were available in the gardens for those 
exhibitors who preferred to erect special pavilions. 
Finally, a large amphitheatre had also been erected ; 
with seats for 15,000 to 20,000 persons, this construc- 
tion being intended for monster fetes and for repre- 
sentations of the national life, manners, and customs 
of the country exhibiting. After the manner of Ameri- 
can cities, the Exhibition main building and outer 
grounds were laid out in avenues and streets running 
at right angles to each other, and furnished with the 



THE AMEBICAN EXHIBITION. 61 

nomenclature peculiar to New York, Philadelphia, 
Chicago, and Boston. 

Never before, certainly, in the history of this 
country, at any rate, had buildings and 

Mechanism 

gardens of equal extent been constructed of the 

-, -, -I , Exhibition, 

and arranged — one may almost say con- 
jured up — in so short a space of time ; but all these 
results, as well as the minor triumphs of organisa- 
tion, had only been achieved by a truly Herculean 
power of grappling with and overcoming difficulties. 
Writing to a friend after the success of the 
Exhibition was no longer doubtful, Mr. Whitley 
said :— 

" Bemembering what this site of ours was a few months ago, 
you will now, doubtless, be astonished at the great length of the 
Main Building, with its handsome fa9ades ; at the beauty of the 
Gardens won out of a cabbage-field and a sea-kale swamp ; at the 
huge dimensions of the galleries in the Wild West section ; at 
the quiet and repose which characterise the six rooms filled with 
choice specimens of American paintings ; as well as at the little 
army of janitors, policemen, turnstilemen, and clerks (whose ranks 
are still very numerous in spite of the fact that I have lightened 
and simplified their labour by turning over the whole of the 
bookkeeping and supervision of the accounts to Messrs. Turquand, 
Youngs, and Co.) ; at the Switchback Kailway and the Toboggan 
Slide ; at the Band Stand, which is the largest in London ; at the 
seven bridges we had to build, including the huge structure over 
the railway tracks of the London and North Western, the Great 
Western, the London, Brighton, and South Coast, the West London 
Extension, and of the London and South Western Eailway Com- 
panies. This bridge (the 'Washington') had to be built almost 
exclusively on Sundays, as the railway companies would not allow 



62 NATIONAL EXHIBlTlOlSfS IN LONDON. 

men to work, with trains passing under, except between midnight 
on Saturday and midnight on Sunday, when the traffic was reduced 
to a minimum, for fear of timber or tools falhng. Consider again, 
my friend, that gas, water, and drain-pipes had to be laid over the 
whole twenty-four acres, and connected with the main culverts ; 
that 10 ten-thousand-candle power lights had to be supplied to 
the Grounds, as well as 250 two thousand- candle power lights 
which had to be erected on masts in the main building, &c., and 
a tank for the surplus supply of water capable of holding 150,000 
gallons ; that roads had to be constructed throughout the whole of 
the Grounds, and that about 10,000 loads of soil had to be carted 
over sleepers (laid down expressly for the purpose) to form the huge 
mounds which may now be seen on the Wild West section j that 
artists had to be employed for months painting the scenery 
of the Eocky Mountains for the arena ; that in the midst of all 
these preoccupations I had to negotiate with thirty-seven railway 
companies throughout the United Kingdom for conveying additional 
hundreds of thousands of passengers during the excursion season 
to and from the four stations on the Grounds ; that I had to make 
special arrangements with the Metropolitan Police and for the 
services of a Fire Brigade ; that plans for every ' stick and 
stone ' connected with each single structure on the whole twenty- 
four acres had to be submitted in duplicate, and in some cases 
sixfold, to the Metropolitan Board of Works ; that music and 
liquor licenses had to be obtained and renewed ; that contracts 
had to be made with boiler and engine makers for the supply of 
engines and appliances for giving motive -power to the Main 
Building, and to supply power to the dynamos both for the Main 
Building, Gardens, and Wild West. Then finally consider that 
I have not only received no financial assistance from either 
the American or English Governments, but, on the contrary, 
have had to struggle against a very active, persistent, and almost 
venomous opposition, originating in an official source ;-— and then, 
perhaps, you will understand me when I say that, for months 
at a stretch, I felt as if I were working in a mine a thousand feet 
below the surface of the earth, a mine with no outlet to the light 



THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 6^ 

of day, and a mine which was but an underground edition of a 
cercle vicieux. 

" Very few persons — three at most — have the slightest conception 
of the inferno I have gone through, since April, 1884, for the sake 
of ' our American Cousins.' " 

We have thus sufficiently described the nature 
and extent of the Exhibition Buildings and 

Classifica- 

Grounds, and now we must give a general tion of 
enumeration of their varied contents which 
the British public were invited by Mr. Whitley to 
come and see. No fewer than 1,078 American pro- 
ducers and manufacturers had responded to his call, 
and their exhibits were classified and set forth in Six 
Departments, viz. : — 

I. Agriculture. 
II. Mining and Metallurgy. 
III. Machinery. 
lY. Manufactures. 

V. Education and Science. 
YI. Fine Arts. 

And truly when all these Departments W6M feady' 
for public inspection (as they were by the 9th 
of May, 1887), they constituted, with all their 
inevitable incompleteness and shortcomings, ar 
display at once surprising and instructive.' How 
varied and comprehensive were the opportunities' 
of exhibitors may be judged from the following^ 
classification : — 



64 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Department I. — Agkicultuee. 

CLASS 

1. Arboriculture and Forest Products. — Ornamental Woods, Timber, 

Dye-woods, Barks, Gums, Kesins, Mosses, Seeds. 

2. Pomology. — Fruits, Nuts. 

3. Agricultural Products. — Cereals, Vegetables, Eoots, Tobacco, 

Hops and Seeds. 

4. Land Animals. — Cows, Sheep, Horses, Swine, Poultry, &c. 

Wild animals. * 

5. Marine Animals, Fish Culture and Apparatus. — Fishes, Oysters, 

Clams, Shells, Corals. Whalebone, Fish-glue, Isinglass, 
Fish-oil. Fishing apparatus. Fish Culture. 

6. Animal Products. — Hides, Leather, Bone, Horn, Glue, Wax, 

Feathers, Hair, Bristles. 

7. Alimentary Products. — Milk and Cream, Butter, Cheese, Eggs, 

Honey, Sugar and Syrups. Wines and Malt Liquors. 
Bread, &c. Vegetable Oils. Preserved Meats, Fruits, 
and Vegetables, and Extracts. 

8. Textile Substances of Vegetable or Animal Origin. — Cotton, Hemp, 

Jute, Flax, Wool, Cocoons and Raw Silk. 

9. Machines, Implements, and Processes of Manufacture. — Spades, 

Hoes, Eakes, Shovels, Ploughs, Harrows, &c. Corn- 
planters, Drills, Reapers, Mowers, Hay-loaders, Thrashers, 
HuUers, Corn-shellers. Feed-cutters, Mills, &c. Incu- 
bators. Churns, Cheese Presses, &c. 

10. Agricultural Administration. — Laying out Farms. Clearing 

(Stump Extractors), Drainage. Gates. Fertilisers. 
Road-making and Excavating Apparatus. Models of 
Farm Buildings, Cocooneries, Aviaries, Dairies. 

Department II. — 'Mining and Metallubgy* 

11. Minerals, Ore, /Sfones.— Including Artificial Stones and Cements. 



THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 65 

CIASS 

12. Metallurgical Products. — Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, 

Antimony. Nickel, &c. Alloys. 

Department III. — Machinery. 

13. Machines, Tools and Apparatus of Mining, and Metallurgy. — 

Drills, Borers, Coal-cutters, Hoisting Macliinery, Crushers, 
Stamps, Concentrators, Gas Machines, &c. 

14. Machines and Tools for working Metal, Wood and. Stone. — Planing, 

Sawing, Grooving, Drilling, Slotting, Boring, Mortising, 
Cutting, Moulding and Carving Machines, Lathes, Kolling 
Mills, Blowers, Anvils, Forges, Emery Wheels, Drills, 
Taps, Dies, &c. Brick, Pottery and Tile Machines. 

15. Machines and Implements for Spinning, Weaving, dc. — Machines 

for the manufacture of Silk, Cotton, Woollen, India-rubber 
and Paper Goods, &c. 

16. Machines, Afparatus, dc, used in making Clothing and Orna- 

mental Objects. — Sewing and Knitting Machines. Machines 
for making Boots and Shoes, Jewellery, Buttons, Pins, 
Needles, &c. 

17. Machines and Apparatus for Type-setting, Printing, Stamping, and 

Paper-ivorking. — Printing Presses, Type-writing Machines. 
Printers' Furniture, Types, &c. Paper and Card-cutting 
Machines. 

18. Motors and Apparatus for Generation and Transmission of Power. 

— Boilers and Steam or Gas-generating Apparatus for 
motive purposes. Waterwheels, Windmills. Steam, Air, 
Gas, and Water Engines. Shafting, Belting, Cables, &c. 
Steam Gauges, &c. 

19. Machines and Apparatus for the Production and Ap)plication of 

Electricity. — Voltaic-Electric, Thermo-Electric, Magneto- 
Electric, and Dynamo-Electric Apparatus, Motors, Accu- 
mulators, Conductors, Conduits, Insulating Materials, 
Joints and Connections, Alarms, Telegraphs, Telephones, 
Electrical Illumination, Electro-Plating, &c. 
5 



66 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 



CLASS 



20. Hydraulic and Pneumadc Apparatus. — Pumps. Air Compres- 

sors. Blowers, Hydraulic Jacks, Eams, Presses, Ele- 
vators, Fire Engines and Eire Extinguishing Apparatus, 
Hose, Ladders, Fire Escapes. Stop Valves, Cocks, Pipes, 
Ice Machines. 

21 . Bail-way Plant, Boiling Stock and Apparatus. — Locomotives, Cars, 

Wheels, Brakes, Couplers, Ties, Switches, Frogs, &c., &c 
Street Eailway Cars. 

22. Aerial, Pneumatic and Water Transportation. — Pneumatic Eail- 

ways and Dispatch Boats, Life Eafts, &c. Steering 
Apparatus. 



Department IV. — Manufactures. 

25. Chemical Preparations. — Acids, Alkalis, Salts, Oils, Soaps, 

Paints, Essences, Perfumery, Cosmetics, Explosive and 
Fulminating Compounds. 

26. Ceramics. — Pottery, Porcelain, Glass, Bricks, Terra-cotta, Tiles. 

27. Furniture and Decorative Objects ; Art Metal Work. — Furniture, 

Table Furniture, Glass, China, Silver Plate and Plated 
Ware, Mirrors, Picture Frames, Gas Fixtures, Lamps, &c. 

28. Heating, Cooking aiid Latindnj Apparatus and objects of general 

use in construction and in buildings. — Stoves, Eanges, Steam 
Heating Appliances, Eadiators, Manglers, Wringers, 
Ironing Machines, Kitchen utensils. Sanitary appliances. 
Manufactured parts of buildings, &c. Galvanised Iron 
Work, Metal Hollow- ware. 

29. Yarns and Woven Goods. — Cotton Yarns and Cloths. Woollen 

Yarns and Cloths. Linen Yarns and Cloths. Blankets, 
Shawls. Oil Cloths, Carpets, Felts. 

30. Silks and Silk Fabrics. — Spun Silk, Woven Silks, Eibbons, &c. 

findings, Braids, Upholsterers' Trimmings, &c. 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 67 



CtASS 



31. Clothing, Jewellery, Ornaments. Travelling Equipments. — Cloth- 

ing of all kinds, Boots and Slices. Hats, Caps, and 
Gloves. Millinery, Embroideries, Artificial Flowers, 
Trimmings, Pins, Hooks and Eyes, Fans, Umbrellas, 
Canes, Pipes, Toys and fancy articles. Jewellery, Trunks, 
Valises, &c. 

32. Paper, Stationery, dx. — Stationery. Blank Books. Writing, 

Wrapping, Printing and Wall Papers. Cards, Cardboard. 

33. Weapons, ancient and modern. — Firearms and Ammunition. 

Sporting Apparatus. 

34. Medical and Surgical Apparatus. — Surgical and Dental Instru- 

ments and Appliances. Pharmaceutical Apparatus. 

35. Hardware, Edge Tools, Cutlery, dc. — Hand Tools and Instru- 

ments. Hardware used in construction. Plumbers' and 
Gasfitters' Hardware. Ships' Hardware. 

36. Manufactures of Vegetable, Animal, or Mineral materials. — India- 

rubber Goods and Manufactures. Brushes, Eopes and 
Cordage. Wooden and Willow-ware. 

37. Carriages, VeJdcles and Accessories. — Coaches, Velocipedes, 

Bicycles, Baby Carriages, Waggons, Carts, Trucks, Sleighs, 
&c. Carriage and Horse Furniture—Harness and 
Saddlery, Whips, Spurs, &c. 

Department V. — Education and Science. 

40. Educational Appliances and AjJj^aratus. Printed Books, dc. — • 

School Furniture, Maps, Charts, &c. School Books, 
General Literature, Newspapers and Periodicals. 

41. Institutions and Organisations. 

42. Scientific and Philosophical Instruments. — Instruments of Pre- 

cision and Apparatus of Physical Eesearch and Experi- 
ment. Astronomical Instruments. Nautical Instruments. 



,68 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

CLASS 

Surveying Instruments. Aeronautical Instruments. 
Thermometers and Barometers. Indicating and Eegis- 
tering Apparatus. Gas and Water Meters, Logs, Calcu- 
lating Machines. Weights and Measures, Scales, 
Balances. Clocks and Watches. Optical Instruments, 
Lenses, and Prisms. Microscopes and Telescopes. Pho- 
tographic Apparatus. 

43. Musical Instnnnents. — Pianos, Organs, Band and Orchestra 

Instruments, &c. 

44. Engineering and Architecture. 

Department VI. — Fine Arts. 

46. Sctdpture. 

47. Drawing. 

48. Painting. 

49. Engraving. 

50. Pliotographg and LitJiograjjhy . 

A reference to the List of Awards (which will be 
Industrial ^o^^^ ^'^ ^^^ Supplement, p. 440) will show 
Exhibits, to what extent the above fields of industry 
and art were illustrated by special devices and 
inventions native to the United States. In par- 
ticular labour-saving machinery of all kinds * (in- 
cluding a bewildering assortment of sewing-machines 
and typewriters) was very well represented ; while 
miracles of destruction, in the shape of Gatling 

* The machinery in motion was placed at the garden end of the main 
hall, and occupied about a third of the length of the buikling. Power 
was supplied to the exhibitors from a main shaft, running lengthways 
down the hall, supported on A frames, which, together with bearings, &c., 
were supplied by Messrs, Mather and Piatt, of Manchester. 




a 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITIOl^. 6§ 

guns, were varied by the most recent wonders of 
dentistry, a branch of surgery in which the Ameri- 
cans are decidedly foremost. It may be admitted 
that the industrial department of the Exhibition was 
certainly not what it might have been had its first 
promise been fully realised. Nevertheless, with 
all its imperfections, it was most creditable to 
all concerned, and was richly calculated to give 
British producers and consumers a better idea of 
the wares challenging their competition, or inviting 
their purchase, in American markets than they ever 
had before. Whatever the scale, it was at least an 
" America in Miniature " put down in the heart of 
London. As an American writer said : — 

"The display in this industrial department of the Exhibition 
will embrace everything peculiar to the United States, its woods, 
fruits, marine animals and apparatus, textures, farming utensils, 
mechanism and methods, models of farms, ores, minerals, miners, 
carpenters, printing, sewing and typewriting machines, railway and 
electrical plants, chemical preparations, heating and cooking 
apparatus, furniture, woven fabrics, jewellery, stationery, weapons, 
hardware, surgical implements, vehicles, musical implements, and 
every other conceivable natural and manufactured product of the 
United States. The Exhibition will be, in fact, as has been happily 
said, ' America in Miniature.' The visitor will be able to see 
within the twenty -four acres covered by the Exhibition the 
wonders of the Yosemite and the Yellowstone ; the gigantic fruit 
of the Golden State ; the marvellous automata, fraught with seem- 
ingly human intelligence, that sweep the great wheat fields of the 
West ; the mammoth vegetables that leave holes in the ground big 
enough for cellars ; fossils with strange geological histories ; ores, 
minerals and precious stones from our mountains ; cotton passing 



70 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

from the field to the fabric ; the food we eat and the fluids we 
drink ; the light we burn and the heat that warms us ; the cradles 
we are rocked in and the coffins we are buried in ; the rolling 
palaces in which we span our Continent, and the weapons we use 
to shoot deer and buffalo while skimming across the prairies." 

Certain Englisli writers, of the cavilling and 
cynical sort, affected to sneer at this 

Public -^ ' 

Verdicts on <' America in Miniature" as a mere 

Exhibits. 

" Tradesmen's Exhibition." But that it 
was very much more than this was admitted by 
those who were otherwise not blind to its defi- 
ciencies. M. Bartholdi, the sculptor of the Statue 
of Liberty, erected at the entrance to New York 
Harbour, wrote to Mr. Whitley, on his return to 
Paris from a visit to the Exhibition : — 

" On my arrival home I desire to take the first 
opportunity of thanking you for the very kind 
hospitality you extended to me whilst with you in 
London, and for the friendly suggestion which you 
made some time ago, that the ' Statue of Liberty ' 
should participate in the honours accorded to the 
American Exhibition. 

" I cannot but consider it a happy innovation 
to make known to Europeans not only the acknow- 
ledged qualities of strength and prosperity which 
characterise the United States of America, but also 
the high development they have attained in literature 
and the fine arts. 

'^ You have succeeded admirably in bringing these 
prominently to the notice of visitors to the Exhibi- 



THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 71 

tion, and I heartily congratulate you upon the success 
you have already so deservedly achieved. 

" Indeed, there is but one point calling for any 
expression of regret, namely, that the products of 
certain well-known American representatives of the 
Industrial Arts should be wanting — such as gold- 
smiths' and silversmiths' work, artistic furniture and 
wall decorations, faiences, and stained glass, all of 
which industries were fully represented at the Great 
Centennial Exhibition of Philadelphia, and produced 
a profound and lasting impression upon visitors 
from Europe." 

This verdict of the distinguished Frenchman was 
borne out by other public critics, of whose opinions 
we may here give a few samples : — 

Evening Standard : " So far as the goods have been already set 
out, one can see that the agricultural machinery will be an im- 
portant feature, and although a good deal of it may be familiar 
to those who go about to see inventions at merchants' offices, it 
is at once clear how much more widely known such matters must 
become by such an Exhibition as the present. For some years 
past the American Consuls in Europe have urged the establish- 
ment of permanent Exhibitions abroad upon the State Department 
at Washington ; but whilst the United States Government could 
scarcely itself undertake such enterprises, one example may result 
from the present speculation." — Industrial Revieiu : "The admirable 
collection of United States products and manufactures constituting 
the American Exhibition at Earl's Court, may now be regarded as 
practically complete, and when it is considered that the whole of 
the exhibits are furnished by one nation, that the Exhibition is not 
made in the country of production, and that, naturally, those only 
would exhibit who have the power and desire to supply the markets 



72 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

of the country in which the display 'is made, the show at Earl's 
Court may be regarded as very creditable. To expect that exhibitors 
would send to other than an international gathering productions 
and manufactures without selection, would be unreasonable; indeed, 
they would lay themselves open to the same ridicule as the plagiaris- 
ing adapter of a Mexican novel for the English market, whose hero 
lassoed mustangs in the lovely crays of Kent and chased cicadas on 
the Surrey Hills. The American Exhibition is what it pretends to 
be — representative and utilitarian. Upon entering the Main Build- 
ing from West Brompton, the excellent bison trophy — a reminder 
of Buffalo Bill — will catch the eye, though it will not prevent full 
notice being taken of the many-coloured stalls and machinery 
beyond. Agricultural implements, being essentially an American 
speciality, are, of course, there in abundance — harvesters, harrows, 
hoes, forks, separators, cutters, winnowers, purifiers, and so on. 
There are sewing-machines, type-writers, carpet-beating and 
cleaning machinery, petroleum and gas engines, ventilators, 
electric machinery, timber, and a really creditable fine art gallery, 
and a most attractive trophy room." — Morning Post: " Within the 
past month the exhibits have been considerably re- arranged and 
greatly augmented, so that now the main building is not only very 
attractive, but also representative. The machinery exhibits are on 
a very large scale, the agricultural implements and machines being 
particularly excellent." — Saturday Eeview : "As a result of indi- 
vidual enterprise, the Exhibition at Earl's Court may be considered 
remarkable, for it has been throughout unassisted by the Govern- 
ment of the United States. The Fine Art Gallery is well worth 
seeing." — Evening Neivs : The Exhibition has been, and is, a purely 
private speculation, and that it should have been, under the circum- 
stances, so remarkably successful is all the more to its credit." — Civil 
Service Gazette: "The industrial department of the American 
Exhibition is now about completed, and contains a fine collection of 
novel, ingenious, and useful articles. The Exhibition is especially 
strong in the departments of agricultural machinery and in 
mechanical appliances. The display of food products is also 
worthy of attention, and the departments of medical supplies are 
equally noteworthy." 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 73 

The Department of Fine Arts, which was presided 
over by Mr. John Sartain, of Philadelphia pine Art 
(who had so ably filled the important office ^^'^^lo^- 
of Chief of the Fine Art Section at the Centennial 
Exhibition of 1876), assisted by Mr. Herman Triib- 
ner, was divided into Six Chambers, containing 
about 418 various exhibits in the fields of sculpture, 
drawing, painting, engraving, photography, and litho- 
graphy, by 160 American artists ; and perhaps this 
department of the Exhibition was calculated to 
excite more interest and admiration than any other. 
Every one, of course, knew that the Americans had 
made wonderful progress in a material and mecha- 
nical sense ; but it was at the same time generally 
supposed that this progress had only been made at 
the cost of higher things. We all knew that the 
mechanical genius of the Yankees had enabled them 
to devise a method of "putting a pig in at one end 
and bringing it out as a pork sausage at the other ; " 
but few had any notion that they could paint a 
picture with some of the best of European artists. 
"Experience," wrote the art critic of The Times, 
"has taught the public not to expect very much 
from the fine art galleries of miscellaneous exhibitions, 
but those which have been formed at the American 
Exhibition are decidedly above the mark, and though 
they give an imperfect idea of what the youngest of 
the modern school is still doing, they are still worth 
visiting. They prove, at any rate, that America is 
learning the business of painting in Paris, and is 



74 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

learning it well, though whether America will long 
consent to run in French leading-strings is quite 
another question." 

What the Americans could achieve in architecture 
was shown by a model (by Mr. John MacArthur) of 
the new City Hall of Philadelphia, which had taken 
six years to raise, at a cost of about twelve million 
dollars. When this fine model left Philadelphia, as 
a contribution to the American Exhibition, it was 
perfect and complete in all its parts, like the noble 
structure it represented, but, although packed in the 
best possible manner, and the parts in thirty-three 
separate cases, the boxes were so shattered by rough 
handling during transport, that only a fourth part 
of the model remained in a presentable shape ; yet 
the whole could be readily inferred from a part. 
Among the paintings that were sure to prove the 
greatest attraction — from an historical, at least, if 
not, perhaps, a purely artistic point of view — was 
Mr. Eothermel's huge picture, 36 feet in length 
and 16 feet high, occupying one whole wall, of the 
Battle of Gettysburg. This great battle, perhaps the 
most sanguinary of modern times, was fought on 
Pennsylvanian soil, and was regarded as the turning- 
point in the fortunes of the war of the rebellion, of 
which it broke the back. It extended over twenty- 
five square miles of ground, lasted three days and 
part of a fourth, and engaged about 180,000 men, 
counting both sides. The picture was painted by 
order of the Legislature of the State, and a Pennsyl- 



THB AMEBICAN EXHIBITION. 75 

vaiiian artist was selected to execute the work. 
When it was decided to hold an American Exhibition 
in London, the Senate and House of Eepresentatives 
— on an application being made to them — passed 
concurrent resolutions authorising the loan of the 
picture, and the Governor of the State gave it his 
hearty approval and endorsement. As the large 
painting could only represent a single point of time 
and place in the protracted struggle, "the pinch of 
the fight," as it has been termed, on the afternoon of 
the third day — four smaller pictures, also exhibited, 
were painted by Mr. Rothermel to illustrate other 
portions of the battle. 

Another picture, of greater historical interest 
to Englishmen, was a portrait of their own 
Sovereign Lady, painted by an American artist, Mr. 
Sully, in the year 1837, and therefore called the 
" Jubilee Portrait " of the Queen. The origin of this 
picture may be briefly stated. In the first year of 
the reign of Queen Victoria, the " Philadelphia 
Society of the Sons of St. George," established for 
the advice and assistance of Englishmen in distress, 
applied to Her Majesty, asking that she would be 
graciously pleased to sit for her portrait to a Phila- 
delphian artist, who, in case of her consent, would 
come to England for the purpose. She kindly con- 
descended to sit, and Mr. Thomas Sully arrived 
from Philadelphia to paint the picture in question. 
The work is a highly-valued possession with its 
owners, and it was only in consideration of this being 



76 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

the Jubilee Year of Her Majesty's reign, that it was 
permitted to leave its honoured position in the beau- 
tiful marble hall of St. George. The fact that the 
chief of the Art Department in the American Exhi- 
bition was the oldest member of their Society, was 
declared to have its weight in obtaining the loan. 

Prominent among the other exhibits in the Art 
Department were portraits of Thomas Buchanan, 
ex-President of the United States, and another of 
Mrs. Harriet Lane Johnstone, which were said to 
rival anything ever produced by our own Thorburn ; 
" Zeisberger Preaching to the Indians at Gorch- 
goschun " (by Professor Sdilissele, of Philadelphia) ; 
" The Mellow Autumn Time," by J. P. Cropsey, a 
fine example of the brilliant colouring of American 
foliage ; "In Yellowstone Park" and " The Canon of 
Colorado," by Thomas Moran; a "Storm in the 
Eocky Mountains," by A. Bierstadt, and a " Wash- 
ingtonia Gigantia," a tree of enormous magnitude, 
supposed to be 3,000 years old ; a " Wintry March," 
by W. L. Picknell, a very fine painting and of great 
merit as a work of art ; the " Field of Battle," by 
Gaugengigl, of Boston ; " Mr. H. M. Stanley," and 
" Madame Nordica as Marguerite," by G. E. A. 
Healy; the "Pasha and his Councillors," by P. A. 
Bridgman; and a "Lute Girl" and a "Flower 
Girl," by H. Humphrey Moore, a deaf and dumb 
artist. Fortunately tha exhibitors in the Fine Art 
Department had, in many cases, selected and sent 
over subjects which, while indicative enough of the 




O K 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 77 

high-water mark of excellence already attained by 
American art, were at the same time calculated to 
illustrate particular passages in American history, as 
well as to show forth the colossal scale of Nature's 
works throughout the northern part of the New 
World. Whatever the mere manual dexterity dis- 
played by these exhibits, they were at least allowed 
by all to be characterised by serious and dignified 
motive, and to promise a future when American 
painters, emancipating themselves from the exclusive 
tutelage of foreign masters, as well as from the 
materialistic tendencies of their own raw and rising 
country, would found a new and distinctive school 
of national art. 

To sportsmen and naturalists the most attractive 
court in the Exhibition was that which con- 

The 

tained the Loan Collection of American Hunting 
hunting trophies. These had been brought 
together by a Committee specially formed for the 
purpose, but mainly through the individual exertions 
of Mr. Edward North Buxton ; and the collection 
was remarkable, not only for the size and beauty of 
the heads and horns exhibited, but also for the fact 
that, with very few exceptions, the trophies had alJ 
been secured in the wildest parts of North America 
by the prowess of English sportsmen. Among the 
names of exhibitors were those of Messrs. Otho 
Shaw, Thomas Bate (of Kelsterton), A. Pendarves 
Vivian, W. A. Baillie-G-rohman, H. Seton-Karr, M.P., 
Lord Bennet, Messrs. Frank and Percy Cooper, Sir 



78 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

H. Eae-Eeid, Messrs. E. N. Buxton, Gerald Buxton, 
Ford Barclay, J. M. Hanbury, Evan Hanbury, Sir 
Savile Crossley, Bart., M.P., Major Maitland Kirwan, 
Messrs. J. H. Morgan, W. A. Tulloch, G. D. What- 
man, J. G. Millais, and others. This collection 
included the heads and horns of more than fifty 
Wapiti (the most coveted of all the big game of 
America), several Moose and Cariboo, half-a-dozen 
White-tailed Deer, sixteen Mule Deer, a score of 
prong-horned Antelopes, nearly thirty Bighorn (the 
only wild sheep of North America), six or eight 
White Eocky Mountain Goats, three of which were 
mounted entire, as were also two of the sheep ; half- 
a-dozen Buffalo heads, the same number of Grizzly 
Bears, four of them mounted entire, and standing in 
an erect attitude ; besides the heads of Black Bear, 
Cinnamon Bear, and Wolf. Altogether these formed 
a collection such as had never before been brought 
together in this country, and which attracted much 
attention, not only from sportsmen, to whom such a 
series was particularly interesting, but also from the 
general public, who had here an opportunity of seeing 
some of the finest heads that had ever been procured, 
and of comparing the relative sizes and character- 
istic forms of antler in the different species of 
American deer. 

The Gardens, occupying an area of about twelve 

The acres, were designed and laid out by Mr. 

Gardens, ^i^iam Goldriug, the landscape gardener, 

with the view of embracing as much variety as 



THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 79 

possible, and also of making the most effective dis- 
play. In these Gardens the visitor fomid himself 
surrounded by the native trees, shrubs, and flowers 
of North America, for no other had been planted. 
They gave an idea, however slight, of the beauty 
and variety of transatlantic vegetation. Many a 
tree, shrub, and flower was recognised as familiar in 
British gardens, for it is a singular fact that for the 
last three centuries the gardens of England have 
been enriched from the flora of the great Western 
Continent, which is richer and more varied than that 
of any country in the world, containing, as it does, no 
fewer than 10,000 distinct species of plants. One of 
the chief reasons for planting the Gardens exclusively 
with American plants was to show how singularly 
American all English gardens are, as" it is an in- 
teresting fact that fully two-thirds of the open-air 
trees and flowers in England are natives of North 
America. The forests of Yirginia and of the Eastern 
States have been drawn upon ever since gardening 
became a fine art in England, and the oldest, best- 
known, and most loved trees of English parks and 
gardens originally came from the United States, 
chiefly during the early part of the last century. 
The bulk of what are called modern trees — the prim 
Conifers, which one may see in every villa garden 
about London — are native to the boundless forests 
of the great North- West ; while the Spruces, the Firs, 
and the Pines of our parks, have come from the 
Pacific coast within the last fifty years. California, 



80 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

the flowery paradise of the Far West, has contributed 
more to make English gardens what they are to-day 
than any other country in the world. Its wealth of 
annual plants — those that spring up, flower, seed, 
and die in a year — is alone sufficient to make a 
garden glow with brilliant colours, of every shade, 
from one year's end to the other; in fact, the ma- 
jority of annuals which are now familiar to every 
cottager in Britain are from California, and some 
idea of the beauty of these was to be gleaned from 
the Californian annual garden, skirting the walk at 
the north end of the Exhibition building. 

A prominent feature in the Grardens was the 
Diorama by A. Bartholdi and B. Lavastre, pre- 
senting a view of the Harbour of New York, and of 
the colossal monument of " Liberty enlightening 
the World." The view was taken from the deck 
cabin of a Hudson Eiver steamer. The spectator 
saw the Statue of Liberty on Bedloe's Island, the 
Hudson Eiver and the East Eiver, the cities of New 
York, Brooklyn, and Jersey City, and the celebrated 
Brooklyn Bridge. The deck of the ship under the 
eyes of the spectator was filled with personages of 
which a great number were portraits, such as Mr. 
Laboulaye, President of the Committee of the 
Works ; Count Serurier, Vice-President ; Mr. Evarts, 
President of the American Committee ; M. Bar- 
tholdi, sculptor ; M. Gaget, by whom the work was 
executed in bronze ; M. Eiffel, and others. 

Apart from this very fine Diorama, another most 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 81 

attractive feature of the Gardens was formed by that 
peculiar device of the Yankees, a Switch- outside 
back Kailway, in a double track, 450 feet ^^t-^^tions. 
in length. Three cars, carrying ten persons 
each, were in operation. When the fun was 
at its highest point of business, no fewer than 
seventy double trips could be accomplished per hour. 
The peculiarity of its construction was such that, 
although the cars alternately descended and rose 
nearly twenty feet in running over the ground, the 
ultimate loss in height was only about six inches to 
every hundred feet travelled. Close by was the 
huge "Slide" — covering an area of no less than 
16,000 square feet — constructed in imitation of the 
pastime of Tobogganing as practised in Canada, 
and consisting of a long smooth incline divided 
longitudinally into seven runs or tracks ; three on 
each side for descent, and the centre one carrying 
a steel rope with apparatus for drawing up the empty 
cars to the summit in readiness for a fresh journey. 
" We step into a car, a long low sledge with a grace- 
fully curved front guard, and constructed to hold 
three passengers ; and an attendant, having seen the 
track clear, sends us on our journey. A whirr, a 
glimpse of objects on either side rushing by us with 
lightning speed; and, before we realise that we are 
fairly started, we find ourselves being politely assisted 
from the car by attendants at the lower end, and th& 
descent is accomplished." Our Canadian cousins are 
wont to spend hours a day in the pursuit of thiS' 

6 



82 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

exhilarating pastime ; and The Times hastened to 
prophesy that here, too, Tobogganing would become, 
as it did, the rage and the "roaring game" of the 
Exhibition, like the "curling" of Scotland. 

One characteristic feature of these Gardens was an 
American portable house. This was a pretty villa, 
in a modified Queen Anne style of architecture, 
forming a good example of the country houses and 
seaside cottages in vogue in America. They are 
pleasingly artistic, economical, and are warm in 
wir^ter and cool in summer. These houses are 
planned, and all the material worked out in America 
by labour-saving wood- working machinery, and thus 
the freight on waste material is saved. They can be 
put up in a few days, and can easily be taken down 
and removed at small cost. Nor would any display 
of the arts and industries of the United States have 
been complete without the "American Bar " which 
had its due place in the Exhibition, and offered the 
most varied assortment of liquid refreshments to 
visitors in the shape of nogs, slings, cocktails, 
cobblers, skins, twists, fizzes, swizzles, flashes of 
lightning, sours, and ticklers ; and what on earth 
more could any one have desired in the way of 
" liquoring up " ? 

Thus the Exhibition Buildings with their industrial 
display, their Art Galleries, Trophies Hall,, 

The Ai'ena. p -n-t ttt i tt i i -t-> ^ 

Panorama oi New York Harbour 03^ Bar- 
tholdi, and Gardens with their American vegeta- 
tion, their Tobogganing Slide and Switchback Eail- 




If rem a photograph by Elliott &. Fry, Baker Strket, London, W. 
W. F. CODY. 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 83 

way, were all calculated to carry English visitors in 
imagination to the busy haunts and homes, the pas- 
times and workshops of their American cousins ; but 
these visitors positively seemed to lose their sense of 
local habitation, and to feel themselves altogether 
transported in body beyond the Atlantic, when they 
passed across the bridge leading from the Main 
Building into the vast arena (of. about seven acres, 
and provided with galleries capable of accom- 
modating 15,000 to 20,000 spectators) which had 
been ringed round with Eocky Mountain scenery, 
forming a framework to the fascinating pictures of 
the life and habits of the "Wild West," as pre- 
sented by "Buffalo Bill" and his tribes and troops 
of Indians, Cowboys, and Mexicans. 

Colonel William F. Cody, familiarly known as 
" Buffalo Bill " — a sobriquet applied to him "Buffalo 
after his unparalleled feat of killing 4,862 ^^^^•" 
buffaloes in one year, besides deer and antelope, to 
supply meat to the labourers engaged in building the 
Kansas Pacific Eailway — was born in Iowa. His 
parents removed to Kansas while he was a mere child, 
and his father was killed in the " Border War " whilst 
Colonel Cody was yet a boy. Thrown on his own 
resources at an early age, his life thenceforward was 
a record of the most marvellous adventures. Colonel 
Cody had been despatch bearer, pony express or mail 
carrier, waggon-train guide, waggon-train master, 
train-master, hunter, trapper, trailer, guide, scout, 
stage-driver, Indian fighter ; and in short had passed 



84: NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

through every phase of border life until he reached 
the position of " Chief of Scouts of the United States 
Army," in which capacity he had been the trusted 
comrade and friend of the most famous Generals and 
Indian-fighters of the United States. In 1876 he 
accompanied General E. A. Carr, U.S.A., on the 
Black Hills Expedition, to avenge the massacre of 
General Custer, and, on coming up with the Indians, 
he rode out in front of the two opposing forces, 
drawn up in line of battle, and killed the Chief, 
" Yellow Hand," in single combat before the general 
engagement began. Colonel Cody was a perfect 
horseman, an unerring shot, and of magnificent 
presence and physique. General Carr, in his report, 
said of him : " His personal strength and activity are 
very great. His eyesight is better than a good field- 
glass, he is the best trailer I ever heard of, and he is 
a most extraordinary hunter." He acquired a large 
ranch on the North Platte Kiver, in Nebraska, had 
been a member of the State Legislature, and was 
made colonel and aide-de-camp on the staff of the 
Governor of that State. 

We have already alluded to the circumstances 
The "Wild (^^^ page 56) under which Mr. Whitley 

West." induced Colonel Cody to come over to 
London with all his panoramic ^je7^so?meZ of rough- 
riders and redskins ; and certainly no Circus, Show, 
or Theatre ever boasted of so large a stock of 
spectacular ''properties" as were now transported 
by "Buffalo Bill " from New York to London. These 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 85 

included bands of Indians (110 in number), Sioux, 
Cbeyennes, Ogallallas, Araphoes, Sboshones, and 
other tribes, with their squaws and children — all 
under the command of " Red Shirt," a magnificent 
specimen of Redskin manhood ; cowboys or cattle- 
herders and Mexican prairie riders, to the number of 
about 150, with 170 "bronco" horses and Indian 
ponies, comprising some wild and incorrigible 
" buckers • " twelve mules, sixty-four various tents, 
a dozen different " prairie-schooners " or emigrant- 
waggons, nine elk, two deer, eight wild Texas steers, 
sixteen buffaloes, 200 Mexican and cowboy saddles, 
100 Indian saddles, with a formidable armoury of 
American and Indian weapons ; and last of all the 
famous Deadwood stage-coach, in the same condition 
as when last attacked by Indians and highwaymen. 

With this -personnel and these properties " Buffalo 
Bill " had been brought over to exhibit the living 
products of prairie" life — to show, among other things, 
the method of conveying mails on the Indian frontier 
—how an emigrant train was attacked by Indians 
and defended by border men ; how bucking horses 
and mules were managed by cowboys ; how wild 
Texas steers could be roped and ridden, and how 
mounted herdsmen, in full career, could pick up 
objects from the ground; how unerring was their 
rifle-aim when even jolting in the saddle ; how the 
Indians rode and fought and danced ; and generally to 
portray the methods by which the United States had 
been civilised from the Atlantic Coast, And here we 



86 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

may as well quote a letter written to Colonel Cody, 
after his first "Wild West " performance, in London, 
by General Sherman, ex-Commander-in-Chief of the 
United States Army, to prove that it was quite 
consistent with the serious spirit and aims of an 
Exhibition of the Arts, Industries and Eesources of 
America, to include in it such a popular Show (ethno- 
graphical and panoramic) as that of " Buffalo Bill " : — 

" Fifth Avenue Hotel, New York, May Sth. 

" Dear Cody, — I was much pleased to receive your despatch of 
May 5th announcing the opening of the ' Wild West ' in old London, 
and that your first performance was graced by the presence of the 
Prince and Princess of Wales. I had penned a short answer to go 
by cable ; but it fell so far short of my thoughts that I tore it up, 
and preferred the old-fashioned letter, which I am sure you can 
afford to await. After your departure in the State of Nebraska I 
was impatient till the cable announced your safe arrival in the 
Thames without the loss of a man or animal during the voyage. 
Since that time our papers have kept us well ' posted,' and I assure 
you that no one of your host of friends on this side of the water 
was more pleased to hear of your safe arrival and of your first 
exhibition than myself. 

"I had, in 1872, the honour and great pleasure of meeting the 
Prince of Wales and the Princess Alexandra on board our fleet in 
Southampton Bay, and was struck by the manly, frank character 
of the Prince and the extreme beauty and grace of the Princess. 
The simple fact that they honoitred your opening exhibition assures 
us ajl that the English people will not construe your party as a 
' show,' but a palpable illustration of the men and qualities which 
have enabled the United States to subdue the 2,000 miles of our 
wild Western continent and make it the home of civilisation. You 
and I remember the time when we needed a strong military escort 
to go from Fort Eiley, in Kansas, to Fort Kearney on the Platte, 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION, 87 

when emigrants to Colorado went armed and organised as soldiers, 
where now the old and young, rich and poor, sweep across the 
plains in palace cars with as much comfort as on a ride from 
London to Edinburgh, Your exhibition better illustrates the 
method by which this was accomplished than a thousand volumes 
of printed matter. The English people always have loved, and I 
hope always will love, pluck and endurance. You have exhibited 
both, and in nothing more than your present venture, and I assure 
you that you have, and will continue to have, my best wishes for 
success in your undertaking. 

*' Sincerely your friend, 

"W. T. Sheeman." 

Such, then, was the "Wild West" Show which 
formed one of the main features and „^ , 

Welcome 

attractions of the American Exhibition. cJiub. 
But a review of these attractions would be incom- 
plete without some reference to the " Welcome 
Club," which was another quite new departure in 
the mechanism of Exhibitions, and was in no slight 
degree contributory to the success of the one under 
consideration. This Club was the natural outcome 
of the Council of Welcome to which we have 
already alluded, and which took Mr. Whitley and 
his two nearest advisers, Mr. Applin and Mr. 
Pickard, nearly eight months to form. Certainly 
it was not only the most numerous, but also the 
most influential council of the kind that had ever 
been brought together in this country (see Supple- 
ment, p. 402) ; and it was in virtue of its influence 
that nearly all the members of the Royal Family, as 
well as the most distinguished peers of the realm, 



88 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

had accepted Mr. "Whitley's invitation to visit the 
Exhibition during its preparatory stage. Its func- 
tions were incorporated and continued in the 
" Welcome Club," * which was housed in a snug and 
prettily-designed edifice of the rural villa type, facing 
the band-stand. Furnished with elegant comfort 
and decorated with taste, it consisted of five different 
rooms — dining-room, a large smoking-room, kitchen, 
&c., reception-room, and Eoyal Pavilion, which was 
built alongside of the Club House proper, and ap- 
proached by a separate entrance.! Constituted like 
any other club, with an entrance fee, it was never- 
theless discriminate in the election of its members, 
which numbered about 300, including some of the 
most distinguished men in London. Memhership was 
confined to the sterner sex, but ladies were freely 
admitted as visitors ; and thus, true to its title, the 
"Welcome Club" that year formed one of the 
brightest and most attractive social centres of the 
London season. The spring of hospitality was ever 
flowing there, and the pretty lawn in front of the 
Club House with its flowers, and shrubberies, and 

'■'■ The Executive Committee of tlie Club was as follows : — Chair- 
man, Lord Eonald Gower ; Vice-Chairmaii, Mr. John E. Whitley ; 
Members : — Mr. Vincent A. Applin, General Sir Henry de Bathe, Bart., 
Mr. E. N. Buxton, Sir Charles CHfford, Bart., Mr. Henry Irving, Dr. 
Morell Mackenzie, Colonel Moncrieff, Sir John Millais, Bart., E.A., Sir 
John Heron-Maxwell, Bojt., Colonel Paget P. Mosley, Major Flood Page, 
Mr. J. H. Puleston, M.P., Sir David Salomons, Bart., Mr. Gilead Smith, 
Mr. Chas. VVyndham; Hon. Secretary and Treasiirer, Mr. J. S. Jeans. 

f The "Welcome Club" was erected by Mr. J. C. Humphreys, of 
Kuightsb ridge, who also supplied considerable portions of the other 
Exhibition Buildings, 



THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 89 

summer seats— where its frequenters could sit, as 
in an exclusive opera-box, and listen to the strains 
of Dan Godfrey's band — formed the scene of some 
memorable garden-parties. One of these, at which 
about 600 guests were received by Mr. Whitley, 
assisted by Mr. Charles Wyndham, was really one 
of the "functions" of the season, and gave "Buffalo 
Bill" and "Bed Shirt" an opportunity of hob- 
nobbing with princes, a^mbassadors, lords and ladies, 
legislators and literati, scientists and soldiers, 
travellers, actors, singers, and all the other suns 
and stars that constitute the social firmament.* 

Well, then, it was such forms of popular recrea- 
tion as the Exhibition Gardens, with their varied 
attractions of " Switchback E ail way " and "To- 
bogganing Slide," the "Wild West" Show, and 

■•' The following were some of the guests : — The Prince and Princess 
Galatro Colonna, Viscount and Viscountess de Several and Mdlle. de 
Several, Count and Countess Telfener, Count and Countess di Miranda 
(Madame Christine Nilsson), Duke Grazioli, la Baronne de Adelsdorfer, 
Comtesse de la Baume, Baron von Buch, Donna Maria and Mdlle. Beati, 
Lord and Lady Lamington, Ladj'^ Dorothy and Miss Nevill, Lord Bram- 
well, Lord Ronald Gower, Lady Louisa Cunningham, Lord Alfred Paget, 
Lord Northbrook, Lady Scarborough, Lady Macpherson Grant, Lord 
and Lady Eothschild, Lady and Miss Hardy, Sir Charles Mills, Sir 
Charles Clifford, Lady and Miss Clifford, Sir John and Lady Heron- 
Maxwell, Sir Arthur Qtway, Lady and Miss Monckton, Sir Victor and 
Lady Houlton, Sir Astley Cooper and Miss Cooper, Sir J. J. and 
Lady Coghill, Sir Philip and Lady Cunhffe-Owen, Governor Waller and 
Mrs. Waller, Hon. Mrs. Ashley Ponsonby and Miss Ponsonby, Mrs. 
Mackay, Mrs. Jeune, Mr., Mrs., and Miss Goschen, Hon. Mrs. 
Spencer Cowper, Mr. Henry Labouchere, M.P., Mr. Justin McCarthy, 
M.P., Mr. Henry Kimber, M.P., Dr. and Mrs. Morell Mackenzie, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Gordon Alexander, Major Flood Page, Major and Mrs. 
Malet, Colonel Cody, Mr. G. E. Sims, Mr. Eider Haggard, Mr. and Miss 
Applin, Mr. and Mrs, J. Priestman, Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Jeans, &c., &c, 



90 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

the "Welcome Club,"* that were prospective to 
the mmd of Mr. Whitley when he wrote during the 
earlier stages of his work: — "'America in Minia- 
ture ' would not be complete without an effort to 
combine recreation with instruction. It is best in 
these matters to have as little hypocrisy as possible. 
Where one person cares for the exhibits, probably 
half a dozen prefer the agreeable accompaniments ; 
nor can they be blamed for a taste so natural. We 
have, therefore, from the inception of our work, 
while bestowing every attention upon the technical 
and educational purposes of the Exhibition, been 
mindful of the necessity of providing such forms of 
legitimate recreation as shall conduce to render a 
visit to the ' Yankeries ' entertaining as well as 
instructive ; and these will include not only ex- 
cellent music and cheerful surroundings, but many 
novelties not hitherto enjoyed by Europeans." 

Having thus characterised the contents of the 
Opening Exhibition, and enumerated its amuse- 
ceremony. j^euts, it uow bchovcs US to dcscribc the 
Opening Ceremony, which had been fixed for 
Monday, the 9th of May (1887)— a day that happily 
proved to be one of sunshine and fleecy clouds. A 
platform had been erected in the centre transept. 



■■'• In addition to all these public attractions and facilities the Exhibi- 
tion enjoyed the advantage of a Post Office of its own, this building (as 
Mr. T. W. Angell, Postmaster S.W. District, informed Mr. Whitley), 
which was also utilised for the succeeding Exhibitions, being the model 
subsequently used by the authorities for small Post Offices in all parts of 
the British possessions. 



THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 91 

on which the chief actors in the clay's ceremony 
assembled, after partaking of a festive hmcheon 
offered to the Press.* The opening proceedings 
were begun by a performance of '' Hail ! Columbia " 
by the Grenadier Guards' Band ; after which Arch- 
deacon Farrar, of Westminster, led the company in 
prayer " that the Almighty would bless this under- 
taking and make it tend to the larger distribution 
among men of Heaven's gifts for the use of this 
life, so that man's discoveries and inventions, arts 
and sciences, might minister to His service, and 
that the time might be hastened when war should 
be no more, and all nations clasp hands in His faith 
and fear." The band then played " God Save the 
Queen," after which Lord Eonald Gower (who had 
always been most zealous in his efforts to make the 
Exhibition a success), delivered, on behalf of the 
English Council, ah address of welcome to the 
American guests. This Council, he said, consisted 
of about 1,000 leading Englishmen in all walks of 
life, animated by the common purpose of showing 
a strong regard and affection for America and 

■■• There were present at tlie Exhibition on the oj)ening day, among 
others : — Cardinal Manning, Archdeacon Farrar, the Marqnis of Lome, 
Princess Victoria of Teck, Lady SaHsbnry, His Highness Ismail Pasha, 
the Turkish Ambassador, the Chinese, Persian, and Japanese Ministers, 
Mr. Leopold de Eothschild, Lord and Lady Charles Beresford, Mr. Henry 
Irving, Sir John Lnbbock, Countess Karolyi, Miss Ellen Terry, Sir Lyon 
Playfair, Sir Frederic Leighton, Mr. Alma Tadema, Mr. Poobert Brown- 
ing, Mr. George Augustus Sala, Lord and Lady Eandolph Churchill, 
Duchess of Marlborough, Lady de Grey, Sir Francis KnoUys, Sir John 
E. Millais, and the elite of society in London. Truth wrote : " In fact so 
great was the attraption that the House of Commons was almost deserted," 



92 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Americans. He expressed the hope that this 
Exhibition might be a new bond of amity between 
the two countries. The president of the Exhibi- 
tion, Colonel Henry S. Eussell, returned thanks for 
this welcome and for the encouragement given to 
the Americans in their efforts to make a fair show 
of their native industries. Mr. Whitley, the 
Director-General of the Exhibition, then delivered 
the following address : — 



" Your Excellencies, My Lobds, Ladies and Gentlebien, — This 
is, indeed, a day -wliicli should be remembered by every worthy 
American and Englishman — as the date when two great peoples 
meet, after a century's eventful separation, to take part together in 
a remarkable work of peace. 

" "We, who are here, will be able to look back with some pride, 
and, as I venture to believe, with well-founded satisfaction, to 
having inaugurated this day, in the centre of the Older Britain, the 
first American Exhibition which has been held beyond the territory 
of the great Eepublic. 

" It is, of course, obvious that an exhibition exclusively devoted 
to the arts, inventions, manufactures, products, and resources of 
one country, and held in the Metropolis of another, could not be 
initiated or organised by the Government of the country exhibiting. 
We have always been careful, therefore, to let it be clearly under- 
stood, that the American Exhibition has, from its inception, been 
organised and developed solely by private initiative. 

" The American Exhibition in London is a natural sequence of 
the great gathering held in Philadelphia in 1876, to celebrate and 
commemorate the centennial year of American independence. 

" We are here assembled, subjects of the British Empire and 
citizens of the United States, to deal the final death-blow to all 
suggestions that any remnant of ill-will or jealousy could continue 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 93 

to linger on between the two great nations of the English-speaking 
world. 

" To us, united, belongs the future ; to us, [as has been well 
said by a far-sighted English statesman to the American people] 
if only we remain ' true to ourselves and to our opportunities, not 
of conquest or aggression, but of commercial development and 
beneficent influence.' 

" Those weighty words mark the limits within which the 
founders of the American Exhibition have aspired to labour. You 
will readily believe that it has not been without much preliminary 
work and thought, extended, as I may tell you, over a period of 
not less than three years, that there has been brought together 
this representative collection illustrating the aims and conditions 
of that bright and active, that incalculably wealthy and varied 
section of human life, which develops its resistless energies and 
practically inexhaustible resources from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
Oceans — from Lake Superior to the Gulf of Mexico. 

" Peace hath her victories, no less renown'd than War ! 

*' No slight instalment of the reward to which we have so long 
looked forward is reaped, when we gaze upon this brilliant assem- 
blage ; this gathering of .so many of the most highly-placed and 
most enlightened of our fellow-beings, who have come to take part 
in the cordial welcome which Great Britain gives this day to 
the descendants and successors of the Puritan emigrants from 
Plymouth, 

'* America comes here to learn of England, and to teach 
her. 

"Both peoples will profit by the free interchange of information ' 
and opinion ; by the fuller insight which each will gain into the 
character and products of the other. Nor will the gain consist 
merely in additions to the material accumulations on each side of 
the Atlantic. 

' ' In proportion as the intercommunication between the two 
great Anglo-Saxon nations, in the Eastern and Western hemi- 
spheres, is increased and facilitated, so will their regai'd and 
friendship for each other be augmented and intensified^ 



94 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

" I venture to suggest, therefore, that this ' new departure ' in 
the history of exhibitions cannot be accurately described as the 
result of mis-directed human effort, and yet my colleagues and I 
have been fiercely denounced and severely criticised by many 
narrow-minded or faint-hearted persons during our three years' 
unremitting labours. 

" We know how all projects, when half accomplished, receive great 
accessions of friends, and this is true of the American Exhibition, 
which is rich to-day in the confidence of the public, and in the 
excitement of the general interest and curiosity — curiosity to see 
v/hat it is which the busy factories of the Eastern and Middle 
States elaborate, and what is life to those who roam upon the 
boundless prairies of the Wild West. 

" America comes to Great Britain when the subjects of the 
Queen are celebrating a great national festival. It is in the 
Jubilee Year of England's Queen that the citizens of the United 
States gather here to add their testimony to the respect inspired 
by fifty years of a well-ordered and prosperous reign. 

"The international sympathies which have been already evoked, 
in Great Britain and the United States, by the American Exhibi- 
tion, are neither feeble nor insignificant, and it has been observed 
that, to maintaining and enhancing them, the English-speaking race 
may most confidently look for a continuance of material and moral 
progress on both sides of the Atlantic. 

" Speaking in the name of the many earnest fellow-workers who 
have laboured to gain for this great public enterprise the brilliant 
success which is now assured to it, I welcome you, and thank you 
for your attendance. 

" I invite all, whom my voice can reach, to come here and them- 
selves pronounce upon the lessons and the attractions of the 
American Exhibition. 

"It is not for me to say a word of the character of the 
Exhibition itself, nor of the facilities for access to it afforded 
by the railway companies. Of these matters it is for you to 
judge.'* 



TH:E AMEBICAN EXHIBITION, 95 

'' The Star- Spangled Banner " and " Enle Britannia" 
having been sung by Madame Nordica amid great 
enthusiasm, Colonel Kussell started the machinery, 
proclaimed the Exhibition open, and expressed a 
hope that it might prove another strong link in that 
chain, sometimes strained but never to be broken, 
which bound the United States to Old England. 
"Yankee Doodle" was next performed by the band, 
after which the assembly proceeded to witness the 
performance of Buffalo Bill's "Wild West." There 
was no finer or more remarkable sight during the 
day than the crowded grand stand, which was built 
to accommodate, sitting and standing, more than 
20,000 persons. It was now packed from end to 
end, and from circling barrier to the topmost seat of 
the amphitheatre. So many people in such serried 
array had never before been seen under one roof 
in this country. Bank and fashion filled the private 
boxes ; eminent politicians, journalists, artists, and 
authors, were scattered about, plentiful as black- 
berries. Beyond the huge "track" encircled by 
a broad margin of tan, the scene painter had 
provided graphic sketches of mountain and cailon 
as a most effective background, the exits and en- 
trances of the performers being cunningly-wrought 
clefts in the rocky passes. Mr. Levy's cornet 
heralded action with " The Star- Spangled Banner," 
and from a rostrum in the arena Mr. Frank Eich- 
mond, who was the orator of the show, welcomed 
the assembly. 



96 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

By this time "Buffalo Bill" had become — as he 
jyjj,. was to remain — the central figure in the 
Gladstone. Exhibition, and so great was the curiosity 
that had been aroused in the public mind by the 
newspaper accounts of him and his accompaniments, 
that many had sought to gratify this curiosity before 
his first public presentation of life in the " Wild 
West." Foremost among these, in point of time, 
was Mr. Gladstone, who, on the 29th of April, with 
Mrs. Gladstone, paid an informal visit to the Exhi- 
bition (its details having been arranged by Lord 
Eonald Gower), which was thus described: — 

** Mr. Gladstone was received at the entrance by the Marquis of 
Lome, Lord Eonald Gower, Mr. Waller, Consul- General of the 
United States, Mr. Whitley, Colonel Kussell, and Mr. Applin. 
The 'cowboy band' struck up 'Yankee Doodle' directly the ex- 
Premier's approach was signalled. The party were conducted 
by Mr. Whitley through the Exhibition Building and Grounds, 
and thence to the encampment of ' Buffalo Bill's ' followers. The 
Indians flocked out, greeting the ex-Premier with cries of ' Ugh, 
ugh,' and readily shaking hands with him. ' Eed Shirt,' the 
Sioux chief, was next introduced to Mr. Gladstone, it being 
explained to the savage that the ex-Premier was the Great 
White Chief of this country. ' Eed Shirt,' possibly jealous of a 
chief greater than himself, took in Mr. Gladstone's measurement 
with a quick glance, drew his blanket closely round him, and ex- 
hibited a stolid reserve when questioned. Presently he melted in 
response to his interpreter, and answered more freely. Mr. Glad- 
stone asked him what he thought of the English climate, and 
' Eed Shirt,' taking a minute or two to consider, said that he had 
not much to complain of in that respect so far. ' Well,' said Mr. 
Gladstone, ' do you see those similarities between Englishmen and 
Americans which might be expected to exist between kinsmen and 




[F?-ont aphotorraph by Elliott & Fi<v, BaivER S i RhET, London, \V. 
RED SHIRT. 



THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 97 

brothers ? ' This time ' Eed Sliirt ' answered without loss of a 
moment that he didn't ' know so much about their being kinsmen 
and brothers,' a reply which created a burst of laughter. Leaving 
the Indian camp, the party took up their seats in the grand stand, 
when the Indians in their full war-paint, riding their speedy ponies, 
dashed from an ambuscade into the. arena, yelling their war-cries. 
The whole body then forming into line, with ' Buffalo Bill ' at 
their head, galloped in line to the front of the grand stand, the 
scene being exceedingly picturesque. Some instances of skill were 
shown. An Indian at full gallop was hotly pursued by ' Buffalo 
Bill,' who threw a lasso over the man's shoulders, bringing him 
up immediately. Buck Taylor, ' the Cowboy King,' who stands 
6 feet 4 inches high, repeatedly picked small articles off the 
ground while riding at a hard gallop. But the item which seemed 
to please Mr. Gladstone most was the conflict between cowboys 
and bucking horses. Mr. Gladstone watched the scene with 
evident enjoyment, cheering sometimes the horse and sometimes 
the rider, and at the close repeatedly declared that his mind could 
never have conceived anything so interesting and amusing. An 
adjournment was then made to the office of the Director - General, 
which had been specially decorated for the occasion ; and here Mr. 
and Mrs. Gladstone were entertained at luncheon by Mr. "Whitley 
and the members of the Executive Council. A portrait of Mr. 
Gladstone was hung at one end of the room, and a portrait of 
George Washington at the other. 

"Colonel Henry S. Eussell, of Boston, the President of the Exhi- 
bition, who presided at the luncheon, said that, without intending 
to introduce to England the American custom of after-dinner 
speaking, they would perhaps pardon him for saying that while 
they welcomed with pride the world-renowned champion of freedom, 
they were prouder still to claim him as the advocate of the prin- 
ciples of their own ancestors, the friend of America, and a constant 
believer in her resources. 

" In replying, Mr. Gladstone expressed the great pleasure that he 
had derived from all that he had seen, and the interest that he 
bad always felt in the progress of the United States. There wag 

7 



98 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

a magnificent destiny reserved for tlie United States, and the 
circumstances of that country were more full of interest for the 
political student than any other history, except that of our own 
country. When a young politician came to him and asked for 
advice as to the political studies that he should choose, he always, 
as an old man, advised him to study the political history of the 
United States. The destinies of America loomed so large, that the 
mere thought of what was contained in them became almost over- 
whelming. It was not difficult to predict that before another 
century had elapsed, and they were already beginning to count 
their history as a State by centuries, they would overshadow by 
the magnitude of their population, as well as by their territory, 
every other portion of the Anglo-Saxon race, and not only so, but 
every other State and nation in the world. But with their oppor- 
tunities would also come their responsibilities, and if they were 
about to become a people of such enormous power and resources, it 
would be incumbent upon them to set a correspondingly noble 
example ; and if they attained that greatness without setting such 
an example, he was far from saying that in their case greatness 
and wisdom would prove to be synonymous. He had been greatly 
interested that afternoon in the mere matter of equitation. America 
had taken the lead of the world in this matter. They had even 
surpassed Englishmen, who had been apt to believe that they were 
ahead of all the world in this respect, and to whom the care and 
culture of the horse had been and would continue to be a matter of 
the deepest interest ; and he hoped that that Exhibition might stir 
up British emulation, and might further the development of that 
great and noble art. So far as he understood it, he believed the 
main purpose of that Exhibition to be that it should be a repre- 
sentation to the English eye and to the English mind of American 
life, and American life, he trusted, in all the departments that 
could be brought within its range. There was no purpose that he 
valued more than this. He supposed that it was in some sense a 
commercial enterprise. He hoped in that sense it would be a good 
speculation. But it was also more than that. There was nothing 
more desirable on this side of the water than that we should have 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 99 

a correct appreciation of the attainments of the United States. 
Notwithstanding the facihties for postal commimication, and for 
moving to and fro, he feared that we on this side were losing sight 
of America and American progress. Fifty years ago some admirable 
books were published, not by Englishmen, but by Frenchmen, on 
the subject of American institutions. Since that time we had 
earned almost nothing about the United States, which had, in the 
meantime, developed as regards social life, at all events, to an 
extent almost incredible, so that, at the present time, America 
differed from the United States of fifty years ago almost as much 
as the United States of that time was different from frontier life. 
Those fifty years had not been idle. Within that time they had 
gone through one of the most wonderful struggles known in the 
history of man. That struggle had reached a result which the 
mass of the people of England hoped it would reach, and, having 
surmounted such a crisis as that, he hoped that they would also 
be able to surmount any other struggle that might await them in 
the course of their experience, because they could not say how 
soon, humanly speaking, they might be called upon to meet circum- 
stances so tremendous and trying. The people of England and the 
United States had not always been so closely united as they should 
be. He could not say how far there were prejudices in the United 
States against England. He was certain that there had been great 
prejudices in England against the United States. Those prejudices, 
however, had now disappeared, and the Englishmen who had 
laboured and were labouring in raising the great building of which 
they had seen the rudiments that day, rejoiced in being employed 
on a work that was to draw more closely together the relations of 
the two countries. They had duties to one another, and they ought 
also to have affections to one another. There had been some diffi- 
cult questions raised between the two countries, questions maritime 
and otherwise, and some of them, he was pleased to say, had 
almost disappeared from the chapter of current diplomacy. The 
future was as bright and beautiful as the most sanguine among 
them could wish it to be. That occasion was not to him a 
common one ; and it was with a feeling springing from th© 



100 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

bottom of his heart that, on aocouut not merely of its spirited 
character as an enterprise, but on account of its international 
character and the promise it afforded, that it would still further 
develop the relations and affections of the two countries, that he 
wished prosperity to the enterprise of which they had been wit- 
nessing the commencement that day, 

*' The toast having been acknowledged, Mr. Waller, United 
States Consul-General, said the Exhibition was from the first 
intended to be a private enterprise, not dependent in the least upon 
Government patroaage or support. It was for the people, of the 
people, and by the people. He was delighted to be with them, 
and to have the privilege of hearing the great English statesman, 
their honoured guest, speak of the institutions of their country, 
and express his wishes for the success of the American Exhibition. 
The Exhibition was opportune ; the relations between the United 
States and the United Kingdom were becoming more intimate and 
more important. In the year 1886 the United States were the 
greatest foreign market Eogland had. On the other hand, the 
United States sent to England in value four times as much as they 
received from her, and what was quite as significant, notwith' 
standing all the inducements held out by the British colonies, 65 
per cent, of the people who left the United Kingdom seeking new 
homes went to and settled in the United States." 

A few days, too, before the opening of the Ex- 
hibition, it was privately visited by the 
Princess of Prince and Princess of Wales, who were 
accompanied by the Princesses Victoria, 
Louise, and Maude of Wales, the Duke of Cam- 
bridge, the Crown Prince of Denmark, the Duke 
and Duchess of Teck, the Princess Louise, the 
Marquis of Lome, the Comtesse de Paris, and 
several members of the Eoyal . Household. * The 

* The Exhibition was afterwards honoured with repeated visits from 
the Prince and Princess of Wales, and other members of the Royal Family. 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 101 

following was a contemporary account of what this 
illustrious party witnessed from the Eoyal box in 
the arena, an account which will at the same time 
serve as a more complete description than we have 
hitherto given of the nature of the " Wild West " 
performance : — 

" A member of tlie ' Wild West ' having been stationed in front of 
the Eoyal box to explain the performance and answer questions, at 
a signal from his Eoyal Highness, the entire company rode out on 
the arena from an ambuscade of rocks, the Indians in full war- 
paint, and what scanty clothing they wore covered with beads and 
feathers. The sensation they produced was instantaneous and 
electric. With wild yells they swept round the enclosure like a 
whirlwind. The Prince remained standing during the greater 
portion of the performance, which lasted over an hour and a half. 
It was the first complete performance of the ' Wild West ' given on 
English soil. Colonel Cody's throwing of the lasso and shooting 
at glass balls thrown in the air by an attendant riding by his side, 
both horses going at full gallop, excited great applause. Buck 
Taylor, king of the cpwbo;^s, picked his handkerchief from the 
ground while riding at full gallop, and also in the same way picked 
up a rope attached to a runaway horse. For the first time since 
their arrival in England, ' Bufi"alo Bill' and his company of Indians, 
cowboys, and Mexican vaqueros, went through their programme 
of scenes and incidents illustrative of life in the AVestern States. 
The performance opened with a general review of the company, 
troop after troop of horsemen charging at full speed round the 
arena and drawing up before the stand in which the Eoyal party 
were seated. Some remarkable shooting was then exhibited by 
Miss Oakley and Miss Lilian Smith, who were both congratulated 
upon their prowess by the Prince of Wales ; races were run by 
Sioux boys, cowboys, and Mexicans, and a Virginian reel was danced 
on horseback. The cowboys filled an exciting twenty minutes by 
their amusing struggles with bucking ponies and mules, and later on 



102 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDOI^. 

gave an illustration of the pastime of roping and riding wild Texan 
steers. The great features of the entertainment were, however, the 
attacks made upon an emigrant waggon or ' prairie-schooner,' a 
stage coach, and finally a settler's hut by a troop of Indians on the 
war path, and the gallant rescue in each case by a company of scouts 
under the command of 'Buffalo Bill.' These incidents, enlivened 
by the piercing war whoops of the Indians, afforded very interesting 
spectacles, a good deal more realism being introduced into the 
mimic affrays than is generally the case. At the conclusion of the 
performance the Eoyal party, under the conduct of ' Buffalo Bill ' 
and other officials, visited the Indian and cowboy encampments. 
The Princess entered one of the huts, and expressed much interest 
in its arrangements. The party then took a hasty view of the 
interior of an Indian teepee, and then ' Bed Shirt ' (Ogila-Sa), chief of 
the Sioux Indians, was presented. The Prince asked him if he 
found it very cold in England, to which he replied through his 
interpreter that it was not so cold as his country, Dakota, where 
they had many feet of snow. The Prince then said, ' Tell him we 
are immensely pleased at what we have seen.' .' Bed Shirt ' was 
gratified at hearing this. The Prince then carefully examined the 
huge silver medal presented to the Sioux chiefs when they visited 
Washington, which bears a head of the late General Grant. Asked 
by the Prince how long he would remain in England, ' Ked Shirt ' 
replied, ' I came with Colonel Cody, and I will stay with him as 
long as he stays.' In answer to the Princess, who expressed her 
pleasure at seeing him in England, he said, ' Tell the great chief's 
wife it makes my heart glad to hear her words of welcome.' The 
Prince entered ' Buffalo Bill's' tent, and was shown the gold-mounted 
sword presented to him by the generals of the United States army 
with whom he had served ; and then the party entered the stables 
where the two hundred broncho horses are quartered. The Prince 
had ' Buffalo Bill's' twenty -year-old horse 'Charlie,' who carried him 
a hundred miles in 9 hours 40 minutes when chased by Indians, 
stripped and examined him carefully. The corrall where the 
buffaloes and other animals are confined was then visited. The 
party then passed out of the building, where the workmen and a 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 103 

large crowd had assembled who cheered them heartily. The 
Prince and Princess both expressed themselves highly gratified 
with their visit, and signified their intention to occupy the Eoyal 
box as frequently as possible during the season. They left the 
camp exactly at 7 p.m. Among the pleasant incidents of the day 
was that, when the Prince met ' Eed Shirt ' a second time and kindly 
gave him the contents of his cigarette case, which ' Eed Shirt ' 
generously distributed at once among his fellows." 

Two days after the opening of the Exhibition it 
was honoured by a private visit from the 

, . The Queen 

Queen, who was accompanied by Princess at the 
Beatrice and Prince Henry of Battenberg.* 

■'- Of this royal visit The Morning Post gave the following account : — 
" By Her Majesty's command, a private performance of the ' Wild West ' 
Entertainment was given yesterday at the American Exhibition. The 
Queen and her suite arrived at the Warwick Eoad entrance shortly after 
five o'clock, and drove through the stables, and round the arena to a 
box which bad been speciaUy constructed and richly draped with crimson 
velvet. Her Majesty, who was accompanied by their Eoyal Highnesses 
the Prince and Princess Henry of Battenberg, was attended by the Dow- 
ager Duchess of Athole and Hon. Ethel Cadogan, Sir Henry and Lady Pon- 
sonby. General Lynedoch Gardiner, and Colonel Sir Henry Ewart. Before 
the performance commenced the Marquis of Lome presented to Her 
Majesty the President of the Amei'ican Exhibition, Colonel H. S. Eussell ; 
the Director-General, Mr. John Eobinson AVhitley ; and Mr. Vincent Applin, 
the Secretary of the Association. The following gentlemen connected 
with the Executive Council of the Exhibition and with the Execiitive 
Staff were also present: — Lord Eonald Gower, Mr. John Priestman, Mr. 
Lee Thornton, Colonel Griffin, Mr. J. Gilmer Speed, Mr. Frederick Pen- 
field, Mr. A. Pickard, Mr. W. Goldring, Mr. Eufus M. Smith, Dr. Bidlack, 
and Mr. John Sartain. Her Majesty was graciously pleased to accept a 
bouquet of exotics from Miss Whitley, daughter of the Director-General. 
The performance was slightly abbreviated for the occasion, but greatly 
interested the Queen, who at its conclusion commanded the Hon. W. F. 
Cody ('Buffalo Bill') to be presented to her, and expressed to him her 
entire satisfaction with all she had seen. The Queen also spoke a few 
kind words to Miss Lilian Smith and Miss Annie Oakley, whose dexterous 
performances she had admired. Mr. Nate Salsbury, manager of the 
' Wild West,' was next presented, and at Her Majesty's request he sent for 



104 ■ NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

Her Majesty, in a carriage drawn by four bays, with 
outriders, drove into the arena itself of the " Wild 
West " and stopped in front of the Eoyal box, which 
was heavily canopied with crimson velvet. About 
two-thirds of the usual performance was gone through, 
beginning with the usual grand entree, and Her 
Majesty was frequent in her expressions of interest 
and admiration of all she saw. The two young 
girls, Annie Oakley and Lilian Smith, whom their 
precarious life on the Indian frontier had trained 
to become splendid shots, were sent for by Her 
Majesty, who spoke a few words of praise to each. 
At the conclusion of the performance " Buffalo 
Bill " had the honour of being presented to Her 
Majesty, who expressed herself as greatly pleased 
with the exhibition she had witnessed. Colonel 
Cody asked her if it was too long, to which 
she replied, "No, not at all; she only regretted 
that her time was so limited, and she w^ould like to 
come again." " Eed Shirt" (Ogila-Sa), Chief of the 
Sioux, was then presented, and the Queen expressed 
lier pleasure at seeing him. "Eed Shirt" replied 

two squaws, who came running along across from the encampment with 
their pappooses skmg behind them. The Queen before leaving siDoke a few 
words through the medium of an interpreter with ' Eed Shirt,' whose 
stately demeanour and quiet assurance that he had come a long way to 
see Her Majesty and was well pleased to behold her were duly appreciated. 
Her Majesty exi^ressed to the President and Director of the Exhibition 
her desire to return on a future occasion and see the Fine Art and other 
galleries of the Exhibition proper. The Queen and her suite left the 
Exhibition grounds at a quarter-past six o'clock. An immense crowd had 
assembled in the Warwick Eoad, and as the royal carriages drove away 
the cheering was exceedingly hearty." 



THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 105 

that it made him glad to hear it ; he had come a long 

way to see Her Majesty. The Queen expressed a 

desire to see the Indian babies or "pappooses." 

Two of these were presented for Her Majesty's 

inspection, and she was pleased to shake their little 

hands and pat their chubby, painted cheeks. 

This Eoyal visit to the American Exhibition caused 

great satisfaction in the United States, occurring, 

as it did, just before the close of the Queen's fiftieth 

year of rule. It distinctly forced another 
/ . . Anglo- 

link, however slight, in the chain which is American 

binding ever closer and closer the two 
greatest members of the Anglo-Saxon race — mother 
and daughter, once unhappily estranged — a fact 
so eloquently commented on by Mr. Gladstone on 
the occasion of his visit to the Exhibition. Alto- 
gether it was a time of much mutual good feeling 
between England and America, to which the Exhibi- 
tion in London had, beyond all doubt, been a contri- 
butory cause ; and perhaps even its organisers were 
entitled to some little share of the credit for the 
well-wishing tone of friendship which pervaded the 
following congratulatory letter sent by the President 
of the United States to Queen Victoria on the occa- 
sion of her Jubilee : — * 

" Gkeat and Good Friend, — In the name and on behalf of the 

''•' The Queen was graciously pleased to accept from the Director- 
General a handsome " Souvenir Album" of Her Majesty's visit to the 
Exhibition ; and Her Majesty's Jubilee drew from its Executive Of&cei's 
and Exhibitors the following congratulation: — '■^ Jicne 20, 1887. The 
Executive Council, the Executive OflSicers, and the Exliibitors of the 



106 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

United States, I present their sincere felicitations upon the arrival 
of the fiftieth anniversary of your Majesty's accession to the Crown 
of Great Britain. I hut utter the general voice of my fellow- 
countrymen in wishing for your people prolongation of a reign so 
marked with advance in popular well-being, physical, moral, and 
intellectual. It is justice and not adulation to acknowledge the 
debt of gratitude and respect due to your personal virtues for their 
important influence in producing and causing the prosperous and 
well-ordered condition of affairs now generally prevailing through- 
out your dominions. May your life be prolonged, and peace, 
honour, and prosperity bless the people over whom you have been 
called to rule. May liberty flourish throughout your Empire, 
under just and equal laws, and your Government be strong in the 
affections of all who live under it, and I pray God to have your 
Majesty in His holy keeping. Done at Washington this 27th .day 
of May, A.D. 1887. Gkover Cleveland." 

Having thus been patronised by the highest in the 

Public i^ealm, the American Exhibition now be- 

patronage. came (as had been prophesied of it)- " not 

only popular but fashionable," and thousands upon 

thousands flocked to see it, its daily average of visi- 

Ameriean Exhibition, now being held in London — the first exclusively 
American Exhibition ever held beyond the limits of the National Terri- 
tory — desire respectfully to tender their earnest and sincere congratula- 
tions to Her Majesty Queen Victoria, whose glorious and beneficent reign 
of fifty years is unique in the history of the world, and to pray that Her 
Majesty may long be spared to her people, and to this great country, 
which Americans consider, and will ever consider, as the one nearest and 
dearest to them, after their own native land. On behalf of the Executive 
Council, the Executive Officers, and the Exhibitors, John E. AVhitley, 
Director-General." 

To this the following reply was sent from " Windsor Castle, June 24, 
1887. Sir Henry Ponsonby is commanded by the Queen to thank the 
Executive Council, the Executive Officers, and the Exhibitors of the 
American Exhibition for their kind congratulations. The Director- 
General, American Exhibition, West Brompton." 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 107 

tors being nearly 15,000.* And of these it could 
be said that many who came to be merely amused 
remained to be instructed. The London -season is 
nothing without a hero, and such a want was supplied 

-'= Among those who visited the Exhibition were the Queen of the 
Belgians, the Empress Eugenie, the King of Denmark, the King of 
Greece, the King of Sweden and Norway, the King of Saxony, the Prince 
of Wales, the Princess of Wales, Prince Albert Victor of Wales, Prince 
George of Wales, Princesses Louise, Maud, and Victoria of Wales, the 
Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh, Prince Alfred of Edinburgh and the 
Princesses of Edinburgh, the Duke and Duchess of Connaught, the Prin- 
cess Louise, the Duke of Cambridge, the Prince and Princess Henry of 
Battenberg, the Duke and Duchess of Teck, Princess Victoria of Teck, the 
Duke of Aosta, the Crown Prince of Austria, the Crown Prince of Sweden 
and Norway, the Crown Prince of Bavaria, the Crown Prince of Saxony, 
the Crown Prince and Princess of Portugal, the Crown Prince of Den- 
mark, the Duke of Sparta, the Imperial Prince of Japan, the Prince of 
Siam, the Grand Duke of Hesse, the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, the Prince of 
Anhalt, the Grand Duke and Duchess of Mecklenburg- Strelitz, the Here- 
ditary Grand Duchess of Anhalt, the Grand Duke and Grand Duchess 
Sergius of Bussia, the Grand Duke Michael of Russia, the Prince 
and Princess William of Prussia, the Princesses Victoria, Sophia, 
and Margaret of Prussia, Prince George of Greece, the Comte and 
Comtesse de Paris, the Due d'Orleans, the Due de Chartres, the Princess 
Helene d'Orleans, the Due de Montpensier, the Duchesse de Montpensier, 
the Due d'Aumale, the Prince and Princess Antoine de Bourbon, the 
Princess Leiningen, the Marquis of Lome, Cardinal Manning, the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, the Archbishop of York, the Marquis of Salisbury, 
the Marchioness of Salisbury, the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., 
Mrs. Gladstone, &c. 

This Hst of distinguished visitors would be incomplete without a refer- 
ence to an incident which was unique of its kind. This was the presence 
at the Exhibition (in July) of the whole of Harrow School (numbering 
over five hundred masters and pupils), Avho had been invited by 
Mr. Whitley on behalf of his son, a Harrovian scholar, who acted as 
cicerone on this occasion. " I think," said Dr. Welldon, the Head 
Master, in thanking Mr. Whitley for his kindness, "it is the first occasion 
on which the School, as a body, has ever visited a place of public amuse- 
ment. Certainly there has not before been an occasion when the School 
has been called over on an arena just vacated by the inhabitants of the 
'wild West.' This is, I may say, the newest form of ' Buffalo Bill ' " — a 
punning reference to the fact that the School had had "bill" in the 
arena. 



108 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

this year by "Buffalo Bill," who was admired and 
feted, courted and interviewed, written about and 
asked out more than any man had been for a 
very long time. Notwithstanding his daily engage- 
ments and his punctual fulfilment of them, he found 
time to go everywhere, to see everything, and to be 
seen by all the world. All London contributed to 
his triumph, and all London flocked to Earl's Court. 
It is, perhaps, not too much to say that never before 
had Enghshmen been given an opportunity of com- 
bining instruction and recreation to the same extent 
as was offered them by this American Exhibition ; 
and instruction without recreation has but few 
charms, we fear, to the generality of men. In this 
Exhibition there certainly was a large element of 
" Show," but the other element, if less imposing to 
the eye, was fitted to bring home more serious lessons 
to the inquiring mind. Speaking at the Guildhall 
(on Lord Mayor's Day, 1891), Lord Salisbury said it 
seemed to him that " the warfare of nations was 
slowly changing both its subject and its field, and 
that it was industrial competition which in these 
days chiefly occupied chanceries and diplomacies. 
The chief subject of consideration were those treaties 
of commerce which were about to expire, and the 
great question was what tariffs would the various 
nations adopt in relation to each other," " The 
cause of Protection," further said his lordship, 
" does not sink, it rises," but he believed that we 
should never return to the ways of Protection. Very 



THE AMEBICAN EXHIBITION. 109 

likely not ; but if anything is better fitted than 
speeches and pamphlets to help the cause of Free 
Trade, surely it is those " industrial jousts," held 
in the biggest field of competition in the world, 
which Mr. Whitley inaugurated with his American 
Exhibition. 

The object of that Exhibition had avowedly been 
to display in the metropolis of Great Britain, 
the chief market of the world, a more com- of 
plete collection of the products of the soil 
and mine, as well as the manufactures of the United 
States, than had ever been shown in Europe ; "to 
increase the foreign trade of the United States where- 
ever established, and to extend it into countries 
where, at present, it had no foothold ; and finally 
to quicken the flow of foreign capital to this country 
for the further development of its natural wealth and 
resources." Now to what extent had these objects 
been achieved ? In the first place, let us take the 
following testimony from the exhibitors themselves : — 

" Ameeican Exhibition, 

" West Beompton, London, S.W., 

" October 1, 1887. 
"•John E. Whitley, Esq., 

" Director- General of the American Exhibition. 
" We have the pleasure to iiifoTon you that our 
actual sales at the American Exhibition during the 
past five months have been of the most satisfactory 
and gratifying description. 



110 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

" We have also largely extended our hiisiness rela- 
tions, not only in Great Britain, the various countries 
of Europe and the Colonies, hut also in the United 
States of America. 

" As this result is largely owing to the manner in 
which the American Exhibition has been managed 
and advertised, we consider it a duty and a pleasure 
to acquaint you ivith the fact.''' 

[Here follow the signatures of Exhibitors.] 

Was it possible, indeed, that such a result could 
pj.ggg have failed of being achieved in the case of 

opinion. ^^-^ Exhibition v^hich, during the 151 days 
of its duration, was visited by a total of 2,230,173 
persons, with a daily average of 14,770? And to 
the voluntary testimony of the exhibitors themselves 
let us here add the independent evidence of The 
Standard, which pretty well expressed in brief com- 
pass the general verdict of the whole English 
Press : — 

" The American Exhibition, which closes to-day, has achieved a 
success almost unprecedented. It may be owned that its popularity 
was very largely due to the ' Wild West ' Show, and that but a small 
proportion of the visitors paid as much attention to the very fine 
and varied Exhibition of American productions and inventions as 
these deserved. This, however, was the case at the South 
Kensington series of Exhibitions, where the gardens, the music, 
the fountains and illuminations were the chief attractions to a very 
large proportion of the visitors, and the courts devoted to purely 
useful inventions presented a deserted aspect, even when the rest 
of the building was crowded. The Exhibition is in one respect 
remarkable, as being the largest undertaking of the kind ever 




EXHIBITORS' TESTIMONIAL TO MR. WHITLEY. 

(American Exhibition.) 



THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. Ill 

carried out by purely individual enterprise. It is true that the 
Liverpool, Glasgow, Newcastle, and other provincial exhibitions, 
some of which have been most successful, have been carried out 
without any Government assistance ; but those were the result of 
what may be called local rather than individual enterprise ; they 
were conducted by committees of the leading men of the place, 
backed by a guarantee fund, which diminished the risk of loss. 
The American Exhibition stands alone as a purely private enter- 
prise, having to some extent a national object; and the executive 
have well deserved the success which has been attained by the 
energy and boldness with which the scheme was carried out, 
by the excellence of the arrangements, and the liberality which 
they showed, both in the admission of working men and in the free 
passes which they so largely granted to charitable institutions." * 

* This extract maybe here supplemented by some other opinions of the 
Press. The Times : " The American Exhibition is none the less interest- 
ing because it is non-of&cial and purely a private enterprise, unassisted 
by the Central or State Governments. The general effect of the building 
is cheerful and tasteful, being bright with flags, and there is much to 
attract the crowds in the main gallery, and the processes at work are 
instructive. The collection of trophies of wild animals is the finest ever 
seen in England." — Morning Post : " This Exhibition is a decided success, 
and quite rivals in popularity the late Exhibitions at South Kensington, 
It is complete and representative. The Art Gallery alone is worth going 
to Brompton to see." — Globe : " The American Exhibition will do valu- 
able international service, and assist in dispelling the wholly fantastic 
notions which prevail in the United States regarding the British people, 
and in England respecting Americans." — Morning Advertiser: "The 
favourable predictions as to the success of this Exhibition have been amply 
justified." — Manchester Courier: "The American Exhibition is by no 
means the least interesting of the series which have proved so attractive 
in London in the past five or six years." — Journal des Dehats : " L'Exposi- 
tion Americaine est memorable k plusieurs titres ; c'est la seule entreprise 
de ce genre qui ait ete congue, organisee et realisee par des particuliers, 
et elle a eu un succes immense." — Truth : " This Exhibition, which owes 
its being, resulting in an accomplished fact, to the enterprise and per- 
severance of Mr. J. E. Whitley, is likely to prove successful. The gardens 
equal those at South Kensington." — Nineteenth Centiory : "When was 
there ever such an Exhibition held in a foreign country without Govern- 
ment assistance by any other nation in the whole annals of the woi'ld ? " 
— Saturday Beview : "It may be considered highly successful in every 
way." — The World : " An immense success." 



112 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Mr. Whitley had concluded arrangements with 
the managers of the suburban railways by 

Working . ^ J J 

men's which employers of labour and bond fide 

Saturdays. • i • i • , • , . 

organisations or working men s associations 
could procure, on application to the secretary of the 
Exhibition, certificates for artisans and working men, 
which, upon presentation at any booking-office of any 
railway within a radius of twenty-five miles of Earl's 
Court, would entitle the holder to purchase a round- 
trip ticket, including admission to the American 
Exhibition, at a rate very much below the most 
advantageous excursion-ticket price which had ever 
been announced for any Exhibition. He had, more- 
over, placed the Trophies Hall of the Exhibition at 
the disposal of the London Working Men's Associa- 
tion, under whose auspices a series of economic 
subjects were treated by eminent lecturers — Mr. J. 
S. Jeans leading the way with a discourse on " Eng- 
land and America : Some Influences of Modern 
Discoveries and Inventions " ; followed by Mr. Louis 
Appleton on a "Tribunal of Arbitration," and by 
Mr. D.P. Stuart-Menteith on the " Silver Question." 
Conspicuous, too, among the incidents which marked 
the successful course of the Exhibition was a dinner 
given by its Executive Council in the Trophies Hall 
to about one hundred members of the London Work- 
ing Men's Association — a body representing about 
300,000 artisans and other labourers of the metropolis., 
This was a very much better way of fostering in the 
breasts of English and American working men that 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 113 

spirit of "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity " of tlie 
French ouvrier's dream, than the " Be my brother, or 
I will kill yon " (" Sois mon frere., ou je te ttte^') of 
the Paris proletary ; and the after-dinner speeches 
bore ample testimony to the fact that the protests of 
some artisan malcontents against the popularising 
of American manufactures in this country were not 
shared by the labouring community at large.* 

The compliment which had thus been paid them 
was handsomely returned by these labour delegates at 
the close of the Exhibition, when, on behalf of their 
Association, they presented addresses of gratitude to 
the Executive Council, as well as to Colonel Cody. 
The latter, among other things, revealed the fact 
that his mother had been an Englishwoman — a fact, 
he said, of which he was exceedingly proud ; and he 



* After dinner Mr. George Potter (President of the London Working 
Men's Association) proposed "Prosperity to the United States of America," 
and remarked that the object of this representative gathering was two- 
fold : first to promote good feeHng between the working classes of 
England and America ; and, secondly, to bid success to that grand under- 
taking, the American Exhibition. The Chairman (Colonel Eussell) 
proposed " Prosperity to British Industry," which was responded to, 
amidst great cheering, by Messrs. J. S. Jeans and Mark Mildred. Mr. 
Walton proposed, and Mr. Le Fevre supported the next toast, "Success 
to the American Exhibition." Mr. Wm. D. Guthrie (a member of the 
Executive Council) assured those present that upon their return to their 
country the American working men would be told how the working men 
of England had received them with open arms, and that their message 
would not die out oU the Atlantic. It would cross to the United States, 
it would re-echo across a Continent climbing the Rockies, and if it died 
it would die in the Pacific Ocean. The credit for the great success of the 
Exhibition was largely due to the efforts of an Englishman — Mr. J. E. 
Whitley — without whose aid he very much doubted if an Exhibition could 
have been held at all. 



114 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

believed the working men of America would heartily 
echo the sentiment of good feeling which had been 
expressed towards America by their labouring 
brethren of England.* 

'■'- On this occasion Mr. George Potter (president of the London Working 
Men's Association) f aid that if the association did not represent all the 
worldng men of the metropohs, it expressed the feelings of about 300,000 
of the working men of the most intelligent, provident, and industrious of 
the people of London. — Colonel Cody (who was greatly cheered), in ac- 
knowledgment, said that he accepted the memento of goodwill with much 
gratitude, and he would treasure it throughout the remainder of his life. 
To every working man in England he wished health, long life, and 
prosperity, and he believed that the working men in America would echo 
the sentiment of good feeling. His stay in England had been a most 
pleasant one, and he could not adequately express his thanks for the 
manner with which he and the whole " Wild West" Company had been 
treated by all during their stay here. He was very proud to say that his 
mother was an Englishwoman, and he was very proud of his visit to 
England, and wished all present God speed. — Mr. Potter then presented to 
Mr. J. G. Speed (as representing the executive of the Exhibition) an address 
expressive of appreciation of the kindness extended to the working classes 
of London in giving them so many opportunities of visiting the Exhibition 
and of hearing interesting lectures on Saturday evenings. The address 
paid tribute to the ability and enterprise shown in the inauguration and 
conduct of such a gigantic undertaking — the first Exhibition ever held in 
any country without Governmental recognition and support, and the only 
successful private undertaking which had had a national object. The 
association hoped that the good feeling existing between the two great 
Anglo-Saxon nations might be intensified as the result of the Exhibition, 
and that all the efforts for the future prosperity of and harmony between 
the two countries might be crowned, with success. — Mr. Speed, in ac- 
knowledging the address, said that if the Exhibition had afforded any 
instruction and pleasure to the toilers and hard-working men of 
London the executive felt that they had been abundantly repaid for all 
their labours. — Sir John Heron-Maxwell then proposed a vote of thanks 
to the London Working Men's Association for their efforts to bring the 
working men together, and said that in these days it was a happy augury 
for peace and goodwill amongst all to see the various classes of society 
acting cordially together. It was the best bond of peace, and he trusted 
that it would continue. On behalf of a number of charitable institutions 
he expressed thanks to the executive for gi-anting free admission to the 
Exhibition. 



TBE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 115 

It only remains to be said that the close of the 
Exhibition (31st of October) was marked by 

... . Inter- 

an incident which fittingly pointed the national 

,p,T ,. l^ 1 c , • • Arbitration. 

moral oi the past six months iratermsmg 
between England and America.*' This was an 
enthusiastic meeting of representative Americans 
and Englishmen, including the Marquis of Lome 
(who presided), Lord Eonald Gower, Sir Henry de 
Bathe, Sir John Heron- Maxwell, Colonel George H. 
Moncrieff, Mr. J. S. Jeans, Professor Leone Levi, 
Dr. Gladstone, Dr. Pankhurst, Mr. A. B. Scott, City 

* A curious feature of all this "international fraternising" was also 
furnished, towards the close of the Exhibition, by a meeting between some 
" dusky denizens of the East " and the Wild Indians of the West, which 
Mr. Whitley had contrived to arrange at Earl's Court, and which was 
certainly the first meeting of the kind that had ever taken place — a 
troupe of Arabs from the Paris Hippodrome, then performing at 
" Olympia," and " Buffalo Bill's" Braves. Mr. Whitley had them drawn 
up in two lines, one hundred Indians and one hundred Arabs. They 
shook hands and dined together as his guests, and then spent two hoiirs 
together sight-seeing in the Exhibition. " This visit," said a chronicler, 
" excited considerable interest, as the Frenchmen were accompanied by 
a large troupe of Arabs, and all present were anxious to see the meeting 
between these Eastern ' children of the desert ' and the Eed Men from 
the plains of the Far West. About two o'clock the Olympia company 
arrived, with the Arabs in their picturesque native dress— white bernous, 
baggy trousers, red leather boots, &c., and proceeded at once to the 
Indian encampment. Here they were received by ' Buffalo Bill,' Mr. 
Nate Salsbury, and all the cowboys and Indians. Much shaking of 
hands took place between the Eed Skins and the swarthy Arabs, the 
latter entering the wigwams of the Braves and generally making them- 
selves at home. It was a curious sight, this mingling of races in the 
narrow avenues of the camp — French men and women, Americans, 
Mexicans, English, Arabs, Nubians, and Indians. The Eed Men, after 
their manner, spoke little ; but the rest of those present helped to give 
one a good idea of the confusion of tongues at the building of the Tower 
of Babel. After a general fraternisation, the Arabs, with the rest of the 
Hippodrome troupe, witnessed the performance in the arena, which 
seemed to interest and afford them considerable amusement." 



116 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

Chamberlain, Mr. Whitley, and a large number of 
others, to consider the question of arbitration as a 
means of obviating recourse to war for the settle- 
ment of international disputes. The meeting, which 
was appropriately held in the Trophies Hall (trophies 
only of man's war against the lower animals, not 
against his fellows), was representative enough in 
respect of those who took part in it, but its character 
in this respect received still greater amplitude from 
those who, though unable themselves to attend, 
promised to be present in spirit ; and these com- 
prised men like Lord Wolseley, Mr. Gladstone, Mr. 
Bright, Lord Granville, the Marquis of Bristol, 
Newman Hall, Emile de Laveleye, Mr. Thomas 
Hughes, Mr. Henry Eichard, M.P., and other 
prominent advocates of the arbitration principle.* 

* To Mr. Whitley Mr. Bright wrote expressing his deepest sympathy 
with the " steps tliat are being taken to promote a lasting friendship and 
peace between the two great English-speaking nations. ... If accepted 
and completed, the Treaty (which it is intended to promote and. to form 
between the two nations) will prove a great step in advance in the 
direction of a general disarmament, and will do much to relieve mankind 
from the sore burden of the great armies and navies which, as they now 
exist, are a discredit and a constant danger to all the professing Christian 
nations of the globe." In a similar spirit Lord Wolseley rejoiced "to 
find that the fishery question is now in a fair way of being satisfactorily 
settled, and if, in the future, any other differences of views on questions 
of old rights, or from any other cause should arise, I earnestly hope 
that the sense of the EngUsh-speaking people on both sides of the 
Atlantic may always lead to a similar result." Lord Granville thought 
that the best proof he could offer of his being favourable to the principle 
of arbitration was the fact that he had been officially responsible for 
already proposing or accepting ten references of that character ; while 
Mr. Gladstone thought, on the whole, " that his views of the subject 
might be more justly and effectively gathered from his public acts when 
he was Prime Minister than from anything he could say when he was in 
the party of opposition." 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 117 

Mr. Whitley opened the Conference, that he had 
organised, with the following address, which was at the 
same time a recapitulation of the results of his Exhibi- 
tion work, and as such merits a place in these pages : — • 

" My Lords and Gentlemen, — It seemed to my colleagues and 
myself that no more fitting manner of closing the first American 
Exhibition held beyond the limits of the United States Territory 
could well be devised than that of availing ourselves of the 
occasion by urging the Governments of the two countries to 
continue to set the good example of arranging international 
grievances by international arbitration. 

" The moment, too, appears to be most opportune. The recent 
appointment of an International Commission to settle the question 
of the Canadian Fisheries is encouraging evidence of the possible 
success which may attend the joint efforts of Englishmen and 
Americans if they will endeavour to educate public opinion upon 
this very important question on both sides of the Atlantic, 

" Others more competent than I will bring the weight of their 
opinions and influence to bear upon the subject, and eloquently 
expound to you this evening what those opinions are. 

" As one of those who have endeavoured to bind still closer 
together the two branches of the English-speaking race, through 
the intermediary of the American Exhibition in London, it may 
not be out of place for me to offer one remark concerning the 
Exhibition on the occasion of our closing its doors. 

" This Exhibition has been organised and conducted without 
either subsidy, assistance, or even encouragement from the United 
States Government. ' All's well that ends well,' and we can afford 
to be magnanimous to those persons who fiercely denounced and 
severely criticised the efforts of my colleagues and myself for three 
long years. There has even been a certain sense of additional 
satisfaction in carrying the Exhibition through to a successful 
issue in spite of misdirected opposition on the part of those who 
are supposed to mould public opinion in America, and of those 



118 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

who represent tlie Governmental functions of the United States 
in this country, 

" From this, our last meeting, we send a greeting of forgiveness 
and peace to those who endeavoured, but unsuccessfully, to crush 
the life out of our good work, from the very hour of its birth. 

" It will be no insignificant event for the historian of the 
Jubilee year to record that 1887 saw the Western people, whose 
industrious millions spring largely from the same ancestry, read 
the same literature, observe similar laws, have like ideals and 
almost identical forms of public, religious, and benevolent institu- 
tions, with the great and generous nation upon whose soil we 
stand ; I say it will be no insignificant event to record that this 
year saw the American people joining with the subjects of Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria in this important exposition of commercial 
and social facts, and witnessed, also, the two nations marching 
harmoniously together in the acts of peace, which such reunions 
as these foster and promote." 

The Marquis of Lome, in alluding to the fact that 
two of the greatest nations of the earth, by submit- 
ting their conflicting claims thrice already to 
arbitration, had shown in a practical manner that 
they could under almost any circumstances smoke 
the pipe of peace together, said he looked forward 
to the time when arbitration would be the sole 
means of settling the disputes of these two great 
countries. And soj too, thought the meeting, for it 
carried by acclamation the following resolution : — 

" In the judgment of the Conference it is highly desirable that, 
in all International treaties or agreements, a clause should be 
introduced providing that, if any dispute should arise between the 
contracting parties, the settlement of such dispute should be 
carried out by arbitration," 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION, 119 

Great must have been Mr. Whitley's satisfaction 
if the Exhibition of his devising had resulted in no 
greater triumph than this, which was as a seed — 
albeit, perhaps, a very small one — sown in good 
ground, that might one day yet spring up and 
produce the fiTiits of peace abundantly ; * and even 
The Times, in a review of the result of the 
Exhibition, admitted that, although at first sight 
it might seem a far cry from the Wild West to an 
International Court (or, as Fundi phrased it, from 
Earl's Court to an International Court), " yet the. 
connection is not really so very remote, . . . and 
civilisation consents to march onward in the train 
of 'Buffalo Bill.'" 

It was also the spirit of this writer which 
animated the Marquis of Lome at a 

A Compli- 

numerously attended banquet held on the ment to 
day of the Arbitration Conference, when, ^' ^^ ^^' 
on behalf of the Committee of the Welcome Club, f 
he presented Mr. Whitley with an illuminated 
address in token of its admiration of the "great 
energy, perseverance, and skill" with, which he had 
carried out all the arrangements of the Exhibition, 
and when he expressed " a hope and a belief that it 
had tended to cement the cordial relations between 

* Of this fruit some was not so very loBg in being gathered in, as 
witness the following telegram from Washington, dated November 10, 
1891 : — " It is announced to-day that an agreement has been entered 
into between Great Britain and the United States, regarding the terms 
on which the differences between the two Grovernments in respect to the 
Behring Sea Seal Fisheries shall be submitted to arbitration,'' 

t See p. 88 ante. 



120 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

the two great English-speaking nations." The 
following was the text of the address, with which 
we may appropriately close this chapter : — 

" The Executive Committee of the ' Welcome Club,' established 
in the Gardens of the American Exhibition on your happy 
initiative, for the purpose of affording facilities for the friendly 
intercourse of Englishmen and Americans, desire to put on record, 
ill this more formal manner than hitherto, their high appreciation 
of the great and important work you have accomplished during 
the past twelve months. In spite of very many difficulties and dis- 
couragements, you have initiated, administered, and consummated 
an Exhibition which, in so far as it may fall short of your own 
ideal, has assuredly not done so from any defect for which you 
could be held responsible. 

" The energy, enterprise, and high capacity for affairs that you 
have shown, from^the beginning to the end of the Exhibition, has 
won the high admiration of the Executive Committee of the Club ; 
and not less highly have they had reason to esteem your excellent 
social qualities. 

"It will be a source of legitimate pride and satisfaction to you 
that your arduous labours have tended to cement the friendly 
alliance of very many Englishmen and Americans ; and the 
Executive Committee feel that even in this Address, which is so 
distinctly personal to yourself, you will be glad that they should 
recognise the good-fellowship of the many American citizens who 
have visited the ' Welcome Club ' during the season. 

" The Committee would add a fervent hope that the organisation 
of the Italian Exhibition, upon which you have now entered, may 
be even more successful than that of the American Exhibition." 




TESTIMONIAL FROM WELCOME CLUB COMMITTEE TO MR. WHITLEY. 

(American Exhibition.) 



CHAPTEE III. 

THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 
(1888.) 

" I declare to the Chamber that two things have come to my know- 
ledge : one is that the Italian Exhibition in London is regarded favour- 
ably by the English Government, by leading men, and by public opinion ; 
the other is that, from a commercial point of view, the Exhibition is a 
complete success. It only remains for us to hope that it may produce 
lasting results." (Applause.) — H. E.B. Grimaldi, Minister of Agri- 
culture, Industry, and Commerce ; Official Parliamentary Rejport, 
Legislature XVI., Second Session, p. 2862. 

" The Italian Exhibition in London was, without doubt, the finest 
unoflS.cial Exhibition ever organised." — The Saturday Bevieiu, July 13, 
1889. 

THE American Exhibition was closed on the 31st 
of October, and on that very day ^ Letter 
Signor Crispi, the Itahan Premier, had ^^°°^ crispi. 
addressed to Mr. "Whitley the following letter : — 

"Pkesidency of the Council of Ministers. 

" Turin, October 31, 1887. 
•• Sir, — I liave received from the Embassy of His Majesty the 
King, in London, a communication containing full particulars of 
the great scheme, due to your initiative, of an exclusively Italian 
Exhibition to be held in London in 1888. 

*' I cannot but view this scheme with the liveliest sympathy, and 
I shall follow its development with the sincerest wishes for its 
success. 



122 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

" I rejoice as an Italian to tender you this assurance of my 
sympathy, interest, and gratitude, of wliicli, indeed, I apprised you 
by telegraph the day before yesterday, on the occasion of the 
meeting held in London, and I beg you to accept. Sir, the 
expression of my highest consideration. " F. Ceispi." 

Within three months of this time (on the 
j^.^g 20th of January, 1888) Mr. Whitley had 
Humbert, the honour of being received in special 
audience by the King of Italy at the Quirinal. 
At this interview King Humbert expressed himself 
in very cordial terms with respect to England, 
and declared his satisfaction at the amicable rela- 
tions existing between her and Italy, adding that 
"this Exhibition would form yet another bond of 
friendship between the two nations." 

The Exhibition thus alluded to was one which, 

according to the design of Mr. Whitley, 

the Wit- should bring Italy home to the minds of 

ness-box. ^ . • n • • t 

ms countrymen ni the same vivid manner 
as America had already been presented to them. As 
he wrote in his initiatory circular: — 

" The first exclusively American Exhibition ever held beyond 
the limits of the United States Territory has been so eminent a 
success in London this year, that it is proposed to follow up this 
Exhibition of the Arts, Manufactures, and Products of the greatest 
country of the New World by an Exhibition of the Arts, Manu- 
factures, and Products of the newest Great Power in the Old World, 
— United Italy. ... 

" If I were asked what country has made the greatest pro- 
gress since the International Exhibition of 1851, I should, 
of course, designate the United States of America ; and if 




[From a photograph by Montabone, Florence. 
H.M. THE KING OF ITALY. 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 123 

I were asked what country lias made the second best record, I 
should, unhesitatingly designate Italy. It is, therefore, in my 
opinion, in the natural sequence of events, that the example set by 
the United States, of America should next be followed by United 
Italy. . . . 

"It occurred to me in 1884 that an entirely new departure 
in Exhibitions might be made both interesting, useful, and instruc- 
tive, by organising a National Exhibition of one country in the 
metrepolis of another; for even as justice is best served by the 
examination of one person at a time in the witness-box, so I am of 
opinion that henceforth it will be wise to inquire into the history 
and progress of one nation at a time." 

Italia, " the newest Great Power in the Old 
World," was the witness whom Mr. Whitley Angio- 
now proposed putting into the witness- "^o?thr^^ 
box ; and though his citation had gone Exhibition. 
forth while Columbia was still under cross-examina- 
tion, the mere rumour of it had caused much stir of 
expectation among those in court, who remembered 
the interesting testimony to her own progress which 
the Peninsula had already tendered to England in 
1851 and 1862. As a brilhant Anglo-ItaHan (Mr. 
Gallenga) wrote in The National Review (of May, 
1888) :— 

" The rise of Italian nationality, it should be borne in mind, 
dates from the era of the earliest London Universal Exhibitions, 
and was in some measure aided and promoted by them. It was 
under the very roof of Paxton's Glass House in Hyde Park, in 
1851, that the name of Italy was first proclaimed ; it was over 
that same ' Crystal ' roof that her tricolour was first hoisted any- 
where across the Alps. It was in that first ' world's show, mart, 
or emporium,' to use the language of the time, that the exhibitors 



124 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

from all tlie states of tlie Peninsula rallied round that little Pied- 
mont Tvhicb had, three years before, with little success, taken the 
lead of Italian destinies, but had, with heroic constancy, deter- 
mined never to relinquish it. It was there, in that ' Sardinian 
shop,' which, with the connivance of generous England, assumed 
the ambitious designation of 'Italian Court,' that Italy for the 
first time took her place as a member of the European family : a 
mere nebula which was soon to gain the density and consistency 
of a star of the first magnitude in the European firmament. And 
it was eleven years later that these daring aspirations were fully 
reahsed. At the opening of the greater show at South Kensing- 
ton, in 1862, Italy came to us as a nation in her own right. She 
took her place on equal terms with trading communities by the 
same title which gave her a seat in the council of ruling Powers. 

" But now she again comes up for an Exhibition entirely and 
exclusively her own. She flatters herseK that she can put forward 
work of sufficient interest to claim the attention of the London 
civilised world. That world, it seems, is tired of the hubbub and 
confusion, of the jealousies, heart-burnings, and mutual recrimina- 
tions, the usual results of over-strained competition. The cry ia 
now for special rather than general, for national rather than 
international exhibitions. Here we have had the Fisheries and 
the Inventions, the Healiheries and the Col-Inderies (to call them 
by their barbarous names, the Colonies and India), and the great 
American Union, each of them in succession coming to muster. 
The turn has now come for the Italians. We shall have Italy in 
England. 

" The idea of an Italian Exhibition in London did not, it is true, 
originally spring up in an Italian brain. The chief merit of such 
an enterprise is due to the ingenious Englishman who last year 
entertamed us with the brilliant show of American art and industry, 
enlivening it with the pranks and gambols of the popular ' Buffalo 
Bill.' But even Mr. Whitley's talent and energy would not have 
carried him very far in this new undertaking, had he not found 
here, in London itself, the fit machinery by which his primitive 
plan could best be brought to maturity. 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 125 

" The bare notion of an Italian show in London had no sooner 
teemed in Mr. Whitley's fertile mind, than it was taken up by 
the Italian Chamber of Commerce in the city, and by its energetic 
President, Cavahere L. Bonacina, with that southern eagerness 
which is never slow to kindle into enthusiasm and to proceed from 
thought to instant action. From the Commercial Chamber in 
London to the kindred associations in Kome, in Milan and Genoa, 
in Venice, Modena, Palermo, and thi'oughout the 'Hundred Cities 
of Italy,' the watchword ' Italy in England ' spread Literally with 
the swiftness of the electric spark. Everywhere the Commercial 
Chambers constituted themselves into Exhibition Committees, with 
which Members of the Municipal Councils and conspicuous citizens 
of all classes eagerly co-operated ; and the whole movement was 
furthered with such good effect that, before the middle of March, 
the space of the vast central show-room in West Brompton was 
cut out and apportioned to as many as 1,257 exhibitors, to some 
of whom no less than forty, fifty, sixty, and even a hundred square 
metres of ground had to be assigned. 

" And all this was achieved upon the understanding that in this 
Italian, as in the preceding American speculation, the whole affair 
should be, to use the words of the projector, ' the outcome of 
private initiative, receiving neither subsidy, encouragement, nor assist- 
ance of any description whatsoever ' from the Government. 

"King Humbert, it is true, was proclaimed 'Patron,' and his 
son, the Crown Prince of Italy, was asked to be ' Honorary Presi- 
dent' of the Exhibition. But these were merely nominal titles 
conferring on those exalted personages no share either of the 
management or in the costs of the national enterprise, not any 
more than similar distinctions awarded to the Italian Ambassador 
and to the Consul-General in London are understood to give them 
any claim to direct or indirect control over the transactions of the 
Italian Chamber of Commerce, of which those two functionaries 
are, simply ex officio and ad honorem^ respectively the President and 
Yice-President. So anxious is Italy in this business to prove her 
abiUty/a;- da se." 



126 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

The before-quoted letter to Mr. Wiiitley, which 
preiimi- Signor Crispi had addressed to him on the 
naries. Jast day of the American Exhibition (31st 
of October), marked the first stage in the process of 
organising its Itahan successor, which had already 
begun in July, on the strength of an idea conceived a 
whole year previously. And with a man like Mr. 
Whitley, to conceive was to execute. Confident in 
the soundness of his ideal, he set about realising it 
without delay. To a meeting of friends he explained 
his intentions in detail, and Messrs. Grrant and 
Stuart (two Anglo-Italians of distinction) were com- 
missioned to proceed to Italy in order to confer there 
with the persons most versed in such matters, and, 
in the event of their opinion being favourable, to 
form a Committee of Action. Meanwhile Mr. 
Whitley solicited the good offices of the Italian 
Consul- G-eneral in London, and issued a preliminary 
Circular- Programme to the Press and to some in- 
fluential personages, as well as to all the Italian 
Consuls in the United Kingdom, asking them 
for their candid opinion of his proposed scheme. 
From all of these he soon received letters of the 
warmest commendation and encouragement ; * while 
all the chief organs of the Press, both in England 
and Italy, also applauded the project as excellent 
and beneficent in the highest degree ; and the 
Syndic, or Mayor, of Eome, Duke Leopold Torlonia, 

* Especially from the Italian Consuls at Liverpool^ Manchester, 
Bristol, Leitli, Leeds, Harwich, Cardiff, &c. 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 127 

Signor Arbib, the Marquis Giorgio Del Grille , the 
Duke of Sermoneta, Duke Marcantonio Colonna, 
Baron Giorgio Sonnino, the Senator, and others has- 
tened to declare their readiness to become members of 
the Koman Committee of Organisation. In the mean- 
time a Circular, explaining the objects of the Exhi- 
bition, had been addressed (8th of October) to the 
Italian Press, to the leading manufacturers of the 
Peninsula, and others by the Cavalieri Guglielmo 
Grant and Eoberto M. Stuart, who had gone to 
Rome as the apostles of the idea.* 

Cavaliere Stuart had also opened negotiations with 
the various Italian authorities. He had the honour 
of conferring with Signor Crispi, and with the 
Minister of Finance, Signor Magliani, to whom, at 



* This Circular contained the following passage : — 

" The Exhibition of 1888 offers to Italian manufacturers the oppor- 
tunity so often longed for of making known their products. At this 
Exhibition Italy will have no competitors. The millions who will visit 
it will have the certainty that all that is exhibited there is the outcome 
of the genius, the industry, and the perseverance of the Italians. The 
spectacle of a purely Italian Exhibition, which will demonstrate that 
there is no product which we cannot make at home, from the ironclads, 
which rule the seas, to the smallest articles of jewellery, will not fail to 
make an impression on the British people, and to enhance our national 
prestige in the estimation of all civilised peoples. In dwelling on this 
subject we wish to remai'k that there are innumerable national industries 
which might find an outlet in the British market. The American ex- 
hibitors presented an address to the Director-General of their Exhibition, 
setting forth the noteworthy fact that, besides the actual sale of their 
products, the Exhibition had opened up to them countless business con- 
nections abroad. When we take into account the fact that whilst Free 
Trade England opens her ports to the products of the whole world, Pro^ 
tective America closes her ports especially against England, it is reason- 
able to presume that English manufacturers wiU be more incHned to 
favour Italy, with whom they can effect exchanges on equitable terms/' 



128 NATIonAL EXHtBinONS IN LONDON. 

Leghorn, he fully explained the intentions of the 
promoters, receiving in return the most encouraging 
assurances. Later he had the good fortune to meet 
Count Corti (Italian Ambassador in London) at 
Eome, and to enlist his active support with the 
Government on behalf of the enterprise. He then 
submitted the scheme to the Minister of Agriculture, 
Industry, and Commerce, in order to obtain his 
sanction. From Eqme, too, the first impulse went 
forth for the formation of the District Committees, 
a task by no means easy, but which Messrs. Grant 
and Stuart willingly undertook, and in which they 
were seconded by well-known publicists, especially 
by the deputies, Signori de Cesare and Arbib. 
Count Corti, the Italian Ambassador, being then 
Italian abscut ffom Loudou, Mr. Whitley hastened 
and°Engiish ^^ impart Ms purpose to the Commenda- 
support. ^Qj-e Catalani, First Secretary of the Em- 
bassy, who encouraged him to persevere, and pro- 
mised to recommend the project to the Government 
of King Humbert. In accordance with his advice, 
Mr. Whitley drew up a Pro Memorid on the project, 
which was submitted through the Embassy to the 
President of the Council of Ministers, along with 
documents showing the results already obtained; and 
meanwhile, in order to prove to the Italians how 
warmly the proposal to hold in the English metro- 
polis an exclusively Italian Exhibition was received 
by the British public, Mr. Whitley set about the 
formation of a London Working Committee and an 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 129 

English Eeoeption Committee, both composed of 
eminent personages — a task which, thanks to the 
efficacious support of Commendatore Catalani, and 
of the Itahan Consul-General in London, as well 
as to the powerful impulse of the Marquis of Lome, 
who from the first took the warmest interest in the 
success of the Exhibition, Mr. Whitley was not long- 
in accomplishing.* 

As the result, therefore, of all this preparatory 
work, Mr. Whitley was gratified by the receipt of 
the following telegram from Signer Crispi, who sup- 
plemented it by the letter before referred to : — 

" The Royal Embassy in LoBdon informs me of the grand 
project for a purely Italian Exhibition in 1888, which you have 
initiated. 

"I heartily wish that this project may be carried out, and shall 
follow its development with the sincerest wishes for its success." 

* This Committee was composed of about one hundred members. The 
Upper House was represented by the Dukes of Wellington and Leinster, 
the Marquis of Waterford, the Earl of Winchelsea and Nottingham, the 
Earl of Aberdeen, Lord Bramwell, Lord Walsingham, Lord Wharncliffe, 
Lord Armstrong, Lord Aberdare, Lord Lathom, &c. The House of 
Commons was represented by forty-six members, among whom were : 
Lord Churchill, Sir Julian Goldsmid, Sir Algernon Borthwick, Sir John 
Lubbock, Sir H. E. Eoscoe, Mr. Herbert Gladstone, &e. Among the 
authorities were : Sir Polydore de Keyser, Lord Mayor of London, Sir 
Thomas Clark, Lord Provost of Edinburgh, the Eight Honourable H. C. 
Eaikes, Postmaster-General, Lord Esher, Master of the Eolls, General 
Sir Donald Stuart, the Lord Chamberlain, Lord Eonald Gower, Mr. 
Augustus Harris, Mr. John Priestman, Sir Sydney Waterlow, Professor 
Tyndall, and others ; whilst belles lettres were represented by Lord 
Tennyson, Mr. Alfred Austin, Dr. W. H. Eussell, Mr. Wilkie Collins, 
Messrs. Edmund Yates, G. A. Sala, J. S. Jeans, and others. When Mr. 
Whitley had constituted this Eeception Committee he asked Colonel J. T, 
North to become its President. 

9 



130 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

•' Thus the foundation stone, as it were, of the 
great edifice was laid," says the Italian Beport, 
" and the Italian Exhibition received official recog- 
nition. He who first conceived the idea of it was 
profoundly impressed at that moment with a sense 
of the duty incumbent on him of rendering himself 
worthy of such unexpected auspices ; and from that 
time forward he knew no rest until the day when 
the first Magistrate of the City of London officially 
declared the Exhibition open to the judgment 
and to the eager curiosity of the population of 
the United Kingdom. In consequence of the sup- 
port generously accorded by the President of the 
Council of Ministers, Mr. Whitley decided to spare 
no efforts in order that the Exhibition might prove 
an event of greater importance than had been antici- 
pated." 

It may here be added that the circumstances of 
the time were peculiarly favourable to the 

ness of idea of the Exhibition in London, from the 
point of view of the Italians and their 
Government. Eor France and Italy had just then 
become involved in some custom-house quarrels 
which caused a good deal of bad blood between the 
two nations, and threatened to close the doors of 
France to certain Italian products ; so that nothing 
could have been more tempting or opportune than 
the prospect which was thus opened up to the 
Italians of recouping themselves for the loss of 
French markets by offering their wares in English 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION, 131 

ones.* Nor were any quicker to perceive this than 
the Itahan Chamber of Commerce in London (a 
recently established body), which resolved to do all 
it could to promote Mr. Whitley's undertaking ; f 

* Says the writer of the Italian Report on the Exhibition : " One of the 
principal objects of the initiator of this enterprise was to popularise as 
much as possible Italian products, both raw and manufactured, to illus- 
trate the progress of the national arts and industries, which of late years 
have been so admirably developed, and to draw closer the commercial 
bonds between Italy and that country which at all times gave her proof 
of such sincere and lively sympathy. In one word, his aim was to con- 
stitute in London, in the centre of the most flourishing and wealthy 
European State, a National Italian Exhibition. This was indeed a new 
event for Italy, and one of the most singular that had ever occurred in ' 
her history. What was wanted for England, for the populations of her 
counties, of her cities and of her boundless colonies, for her manu- 
facturers, her merchants and her consumers, was to see collected together 
specimens of all branches of Italian industry, in order that the pubhc 
might, as it were by means of a vast technical and practical inquiry, 
judge of the expediency of introducing those goods which were hitherto 
least generally or least favourably known. At a time when local preju- 
dices, national rivalries and jealousies, and protective systems oppose so 
many obstacles to international commercial relations, it was of incal- 
culable advantage to Italy to develop her relations with England, since 
England, which was the first country to proclaim, and which so staunchly 
maintains, free trade principles, is also the readiest to adopt all useful or 
ornamental products." 

Similarly in its number for September and October, 1887, the 
" Journal " of the Italian Chamber of Commerce in London remarked ; 
"We do not consider it necessary to prove at too great length that the 
Itahan Exhibition is a most fortunate circumstance. It is certain that 
no effort of any Chamber of Commerce, nor of any other Italian Associa- 
tion, would have sufficed to organise and carry out so vast an enterprise 
abroad as that of a great Italian Exhibition ; and it is equally certain 
that no more advantageous method of exhibiting could be devised for any 
country, and particularly for Italy, than that of exhibiting alone, freed 
from the immediate rivalry of other countries, which may be more ad' 
vanced industrially and may possess a better established reputation." 

•f This decision was embodied in the following resolution : " The 
Chamber approves of the idea of an Italian Exhibition to be held in 
London in 1888, and the Chamber declares itself disposed to aid and 
further in every possible way the said Exhibition, subject to the necessary 



132 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

and tHe better to co-operate with his London Com- 
mittee, several members of the Chamber, including 
its President, Cavaliere Bonaoina, were induced to 
join it as representatives of the Italian colony.* • 
But though thus energetically recommended and 
seconded by the Italian Chamber of Com- 

Propa,gan-. . "l . 

aismiu merce ni London, Mr. Whitley's project 
^'^' seemed rash to some; and not a few Italian 
artists and manufacturers appeared to hesitate, or 
were lukewarm in responding to the invitations ad- 
dressed to them. Possibly this coldness was not in 
any case due to narrowness of views, but rather to 
the novel character of the enterprise, and to a 
natural apathy inherent in the Italian character. 
The Exhibitions that were to be held contempo- 
raneously at Brussels, G-lasgow, Barcelona, Munich, 
and Copenhagen likewise deterred many from taking 
part in the London Show. It was therefore neces- 
sary to resort to other means of enlisting support, 
and to advertise the project widely. Once consti- 
tuted, the London Committee set about devising 
new methods by which the work of the Executive 
Council and of its two indefatigable delegates, 

guarantees beiog given to safeguard the objects exhibited, and to the 
Association agreeing to give previous notice to the Chamber of all regula- 
tions affecting exhibitors." Mr. Applin's assistance was also particularly 
valuable at this stage. 

■'' The London Committee comprised the most distinguished personages 
of the Italian colony, ten members of the Chamber of Commerce, and 
several illustrious Englishmen. As a compliment to, and a guarantee 
for, the Italians, Mr. Whitley courteously invited Cavaliere Bonacina to 
act as Chairman of the London Working Committee, 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 133 

Messrs. Grant and Stuart, might be farthered. It was 
decided that 10,000 copies of Mr. Whitley's Initiatory 
Circular, with as many forms of application for space, 
and copies of the Eegulations, should be issued ; and 
that a fresh appeal should be made to the patriotic 
sentiments of the Italian Press, which had shown 
such an interest in the undertaking from the very 
outset. At the same time the Italian Chamber of 
Commerce in London issued to its sister Chambers 
in Italy, as well as to merchants, exporters, manu- 
facturers, and artists, another most ardent appeal.* 
Moreover, with a view to solving certain difficulties 
of detail which had cropped up, and of obtaining all 
possible facilities for exhibitors from the Italian 
Government, Mr. Whitley, on the advice of Cavaliere 
Bonacina, decided to go to the Peninsula himself. 
On the 14th of December he accordingly set out with 
the intention of visiting the principal cities of Italy, 
accompanied by the Avvocato Melis, Secretary of 
the Italian Chamber of Commerce in London. " On 
his arrival in Italy," says the Italian Eeport, '' Mr. 

* " The Chamber," said this appeal, among other things, "has decided 
to farther and support by every means in its power the ItaHan Exhibition 
to be held in London in 1888, as proposed by the financial group repre- 
sented by Mr. Whitley, and more especially to urge all Italian producers, 
merchants, and artists to take i^art therein, availing themselves of the 
exceptional opportunity thus afforded to them of o]3ening up to their 
goods the London market, and through it the markets of the world. 
Everything points to the belief that an Italian Exhibition will prove even 
more successful than its predecessor. The great liking which English- 
men have for all that is Italian ; the new arrangements made by Mr. 
Whitley with the various Eailway Companies ; the reputation which the 
premises have now acquired, and the novelty of many of our products 
for the general public, all warrant this expectation." 



134 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Whitley made use of all the means he could de- 
vise of stirring up pubhc interest, inundating the 
Government Departments and Chambers of Com- 
merce with telegrams, so much so that the telegraph 
of&ce might have been regarded as his secretarial 
bureau. In fact, as by enchantment, difficulties 
vanished before him, and uncertainty gave place to 
confidence." As Longfellow sings : — ■ 

" The mighty pyramids of stone 

That wedge-hke cleave the desert airs, 
When nearer seen, and better known, 
Are but gigantic flights of stairs." 



to^D'^ 



This visit of Mr. Whitley to Italy soon pro- 
And its duced most favourable results. The Turin 
results. Qj^amber of Commerce hastened to " circu- 
larise " all those interested within its sphere, and 
its example was followed by the Chambers of Milan 
and G-enoa, Eome, Venice, Modena, Udine, Como, 
Ancona, Lecce, Bologna, Naples, and Eoligno, by 
several Agricultural Societies, by the Credito In- 
dustriale Napoletano, by the Italian Association for 
silk manufacture and trade, &g. The Italian Wine- 
growers' Society, too, the secretary of which had a few 
months previously visited England, were convinced 
that the Exhibition would prove a most favourable 
opportunity for diffusing throughout the metropolis 
a taste for Italian wines, and they accordingly 
urged the wine interest to take part in it. Erom 
Milan Mr. Whitley proceeded to Turin, where 



THjE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 135 

the situation surpassed even his most sanguine ex- 
pectations ; but at Genoa,* which was his next goal, 
he found everything at a standstill, owing to the com- 
peting claims of local concerns. This indifference, 
however, he succeeded in dissipating at a public 
meeting which he addressed, and which he stirred up 
to a pitch of enthusiasm so great as to end in the 
immediate formation of a Committee. Similarly the 
work of organisation was carried on in Carrara, Pisa, 
Leghorn, Lucca, and Florence ; and from Florence, 
where the question of the carriage of exhibits to. 
London was seen to constitute the main difficulty, 
Mr. Whitley journeyed to Eome to consult the 
Government on this and other subjects. Owing to 
his official position as Syndic of Eome, the Duke of 
Torlonia had seen that he could only be Honorary 
President of the Eoman Committee ; but his place 
as President was willingly taken by Signor Bonghi, 
" a man who unites in himself in an eminent degree 
the qualities of the savant, the patriot, and the states- 
man, and whose acceptance of office was hailed 
with the greatest pleasure by Mr. Whitley and by 
all who had the future of the Exhibition at heart, as 
boding well for the success of the great enterprise." 

Signor Bonghi's first official act was to address 
to the President of the Ministry (Signor signor 
Crispi), "the supreme guardian of the eco- ^°^^-^^- 
nomic interests of our country," a memorial setting 

* Mr. Whitley's most active and influential co-operators in this city 
were Messrs. Granet, Brown and Co. 



136 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

forth the aims and advantages of the Exhibition, 
detaihng the preparatory progress which had already 
been made by its organisers, and praying the King's 
Grovernment — 

"1. To grant fuller moral support to the Exhibition, and to 
address a circular on the subject to the Chambers of Commerce. 

" 2. To grant to the exhibitors, in addition to the usual reduced 
railway rates, the free carriage by sea of the articles sent to the 
Exhibition, or returned from it, and to charter vessels for that 
purpose from the Italian ports to London and vice versa. 

" 3. To accord the benefit of ' temporary exportation' to articles 
seiit to the Italian Exhibition in London, so that those sent back 
to Italy unsold may be readmitted free of duty. 

"4k To allow one or more employes of the Foreign Office to 
assist temporarily the Central Committee of the Exhibition in the 
administrative labours necessary for its organisation." 

The Premier at once rephed to Signor Bonghi, 
Mr. Whitley assiiring him of his hvehest personal in- 
at Rome, ^q^q^j^ in the success of the enterprise, and 
promising to do his utmost to satisfy the wishes of 
the Committee; while to Mr. Whitley himself, whom 
he received a few days later, he gave expression to 
similar sentiments. Mr. Whitley referred to the 
most formidable obstacle to the realisation of his 
project, viz., the cost of carrying the goods from 
Italy to London, reminding the Premier that he 
had endeavoured to grant the utmost facilities to 
exhibitors. He therefore trusted that the Grovern- 
ment would remove the only remaining obstacle by 
granting exhibitors the free carriage of their goods. 
The Minister replied that, in view of the import- 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 137 

ance of the Exhibition, the Government would grant 
all the facilities in its power. Mr. Whitley then 
called on the Ministers of Agriculture, Industry, 
and Commerce, of Marine, and of Public Instruc- 
tion. To the Minister of Marine he applied for the 
loan of the models of the Italian men-of-war, which 
had been so much admired at the Liverpool Exhibi- 
tion ; while of the head of the last-named depart- 
ment he asked that some of the chefs d'oeuvre of 
modern Italian art, belonging to the State, might 
be sent to London. 

As the result of an interview which Sign or Bonghi 
had with Signer Crispi, a Cabinet Council 

Government 

met to consider the steps which should be support to 

,1 ,, • . r l^ -I • Exhibitors. 

taken "m view oi the urgency and im- 
portance of the case;" and of this Cabinet meeting^ 
the upshot was the immediate issue of a Govern- 
ment circular (signed by Signer Grimaldi, Minister 
of Industry and Commerce) to the Presidents of all 
the Chambers of Commerce in the Kingdom, urging 
upon them the importance of the proposed Exhibition 
in London, to which the Government, after full con- 
sideration, had decided to lend, not only its moral, 
but also its material support, to the extent of grant- 
ing reduced railway freights and of placing a vessel 
for transport purposes at the disposal of exhibitors.* 

* In this circular the Minister wrote : — 

" After mature dehberation the Government laas come to the conclu- 
sion that the fact of an exclusively Italian Exhibition being held in 
London constitutes an exceptionally favourable opportunity for causing 
our agricultural, industrial, and artistic products to become better known 



138 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

It is needless to say that this Circular, backed 
up as it was by similar appeals from the Eoman 
Committee, as well as from all the district Com- 
mittees and Chambers of Commerce, produced the 
desired effect, and that applications for space 
soon began to pour into London. The Eoman 
Chamber voted funds towards the expenses of exhi- 
bitors from its province, and several other Chambers 
followed its example. Steps were also taken to stir 

and more generally appreciated, not only in tlie vast English market, 
but also in the markets of other States which draw their supplies from 
the great emporium of the United Kingdom. The Government considers 
that the opportuneness of this Exhibition is farther illustrated by the 
fact that, since 1862, that is, for more than a quarter of a century, Italy 
has not had occasion to make a complete display of her products in 
London, and to make known the progress she has achieved during this 
long lapse of time. 

" Having regard to these special circumstances, the Government has 
decided to grant its moral support to the Italian Exhibition in London. 
Consequently I invite the Chambers of Commerce to add their efforts to 
those of the committees constituted for the purpose, and to take such 
steps as may be necessary to ensure Italy's being worthily represented at 
the said Exhibition. 

" Whilst leaving to the Chambers of Commerce and to the committees 
the task of ordering the participation of exhibitors in such manner as 
they may deem best, I consider it my duty to urge the former to see that 
the Exhibition be limited to those products which occupy, or which 
might occupy, if better known, an important position in our international 
trade, and which may therefore reflect credit on our country at the 
London Exhibition. Preference should be given to our principal agrarian 
products, to the products of the numerous artistic industries, to those of 
the silk industry, and to others which fulfil the above-stated conditions. 

'• Further, I have much pleasure in intimating to the Chambers of 
Commerce that, with a view to facilitating the participation of our 
manufacturers in the Exhibition, the Government has decided to grant, 
in addition to the ordinary reduction of railway rates, the free carriage 
from the national ports to London of goods sent to the said Exhibition, 
availing itself for that purpose of a State vessel, which, for independent 
reasons, will have to proceed in that direction about the time of the 
. opening of the Exhibition." 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 139 

up Southern Italy, which had shown more indif- 
ference to the project than the North. At the 
same time Mr. Whitley again set out from Eome 
on his proselytising mission through the chief cities 
of the Peninsula, addressing meetings and forming 
committees at Florence, Venice (where Sir Henry 
Layard accepted the honorary Presidency of the 
Committee for the Venetian provinces), and at 
Turin, where he delivered a speech in Italian that 
was received with great applause.* 

* In the course of this speech, Mr. "Whitley said : — " My feelings of' 
admiration and enthusiasm for this glorious country are not of recent 
date, and if I can achieve success in an enterprise which I consider noble 
in its aims, if I am permitted to add one atom to the greatness of this 
Italy I love, I shall consider myself fully rewarded by a shake of the hand, 
by a word of approval from an Italian. Seventeen times I have come to 
Italy, and seventeen times I have been obliged to leave it, because my duties 
called me elsewhere. But when the Italian Exhibition shall have proved 
itself to be a brilliant success, I mean to take a little rest, and I shall come 
and enjoy it in Italy together with my family, because I am in love with 
this country, and my family are also greatly attached to it. Meanwhile I 
have sent my only son to Pisa to attend the lectures of the Agrarian School 
connected with the University in that town. On October 31st last 
your Prime Minister, Signor Crispi, to whom I had addressed a report on 
the subject, showed that he fully understood the great benefits which an 
exclusively Italian Exhibition would procure for his country, by doing me 
the honour of addressing to me a letter full of expressions of sympathy 
and encouragement. When I visited the Capital, I asked for an audience 
of Signor Crispi in order to tender my thanks to him ; and at that inter- 
view I was struck with the breadth of view of the Italian Minister, and 
was enabled to understand why the great Mentor of Germany had pre- 
ferred to confer with him, rather than with any other statesman on political 
matters involving, perhaps, the life or death of thousands of people in 
Europe. We have admired for so many years Italy's noble courage and 
that of her sovereigns. For the sovereigns of Italy the motto, ' Avanti 
Savoia,^ is not only a war-cry ; it is the cry of aU hearts ; it is an 
appeal to the noblest sentiments. Well did the cholera-stricken popula- 
tions of Naples and Busca and the sufferers from the Ischia earthquake 
find this to be true. * Avanti Savoia ' must be the mot cVordre of that 



140 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

One of the chief results of this return-visit of 
Mr. Whitley to the North — otherwise so 

Interview 

•with King rich in success — was the formation at 
Milan of an Artists' Committee, under 
the presidency of the Marquis Visconti-Yenosta, for 
promoting the worthy representation of Italian Art 
in London, while all over the Peninsula the work 
of organisation went rapidly on. Towards the end 
of January Mr. Whitley again returned to Eome, 
where he had the honour of being received by the 
King, who had all along taken the warmest interest 
in his scheme. The audience lasted about an hour, 
and was of the most cordial character on the part 
of His Majesty, who went into all the details of 
the project, and commended Mr. Whitley's initiative, 
which would enable the Italians to uphold the honour 
of their country in England. King Humbert rejoiced 
that his Government had seen its way to lending its 
support to the undertaking, which appeared to him to 
possess all the elements of success, and would serve 
to strengthen the bonds of friendship and sympathy 

pacific invasion wliicli Italy will shortly effect in London. If Bliiclier 
were still among the living, this invasion would be for the famous Marshal 
(who considered our English capital, when he viewed it for the first time 
from London Bridge, a magnificent city to sack) a salutary lesson as to 
Jioiv the English metropolis may be taken by storm 1 If among those 
present there be any one who thinks that the military profession requires 
greater self-sacrifice and entails more fatigue than any other, that it 
involves severer hardships and a more intense strain on one's energies, I 
would at once advise that person to organise an Exhibition — 2^^'^'^ '^^ on'en 
dira des nouvelles ! My fellow-countrymen are desirous to contribute 
towards our success, and I can answer for their sincere cordiality and 
hearty welcome on this interesting and unique occasion in the history of 
the two countries." 




\,Froin a plwtograph by Montauone, FLORENCt. 
H.R.H. THE PRINCl': OF NAPLES. 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 141 

uniting the two dynasties and the two peoples. 
Mr. Whitley, on the other hand, represented to His 
Majesty how it was expected in London that the 
Fine Art Section would prove worthy of the high 
reputation Italy enjoyed in that respect, and he 
therefore begged the King to induce the Government 
to contribute a certain number of works of art to 
that department. In his own name and on behalf 
of his London colleagues, as well as of the Italian 
Committees, he also begged His Majesty to be 
pleased to accej^t the patronage of the Exhibition,, 
adding that he had requested Signer Crispi to 
recommend to His Majesty that the Prince of 
Naples should accept the Honorary Presidency. 

To the former request His Majesty at once gra- 
ciously assented, and to the latter Mr. princeof 
Whitley received the following reply soon HonSa^ 
after his return to London :— President. 

'■' Presidency of the Council op Ministers, 

EoME, February 14, 1888. 

" Sir, — With reference to your request that I should beg His 
Majesty the King, my august Sovereign, to permit one of the 
Eoyal Princes to accept the Honorary Presidency of the Exhibition 
which you are organising, it has been to me a source of great 
pleasure to fulfil this honourable task, and it now affords me 
extreme satisfaction to be able to inform you that His Majesty the 
King, ever anxious to promote and foster all manifestations of the 
new life of Italy — a life of noble work — has been graciously pleased 
to appoint the august person of his son to the position indicated. 

"I have, therefore, the honour to inform you that His Eoyal 
Highness the Prince of Naples is now the Honorary President of 
the Italian Exhibition in London. 



142 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

" The name of the heir to the crown of Italy cannot but be an 
augury of good fortune. 

"Be pleased to accept my warmest wishes for the success of the 
great work to which you are devoting your energies. May it bind 
still closer the ties of friendship and interest which unite Italy to 
your glorious country. " F. Ckispi." 

At the same time King Humbert commanded his 
Secretary, Commendatore Rattazzi, to inform Mr. 
Whitley, in His Majesty's name, that the Italian 
Exhibition would be inaugurated under the auspices 
of his beloved son, and that His Majesty was 
sincerely desirous of its success — a wish which His 
Majesty again repeated on his birthday, a month 
later (March 14th), when the Minister of the King's 
Household telegraphed as follows to Mr. Whitley: — 

" The King commands me to convey his cordial thanks to your- 
self and your colleagues connected with the forthcoming Italian 
Exhibition in London for your affectionate sentiments and good 
wishes on this august anniversary. His Majesty joins in the wish 
that, under the auspices of his beloved son, the Exhibition may 
redound to the honour and advantage of his country, promoting 
the interests of its arts and industries, and drawing ever closer the 
friendly ties which unite us to the great and free English nation." 

On his way home from Rome Mr. Whitley 
Work in succcedcd in organising a Committee of 
London, ^^le Italian Colony in Paris, which has- 
tened to issue an urgent appeal for participation in 
the Exhibition, and everything promised well. " On 
his return to London Mr. Whitley found the work 
in an advanced state, thanks chiefly to the activity 



TBE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 143 

displayed by the Italian Chamber of Commerce and 
•by the various Commissions appointed by it, all of 
which discharged in the most praiseworthy manner 
the trust confided to them. He now resumed his 
labours at the Exhibition, and devoted himself to 
them with the most unsparing vigour. He had to 
take the initiative in every measure, superintending 
everything and everybody, occupying himself with 
the minutest particulars, and making sure that his 
orders were carried out as regards the new construc- 
tions and the embellishment of the buildings and 
gardens. By these improvements (which had been 
rendered necessary by the increasing demands for 
space) the Executive Council intended to express its 
acknowledgment of the excellent reception accorded 
to Mr. Whitley in Italy. Mr. Whitley had, more- 
over, to carry on an immense amount of corre- 
spondence ; and to provide that all should proceed 
in perfect order and be ready for the day of the 
opening. To these duties he devoted himself for 
several months without intermission, often remaining 
at his work seventeen hours out of the twenty-four." 
In view of the special concessions made by the 
Italian Government, applications came 

n • -I 1 ii/iim/r Exhibitors 

nowmg m to such an extent that Mr. and 
Whitley, after due consideration, deter- ^^^^^^*^- 
mined to erect two new buildings entailing heavy 
extra outlay. But the support granted by the King 
of Italy, the Prince of Naples, and the Ministry, 
with the generous encouragement Mr. Whitley had 



Ui NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

received from them, made him determined to show 
that he and his colleagues were worthy of it ; 
and as a consequence of this decision the time 
fixed for the acceptance of applications for space 
was again extended. Great disappointment was 
caused in London by the objection, which had 
been raised in Eome by the Minister of Public 
Instruction, to lending the Exhibition any works of 
art from the National Galleries ; but, on the repeated 
representation of Signer Bonghi and Mr. Whitley, 
this objection was overruled by the new Minister 
(Signor Boselli), who came into office about this 
time, and who promised that certain modern pictures 
belonging to the Crown and to the State would be 
sent to the Exhibition. 

Other difficulties, which at iirst threatened to 
Entering havc a disastrous effect on the preparations, 
port, cropped up in connection with the trans- 
port of exhibits from Italy in the vessel (the steamer 
Plata) which had been appointed by the Italian 
Government to start from Venice on a certain date, 
and to call for further freights at various ports all 
round the Peninsula up to Genoa, where 900 tons 
alone had to be shipped.* The Plata proving 

* The Plata carried with her a mechanical engineer and three workmen 
sent by the Ministry of Marine to install the models of the Italian Navy, 
six workmen sent by some of the exhibitors to look after their goods, the 
delegate of the Central Committee, Signor P. F. Volprignano, and the 
Government Commissary, Lieutenant Groglia. 

On arriving at the Victoria Docks she had on board 3,542 cases, be- 
longing to 858 exhibitors. Among these may be mentioned 75 cases of 
models sent by the Ministries of War and Marine, 60 cases sent by the J 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 145 

insufficient to bring all the exhibits with her, the 
Italian Government generously chartered the English 
steamer Glenavon, which happened to be lying at 
Genoa, so as thus to prevent the Exhibition prepara- 
tions from falling out of gear, and in due time both 
vessels reached London. The Plata was at once 
boarded by Mr. Whitley, by the President and 
several members of the Italian Chamber of Com- 
merce, and by the Chief of the Italian Staff at the 
Exhibition, in order to examine the state of the 
cargo. Everything was found to be in perfect order, 
and great was the satisfaction of all on board this 

Ministry of Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce, and 15 cases of pictures 
sent by the Ministry of Public Instruction from the National Gallery of 
Modern Art in Eome. 

The cases had been shipped at the several ports in the following pro- 
portions : at Venice, 623 cases belonging to 101 exhibitors, containing 
chiefly furniture and glass ware ; at Bari, 48 cases belonging to 25 
exhibitors of wines, oils, and minerals ; at Catania, 63 cases belonging to 
64 exhibitors of wines, oils, and minerals ; at Messina, 44 cases belonging 
to 15 exhibitors of wines, oils, and minerals; Naples (including Eome), 
1,115 cases belonging to 397 exhibitors, containing works of art, industrial 
exhibits, wines, oils, &c. ; at Genoa (including Piedmont and Milan), 656 
cases belonging to 176 exhibitors, containing works of art, industrial 
exhibits, &c. 

The largest case, and the most troublesome to ship, was a case 3'76 
metres by 3, and weighing about four tons, containing the plaster cast 
of the statue, by the sculptor Signor Ferrari of Eome, placed last year 
on the monument erected to Victor Emanuel in Venice, and representing 
" Venice in 1849." 

The Gl6navon,a\a.rge steamer of 1,936 tons,took on board at Genoa 1,809 
cases, weighing 718 tons, and arrived in the LondonDocksthe 24th of April. 

The total freight of both vessels was made up of 5,351 cases, despatched 
irom Italy by sea. 

If to these be added the large amount of goods sent by exhibitors who 
did not wish to avail themselves of the Government transports, or who 
sent goods daily from France and Italy during the course of the Exhibi- 
tion, some idea may be formed of the number and variety of the exhibits* 

10 



146 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

vessel that had conveyed to London so rich a 
harvest of Italy's industrial and artistic activity, 
which was to reveal to the British public the 
economic regeneration undergone by the Peninsula 
during the last quarter of a century. Mr. Whitley 
invited those present to drink to the health of King 
Humbert and the success of the forthcoming Exhi- 
bition. 

But his initial difficulties were not yet over. For 
further vexations arose from disputes with refer- 
ence to the carriage of the goods from the docks 
to the Exhibition, the exhibitors proving most 
exacting in their demands, as v/ell as in connection 
with the customs question. But at last Mr. 
Whitley, by dint of further sacrifices and great 
efforts, succeeded in towing into the still, deep 
water of his own harbour the vessel which, just at 
the end of her voyage, had threatened to strand and 
break up at the entrance bar. It was little less than 
a miracle, or, at least, a masterpiece, of human 
energy, that within the short period of five months 
he had organised the Italian Exhibition and brought 
it already to this pitch of success, overcoming oppo- 
sition of all kinds and making his own wish and will 
the chief instruments of his triumph. The date 
for opening the Exhibition had been fixed for the 
1st of May, and the only wonder Was that it was 
ready for inauguration by the Lord Mayor of London 
twelve days later.* 

=i= Three days before the opening ceremony Mr. Whitley had requested 




> -I 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 147 

As we have already seen, King Humbert had 
promised to Mr. Whitley that his son and ^ ^i^^er dis- 
heir- apparent, the Prince of Naples, would appointment. 
come to London to open the Exhibition ; and the 
visit of His Eoyal Highness was looked forward to 
with much pleasure by all loyal Englishmen who 
foresaw the opportunity that would thus be given 
them of testifying their appreciation of the cordial 
reception which had been accorded to their own 
Queen, on the occasion of Her Majesty's recent 
residence at Florence. Unfortunately, however, 
unforeseen circumstances had arisen to prevent the 
Prince of Naples from carrying out the commission 
which had been assigned him by his royal father — 
to the very great disappointment of the exhibitors, 

Mr. Artliur Carey to aid in getting the exhibits into presentable orderj 
with the happy result that Mr. Carey succeeded in working marvels 
during the last three days and three nights. But Mr. Whitley had also 
been most ably seconded by his chief lieutenants in the work of prepara* 
tion, and on this subject the Journal of the Italian Chamber of Com- 
merce wrote : — " And since what had to be said of the Chamber in this 
pubhcation has been said, we may be allowed to thank publicly, in its 
name and in the name of our country, those able and energetic gentlemen 
who afforded Italy this splendid opportunity of making a suitable dis]play 
in this country, and more particularly to thank their representative, Mr. 
Whitley. . . . And, together with him, the Chamber may be allowed to hold 
up k) the gratitude of the Italians all those who, under his orders, laboured 
with the utmost zeal for the success of the great project. More particu- 
larly we would name Mr. Applin, secretary of the Association ; Mr. 
Pickard ; Mr. Cutler, architect of the Exhibition ; Mr. Bruce, director of 
the Industrial section ; Mr. Martin, director of the Artistic section ; Mr. 
CoUiver, chief of the English office ; and Signer Ambrosi, chief of the 
Italian office. They, too, had long and ardiious labours to accomplish, 
and our country should remember that their co-operation contributed not 
a little to secure for it those advantages which have accrued from the 
Exhibition." 



l4a NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

as well as of the Executive Council and of tlie 
London Committee, who, at a very considerable 
cost, had already made all the necessary arrange-- 
ments for the fitting reception of the Italian Prince. 
His place, however, was readily accepted by the first 
citizen of London (Sir Polydore de Keyser), who 
also promised to confer additional significance and 
dignity on the opening ceremony by coming to it in 
state, and thus consecrating this additional bond of 
amity between Young Italy and Old England. 

The very sun smiled on this friendship, for the 
Opening wcather on the opening day (Saturday, 
Ceremony. i2th of May) was worthy of Italy itself. Eor 
the purposes of the ceremony a large marquee had 
been erected at the north-western extremity of the 
main building, with sitting accommodation for 2,000 
pei*sons. The dais for the speakers, the distinguished 
visitors, and the orchestra was covered with crimson 
carpet and hung with a red and white striped 
canopy ; while from the roof of the marquee de- 
pended festoons and flags, the red, white, and 
green of Italy alternating with the Union Jack. 
By the opening hour this marquee contained as 
many people as could possibly manage to get inside, 
every seat having been long occupied, and all the 
gangways and approaches being blocked by a dense 
crowd of those who could only stand and wait* 
Indeed, so great was the press that it was with 
difficulty that a passage could be made for the 
progress of the Lord Mayor's procession when it 



THE ITAIjIAN exhibition. 149 

arrived some minutes later. The rear was occupied 
by the orchestra formed by the mihtary bands. 
Among those present were Mr. Whitley, the Director- 
General of the Exhibition ; Colonel J. T. North ; 
Cav. Bonacina, President of the London Committee ; 
Commendatore Catalani, the Italian Charge d' Affaires, 
who had been ordered to attend as the Special Com- 
missary of King Humbert's Government, with a 
suite of seven members of the Italian Embassy ; the 
Spanish Ambassador, the Swedish Minister, the 
Hawaiian Minister, the Portuguese Minister, Baron. 
Heath, Consul-General of Italy, Sir Algernon and 
Lady Borthwick, Lord and Lady Walsingham, Lord 
Windsor, the Earl and Countess De la Warr, Sir 
Julian and Lady Goldsmid, Lady Clanwilliam, 
Ladies Edeline and Mary Sackville, Lady Eliza- 
beth Meade, Lord Greenock, Sir John Heron- 
Maxwell, Lord Aberdare, Lieutenant-General Sir 
Michael Biddulph, Lord Churchill, Sir John 
Dorington, Lord Esher, Lord Lewisham, M.P., 
Sir Douglas Galton, Sir Victor Houlton, Sir W. 
Guyer Hunter, M.P., Major-General G. E. Moncrieff, 
Sir Sydney Waterlow, Sir Samuel Wilson, M.P., 
Lord A. Hill, M.P., Mr. Stack, M.P., Mr. E. 
Harrington, M.P., Mr. 0. Morgan, M.P., Mr. 
Henniker Heaton, M.P., Mr. Broadhurst, M.P., 
Dr. Tyndal Eobertson, M.P., Sir William Houlds- 
worth, M.P., and Mr. S. Montagu, M.P. Dele- 
gates from many of the large Italian cities were 
also present. The capital, for example, was repre- 



150 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON, 

sented by Commendatore Euggero Bonghi, Presidenc 
of the Eome Committee, and Signer Guglielmo 
Grant ; Milan by Cav. E. de Angeli ; Venice by Sir 
Henry Layard; Naples by Professor Tedesoo, and 
Turin by Cav, Palestrino. 

A guard of honour, consisting of 450 of the Tower 
Hamlets Eoyal Engineers, under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Sir Alfred Kirby, was drawn up before the main 
entrance of the Exhibition, and along the line of 
progress to the marquee. A flourish of trumpets 
announced the arrival of the Lord Mayor, who was 
accompanied by the Lady Mayoress, and preceded 
by the sheriffs, the deputy- sheriffs, and the sword 
and mace-bearers, all in their robes and insignia of 
office. The Lord Mayor was received at the main 
entrance by Mr. Whitley, Colonel J. T. North, 
Commendatore Euggero Bonghi, and other members 
of the Executive and of the Eeception Committees. 
His appearance in the marquee was greeted with 
loud cheers, the three united bands striking up 
" God Save the Queen." Commendatore Bonghi, 
formerly Italian Minister of Instruction, who had 
been sent by the Italian Government as Special 
Commissioner to the opening ceremony, presented 
to the Lord Mayor the following letter of introduc- 
tion from Signer Crispi, the Prime Minister of 
Italy : — 

" Eome, Mcnj 8, 1888. 
" My Lord, — As your Lordship has kindly accepted the office of 
inaugurating the Italian Exhibition in London, thereby evincing 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. . 151 

your sympatby for Italy, I have given these few lines introducing 
Ruggero Bonghi, the worthy representative of the culture and of 
the intellectual activity of our country. I need not, my Lord, 
inform you with how much talent and learning Signor Bonghi pro- 
motes the cause and the studies to which he is devoted. Both as a 
philosopher, a literary man, an archaeologist, a writer, and a states- 
man, he has attained a reputation which has for many years 
spread beyond the borders of his native country. I need only say 
that these qualities give him a special title to my introduction of 
him to your Lordship in his capacity of President of the Eoman 
Executive Committee of the Italian Exhibition in London, inas- 
much as he has well deserved the confidence of the promoters of 
this Exhibition, and of all those who, like your Lordship, are 
favourable to its success and to its aims. 

" As a friend of the Eoyal Family of Italy, Signor Bonghi, who 
is also a member of our Parliament, will tell you how much 
our august Sovereign regrets that his Eoyal Highness Prince 
Victor Emanuel, in consequence of previous engagements, is 
unable to attend the solemn oper)ii3g of the Exhibition which is 
under his high patronage. The King's Government has given 
Signor Bonghi the charge of bringing you this message, as the 
Ministers of the Government itself, owing to their official engage- 
ments, are likewise prevented from taking part in this festive 
ceremony. 

" For my own part, I was from earliest youth an admirer of 
England, and dreamed that the free institutions which are the 
boast of your country should be extended to mine. 

" I can only add that I envy Signor Bonghi the good fortune 
he will have in finding himself in the midst of the glorious nation 
which I, as an exile, learned to love with lasting affection during 
those vicissitudes which opened a way to the redemption of Italy. 
It would, in fact, have been for me the highest satisfaction to 
attend an Exhibition of Italian activity in England, the country 
which is itself the exemplification of those virtues which make 
work the source of the greatness of nations. 

^' While I convey to your Lordship the expression of my personal 



152 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

regret in this respect, I beg you, my Lord, to accept the expression 
of my high consideration, F. Oeispi. 

" To The Eight Honoueable 

" The Lord Mayor of London." 

After the reading of this letter, which was greeted 
with loud cheers, Mr. Whitley said :— 

"My Lord Mayor, My Lords, Ladies and Gentlemen, — In in- 
viting yon, my Lord Mayor, to declare this Exhibition duly opened, 
I desire briefly to remind your Lordship that this is the second 
National Exhibition held within these buildings and grounds. 

" Civilisation is said to travel from the East to the West; but 
in our case we have reversed the direction. From the Wild West 
of America we turn to the Mediterranean, from the New World to 
Historic Italy. We hope, however, that those who visit the first 
exclusively Italian Exhibition held beyond the boundaries of the 
Peninsula will find that it is not a step backward we have taken, 
but a leap upward and onward. 

" Exhibitions like this, representing on an extensive scale and in 
a vivid and picturesque manner the arts, industries, and resources 
of friendly and allied nationalities, must, I respectfully submit to 
your Lordship, be productive of advantage not only to the nations 
which here offer to the view choice examples of their life and pro- 
ducts, but must also possess no little interest and afford no slight 
instruction for the inhabitants of Great Britain, who here find, 
brought to their doors the means of observing what is being done 
among the most admirably gifted of their contemporaries. 

" Long ago there was an invasion of Great Britain by Italy, and 
we still find traces of the arts of Imperial Eome in the tesselated 
pavements, the sculptures, stones, and coins which the ploughman 
or the builder turns up from time to time in our soil. Now there 
is a new and more peaceful and beneficent Italian invasion, and, 
speaking for myself, I rejoice at being the means of organising such 
invasions, whether of our American cousins or of our Italian 
9,Uies. ... 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 153 

" Lest any of our friends, followers perhaps of the noble profes- 
sion of arms, should imagine that a peaceful inroad like this can 
be accomplished without hardships, without long watches in the 
night, marches, countermarches, and assaults at arms in the day, I 
invite that doubter [to try the experiment of organising such an 
artistic and industrial enterprise as this. Let him join me in in- 
stituting a similar National Exhibition in London next year, say a 
German Ausstellung, as a pendant to the International Exposition 
now being arranged in Paris by our neighbours, the French. He 
will, I imagine, find it no child's play to combine the varied 
essentials which we have endeavoured, my Lord Mayor, to bring 
together here in order to afford to your Lordship, and the millions 
whom you represent, a true picture of the many-hued, active, and 
yet reposeful life of a great nation. We invite you to cast a glimpse 
from these northern latitudes into 

" ' The garden of the world, the home 
Of all art yields, and nature can decree. ' 

"It is not for me to enter into a description of that which we 
here present, and shall present, to your inspection. 
" Judge us by our works, and not by our words." ... 

The Director-General's speech was followed by 
one from Cavalier e Bonacina, President of the Italian 
Chamber of Commerce in London, who hoped that 
the Exhibition would help to indicate the progress 
made by Italy during the time that had elapsed since 
she was raised to the rank of a free, independent, 
and united nation ; while Signor Bonghi, who next 
addressed the assemblage, elicited much applause 
by expressing the hope that as England, more than 
any other nation, had always aided Italians in their 
political regeneration, so she would now also help for^ 



154 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

ward their economical revival in every way. After 
referring to the universal regret which had been 
caused by the inability of the Prince of Naples to 
come and open the Exhibition, and the great plea- 
sure it had given him to act as the substitute of His 
Eoyal Highness, the Lord Mayor said :— 



" I am convinced tliat this Exhibition will prove not only a very 
great attraction during the coming season in London, but a valuable 
means of infusing increased interest in the arts, sciences, and 
manufactures which are associated with the realm of Italy. You 
illustrate the past by giving us representations of those grand edifices 
and scenes which have played their part in the history of the world, 
both in Pagan and Christian periods, and you interest us by showing 
us a magnificent collection of what Italy can produce in the way of 
painting and sculpture, and by exhibiting in working array those 
industries which make Italy so famous. With all these advantages, 
I cannot but predict a great success for your Exhibition ; and with 
every good wish for its prosperity, and for the future of the Kingdom 
of Italy and its august rulers, I now declare the Italian Exhibition 
in London open." 



Cheers and evvivas on every side greeted the Lord 
Mayor's words, while the massed bands struck up 
the national anthem of Italy ; this again was 
the keynote of a concert which completed the 
opening ceremony, and included an inaugural ode 
(the words by Antonio Ghislanzoni) dedicated 
to the Prince of Naples by its composer, the 
"maestro" Signer Tito Mattel, who also directed 
on this occasion. Much applause was evoked by 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. ■ 155 

the solo rendering of this hymn hy Madame Nordica, 
who was supported by a chorus of two hundred 
voices with a full orchestra. Altogether the cere- 
mony of opening the Italian Exhibition was as 
enthusiastic as imposing.* 

In addressing the Lord Mayor, Mr. Whitley had 
very properly refrained from '' entering Exhibition 
into a description of what we here pre- ^^^i^™^^- 
sent to your inspection," preferring to be judged by 
his works rather than by his words. But the task 
of this description now devolves upon us. What did 
this Italian Exhibition contain as the result of the 
brief but strenuous period of his preparatory labours ? 



* Immediately after the ceremony Signer Bonghi and Mr. Whitley sent 
off telegrams to the Italian Premier, and other of his ministerial col- 
leagues. To Signor Crispi, Bonghi telegraphed : " Exhibition opened to- 
day is a great success ; the manifestation of sympathy by the English 
people for Italy is especially gratifying and cordial. , . . The King has 
just reason to be gratified at having graciously assented to the Crown 
Prince becoming President of the Exhibition. One feels happy here at 
being an Italian. In no other country, and on no other occasion, have I 
felt myself less a stranger. The assured success of this Exhibition is con- 
vincing proof of your own political insight in giving it your support." To 
Signor Crispi, Mr. Whitley also wired that " the opening ceremony 
has been most imposing, and is admitted by all to have been unique 
in character ; " and to the Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, that 
" thanks to the generous support of the Italian Government, the Exhibi- 
tion was to-day proclaimed by universal consent a brilliant success ; " and 
to the Minister of Marine, that " the Italian Exhibition in London is al- 
ready a great victory." To Mr. Whitley, on the other hand, the Minister 
of Public Instruction (Signor Boselli) replied : — "The minds and hearts 
of the Italians turn to-day with gratitude towards the promoters and ex- 
hibitors whose admirable eifortsliave added fresh laurels to Italian arts 
and industries." And the Minister of Marine : — " Whilst congratulating 
you on the auspicious opening of the Exhibition, I add my good wishes 
for its complete success." 



156 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON, 

In amplifying and adding to the buildings and 
grounds of the American Exhibition, so as 

Classifica- 
tion of to render them in every way suitable for 

the second in the series of National 
Life-Pictures, a considerable sum of money had 
to be expended. Like its predecessor, the Italian 
Exhibition was chiefly contained in one large building 
1,140 feet long by 120 feet broad, and this was sup- 
plemented by two large new Annexes in the Western 
Gardens. In the various rooms and spaces of these 
several buildings were set forth and arrayed the 
various products of Italian art and industry sent to 
London, and these had been classified as follows :— 

Class I. — Vegetable Products. — Cereals, Forage, Seeds, Bulbs, 
Plants, Fresh, and Dried Fruits, Flour, Semolina, and Natural 
Manufactured Agricultural Produce. 

Class II. — Farm and Dairy Produce and Preserved Food. — Butter, 
Cheese, Eggs, Honey, and Wax. Chocolate, Pastry, Sweets, 
Confectionery, Macaroni, and Vermicelli. Lard, Salted Meats, 
Salami, Sausages, Tomato Sauce, and other Comestibles. Pre- 
served Fish, Tunny, Eels, Oysters, &c. Ices. 

Class III. — Wines, Liqueurs, and other Beverages. Oils.— OHyb 
Oil, Wines Eed, White, and Sparkling, Vermouth, Brandies, Bitters 
and Liqueurs of different qualities. Essences, Vinegar, Syrups, 
Liquorice Juice, Beer, Mineral and Aerated Waters. 

Class IV. — Minerals and Mineralogy. — Asphalt, Bitumen, As- 
bestos and Asbestos Manufactures, Yarn, Cloth, &c., Alabaster, 
and Marbles of various descriptions and colours. Lithographic 
Stones, &c. ; Coal, Anthracite, Plumbago, Iron, Copper, Ore, &c. ; 
Wrought and Cast Iron, Bronze Bells and Bronze Statuary, &c. 

Class V. — Mechanical Engineering, Machinery, and Electricity. — 
Pumps, Gas Motors, Ship and Balloon Propellers, Photographic 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 157 

Apparatus, Weighing Machines, Tools, Filters, Safes, &c., Fire 
Escapes, Surgical Instruments and Agricultural Appliances, and 
Sundry Models and Drawings. 

Class VI. — Colonial and Chemical Products. Processes connected 
ivith Applied Chemistry. Drugs. — Alcohol, Albumen, Glue, Dyes, 
Colours, Essences, Citric and Tartaric Acids, Pharmaceutical 
Products, Mineral Waters, Scented Oils and Perfumery, Candles, 
Soaps, Skins, Leather, &c. 

Class VII. — Textile Products and Fabrics. — Hemp, Flax, Horse- 
Hair, Silk, Eaw and Thrown, Silk manufactured Goods, Satins, 
Velvets, Damask, &c. ; Laces, Embroidery, Stuff Goods, hand and 
machine made. 

Class VIII. — Paper, Printing, Bookbinding, do. — Printing, Writing 
and Packing Paper, Hand and Machine-made Paper and Envelopes, 
white and tinted. Books and Typographic Works, Engravings, 
Lithography, Oleography, Chromotype, &c., Ink and Pencils, Models 
and Specimens, &c. 

Class IX. — Furniture, Decoration, Carriages. -r-Kxi and Commer^ 
cial Furniture, Ancient and Modern, Carved and Inlaid, &c. ; 
Drawing-room, Dining-room, and Bedroom complete suites in 
Italian Eenaissance, Byzantine, "Certosino," "Barocco," Arabian 
and other styles, TapestrieSj Marble, Bronze and Wood Clocks, 
Artistic ChandelierSj Lamps and Bronzes, Groups and Statuettes, 
Wood, Marble, and Bronze Pier Glasses, Looking Glasses, Mirrors, 
Artificial Flowers, Wrought Iron and other Artistic Articles, Basket, 
Straw, and Bamboo Work. 

Class X. — -Artistic Industries, including Porcelain, Olass, Mosaics, 
Ceramics, Jewellery, <&c. — Artistic Jewellery, Etruscan, Byzan- 
tine, Koman, Pompeian and modern Gold and Silver Filigree^ 
Coral and Engraved Coral— Lava, Tortoise Shell, Mother of Pearl, 
Eoman and Venetian Pearls, Venetian Laces, ancient and modern, 
plain and polychrome. Wood, carved and sculptured — (Terra Cottas), 
Porcelains, Earthenware, Glass Work and Venetian Glass — Ala- 
baster, White and Coloured Marble — Decorative Statues, Columns, 
Bas Beliefs and Groups — Eoman, Venetian, and Florentine Mosaics 
— Curiosities. 



158 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Class XI. — Manufactures not othenuise classified. — Millinery, 
Haberdashery, Hosiery — Horn, Ivory, and Vegetable Buttons of all 
kinds — Felt, Straw, and Silk Hats, Boots, Shoes, and Gaiters, Patent 
and other Leathers — Carpet, Stable, and other Brooms and Brushes 
— Tuscany Straw and Plait and Fancy Straw Goods — Barometers, 
Thermometers, and Optical and Scientific Instruments and Appa- 
ratus — Dentistry, Cork, Eaw and Cut — -Bricks and Tiles — -New 
Inventions. 

Class XII. — Products of the Sea, Naval Architecture, Fisheries. 

Class 'Klll.^-Education, Italian Institutions. — Books, Pamphlets, 
Monographies, Typographical Works, Manuscripts, Statistics- 
Heraldry— Educational and Didactic Books — Maps, Plans, Prints, 
and Drawings — School Boards and Fittings. 

Class XIV. — -Music and Musical Instruments. 

Class XV.— Fine Arts — Sculpture, Oil Paintings, Water-colour 
Drawings, Etchings and Engravings, Gouaches, Works in Black 
and White, Architecture, Carvings, Archaeology, Photographs, and 
Chromo-lithography. 

The Fine Art Section figures last on the above 

Fine Art ^i^^j ^^"^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ Speedily perceived 
Section, -j^j^g^j^ j^ would naturally enough form one 

of the chief attractions of the Exhibition, and 

therefore the Executive Council had assigned to it 

twenty-two rooms on the left of the main building 

near the grand entrance. Of the contents of these 

rooms, and the impression they made on all who saw 

them, we think we cannot preserve the record better 

than by quoting the following remarks from the 

accomplished pen of Mr. T. Carew Martin, who 

was Chief of this Department in the Exhibition : — ■ 

"A more than ordinary interest attaches to the collection of 
modern Italian Pictures and Sculptures forming the Fine Art 



^HE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 159 

Section of the present Exhibition, Not only does it constitute tlie 
most important display of Italian art ever made in this country, 
but, in the opinion of experts, it may be considered the most 
representative collection of works of Modern Italian art brought 
together beyond the Alps, surpassing in this respect the Exhibitions 
held of late years in Paris, Vienna, Munich, and Antwerp. This 
result may be traced entirely to the admirable system organised by 
the Director- General, Mr. John K. Whitley, and by the Chief 
Commissioner in Italy, Cav. Guglielmo Grant, who, with the aid of 
the Central Committee in Eome and a series of Sub-Committees at 
Turin, Milan, Naples, Venice, Florence, Palermo, Genoa, Modena, 
and Paris, were thus enabled to obtain from each of these important 
centres a representative collection of pictures and sculpture, each 
Committee being entrusted with the selection of those works best 
fitted in their opinion to worthily fill the space severally allotted 
them ; these Committees, it may further be mentioned in the case 
of Kome, Florence, Turin, Milan, and Naples, being represented at 
the Exhibition, by special delegates on the Hanging Committee, 

"Each Committee having thus separately assisted in the forma- 
tion of the general collection, the division into sections according 
to cities has, as far as possible, been observed ; for Italy, though 
now politically united, has still retained somewhat of the traditions 
of her glorious past when her artists were classified into almost as 
many schools as there were great cities. Though nowadays the 
differences in the schools of modern Italian art are not marked 
with such distinctness as in the past, yet, owing to the system of 
division into cities above alluded to, the observant visitor will be 
able to realise in the present collection the curious divergences 
existing between the traditions and methods of the northern schools 
and those of the souths If from no other point of viewj the present 
Exhibition offers this eleinent of interest, that it affords a brilliant 
proof of the vitality of the art of modern Italy, too long allowed 
to languish under the disturbing influences of political disunion,- 
which left but little leisure even to the intellectually-minded to pay 
attention to those more refined influences which essentially require 
an atmosphere of peace and calm to bring to maturity* 



160 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

" To those who love Italy — and all must love the land to which 
,we owe so many of the refinements of modern civilisation — it is 
peculiarly gratifying, in the collection gathered together in the 
present Exhibition, to find ample evidence of the ability of modern 
Italian art to assert its individuality. Such a collection as the 
present, to quote the recently-uttered words of Sir Frederic 
Leighton, ' calls up for us the spectacle of a people developing in 
absolute sincerity and directness the idiosyncrasy of its natural parts, 
and giving us an Art of which the outer form is the very mould and 
vesture of that people's inward spirit.' 

" Temporarily as the present collection is destined to exist, it will 
have served its object if it proves to the world at large how essen- 
tially modern Italian Art is able to stand alone undisturbed by 
those outer influences which, till within a few years, made it but 
the reflex of the art of its neighbours. The plastic and aesthetic 
instinct of the Italians needed but a little careful direction to turn 
it into the right path, a path which in art will always be right 
where it leads in the direction of producing a purely national and 
independent style. Since the dying embers of the old fire flickered 
out at the close of the last century, Italian art has been wavering, 
uncertain what path to take ; now following the dictates of France ; 
now taking those of Germany; now leaning towards the severe 
classicism of the French David ; now inspired by the generous 
impulse given to modern art by the so-called Eomantic school 
headed by Delacroix; now again following the momentarily- 
captivating enthusiasm of Cornelius and Overbeck, again to come 
under the influence of French teaching, the direction in which 
modern Italian art now at length promises to strike out a road for 
itself. 

"To those interested in the story of Art, the successive stages of 
this progress from the beginning of the century are marked by the 
names of artists, some few of whom, like the venerable Bertini, are 
.still living to represent a bygone past. But the interest of Italian 
Art lives in its modern exponents, and though there may be a few 
regretted absentees, the present collection aflbrds an excellent and 
representative display of modern Italian Art, a display such as will 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 161 

not probably for many years be again gathered together on this 
side of the Channel. 

" Commencing with the two works graciously lent to the Exhibi- 
tion from the private gallery at Capodimonte, by His Majesty the 
King of Italy, the noble ' Vittoria Colonna and Michelangelo,' by 
Jacovacci, and the scarcely less characteristic * Charge of Bersa- 
glieri,' by the veteran Cammarano ; the twelve pictures lent by the 
Italian Government from the National Gallery at Eome constitute 
in themselves a summary of modern Italian Art, from the sobriety 
and melancholy pathos of Nono's ' Eefugium Peccatorum,' or 
Calderini's ' Winter Sadness,' to the dazzling brilliancy and 
thoroughly modern spirit which pervades such canvases as Ciardi's 
< Harvest,' Simi's ' Eiflesso,' or Dall' Orto's * Alpine Scenery.' 

" But in addition to this representative collection composed of 
pictures lent by His Majesty the King of Italy, and the Italian 
Government, Italian Art is represented in the remaining galleries 
of the Fine Art Section by more than a thousand other works of 
more or less importance. 

"The qualities of the school of Turin and Genoa are generously 
displayed in the several rooms devoted to the works of their artists, 
among whom the works of Calderini, Gilardi, Stratta, Delleani, will 
immediately be recognised. 

" The modern school of Florence is no less ably represented in 
the works which fill the several rooms allotted to the Florentine 
Committee, Ferroni's pathetic canvas, ' Before the Squall,' if 
not one of his finest works, is at least stamped with his peculiar 
style, one slightly resembling the French Breton. By its side the 
picture contributed by Fattori gives another keynote of the modern 
Florentine school in its other phases, ably represented in this 
collection by the works of Francesco Vinea, 

"The modern Milanese school is represented by a number of most 
characteristic works, sufficient both in quantity and quality to prove 
the marked individuality of the artists of the great northern capital. 
To the English public the works of Morbelli and Segantini should 
prove of no small interest, as the creation of a new school of what 
is nowadays so much misunderstood as ' impressionism.' Whatever 

11 



162 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

may be the criticisms to which the works of these artists are open, 
here at least we have the genuine expression of the painter, the 
' impression ' of the scene which presented itself to his eye as he 
sat down, brush in hand, to transfer to his canvas his impression 
of nature. Approached in the spirit of prejudice which too often 
influences us all in our appreciation of works of Art, it is not 
difficult to imagine that the works displayed in the several rooms 
devoted to the Milanese artists will meet with some degree of 
severe criticism on the part of the English visitors, but, judged 
from the standpoint of genuine Art, these twenty or thirty canvases 
are worthy of much reverence, if only on the score of the genuine 
and unborrowed individuality with which they are stamped. To 
the lovers of the older and less aggressive school the rooms set 
aside to the Milanese, however, offer not a few admirable speci- 
mens in the work of the late lamented Cremona, Armenise, and 
Formis. 

" The rooms adjoining contain chiefly the works of Italians 
residing in London, or the works of English painters representing 
Italian scenes. Miss Clara Montalba's ' St. Mark's ' will be imme- 
diately remarked, as also Mr. Starr's admirable works, and not a few 
other excellent pictures which the exigencies of this brief notice do 
not permit of mentioning. 

" The room adjoining contains chiefly the pictures contributed 
by Italian artists residing in Paris. Among them stand foremost 
the three exquisite pictures by Pasini. A word is due to the con- 
tributions of Kossi, Monteverde, and Pittara. 

" An interesting room is that devoted to the work of the members 
of the Eoman ' Societa in Arte Libertas,' the President of which, 
Giovanni Costa, is represented by three works. 

" The equestrian portrait of the Prince of Naples, by Count 
Eossi-Scotti Lemmo, occupies a post of honour, a similar distinc- 
tion being accorded to the same painter's ' Battle of San Martino.' 
All the other members of the Societa are ably represented : Formilli, 
Onorato Carlandi, the veteran Prof. Castelli, Alessandro Morani, 
Pontecorvo, Cabianca, Eaggio, Pazzini, Enrico Coleman, and Eicci. 

•' An interesting terra-cotta bust of Savonarola by the late 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 168 

lamented sculptor Bastianini (lent by Sir Frederic Leighton, 
Bart., P.E.A.) occupies the centre of the room. 

" In the further portion of the Fine Art Section the Committees 
of Eome, Venice, and Naples are well represented. To the Eoman 
school belongs the admirable portrait on horseback of the King, by 
De Sanctis, who also contributes a charming portrait of the Queen 
Margherita and an interesting historical scene — the presentation to 
his people of the little Prince Emanuele Filiberto. The painters 
Attanasio, Cervi, Vertunni, Zasso, Tiratelli, Erulo Eruli, Baccani, 
and Tancredi are seen at their best. 

" The late lamented Venetian painter, Favretto, is represented by 
three characteristic works lent by Mr. J. S. Forbes. 

" To the Eoman school belongs the important series of pictures 
exhibited in a special room by Prof. Sciuti, whose two large 
classical canvases, one representing the Battle of Imera, a scene 
taken from Herodotus, the other ' The Second Foundation of 
Eome,' a scene taken from Plutarch's Life of Camillus, constitute 
in themselves one of the principal attractions of the present Exhibi- 
tion. 

" The room devoted to the works of the Neapolitan school is 
more than interesting, as here a note of distinct individuality is 
struck, ^n individuality indeed which, from the first revival of 
modern art in Italy, marked the creations of the artists living on 
the classic slopes of Vesuvius. To more than hastily refer to the 
work of Sig. Tedesco, whose Pythagorean allegory worthily occu- 
pies the centre of the room, is beyond the possibilities of the present 
brief notice. The Neapolitan school is, however, in addition well 
represented by artists such as Leto, Altamura, and Denza. 

" In water-colours it must be confessed that the present collection 
is somewhat deficient ; still in the room assigned to their display 
will be found a few admirable works by Calderini, Bompiani, and 
Carlo Ferrari. In the same room the interesting perspective study 
by Prof. Angelini, of St. Peter's, a work which in Eome is regarded 
very highly, deserves particular mention. 

" Of the sculpture it may justljibe said that never before has so 
large and representative a display of Italian Art been presented to 



164 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

the British public. From the noble works of Ettore Ferrari, whose 
statue of ' Ovid ' looks down with placid calm on the visitors 
beneath, flanked by the same artist's group, Cum Sx>artaco jnigiiavit, 
and the fragment of the ' Venezia ' (unfortunately broken in transit) ; 
from the two colossal figures of Eaphael and Michelangelo by the 
late Warrington Wood ; from the graceful and colossal figure of 
the ' Genius of the Arts,' designed by Cencetti, for the fa9ade of the 
National Gallery at Eome, and a striking group of 'Germanicus,' by 
Jerace, down to the clever little statuettes in bronze and marble 
which fill every corner of the gallery, the plastic Art of Italy is 
admirably represented. In a collection so numerous and represen- 
tative as the present, it seems indeed invidious to mention names, but 
no disagreement of opinion can exist as to the masterly character of 
Monteverde's group of ' Jenner,' occupying justly the place of honour 
in the centre of the semicircle which closes the sculpture gallery. 
Eound this are grouped the works of artists, who, like Trabacchi, 
Jerace, Tabacchi, Andreoni, Fantacchiotti, Fabrucci, Altini, Bar- 
bella, and Focardi, worthily represent the modern school of Italian 
sculpture, which, if in some cases it be open to criticism on the 
score of its realism, is redeemed by the classic and noble character 
of such creations as those above referred to, by Ferrari, Jerace, 
and Monteverde. 

" In closing this brief and necessarily imperfect sketch of a 
collection of works of Art numbering more than a thousand 
pictures and over three hundred and fifty sculptures, a word is 
due to those to whose energy, perseverance, and generosity Italy and 
the British public owe so satisfactory a result, the skilful combina- 
tion of intelligence and capital. That a collection of such interest 
should have been gathered together by private initiative speaks 
volumes for the energy and the directing power employed ; some- 
thing more, therefore, than a commonplace expression of praise is 
due to the Director- General and to those whom his judgment has 
appointed to assist him in Italy and in England." 

But this general account of the contents of the 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 165 

Fine Art Section would be incomplete without 
reference to a curious exhibit which was "casa 
added later on. Mr. Eobert Browning, RoberT 
being a member of the Reception Com- drowning-, 
mittee, was invited by Mr. Whitley to inform him 
how he thought he could best obtain a small model 
of the " Casa Guidi," familiar to all readers of 
"Aurora Leigh," and the following was the poet's 
reply : — 

'' 29, De Veee Gardens, 

''June 11, 1888. ' 
" My dear Sir, — I beg to acknowledge, very gratefully, the 
receipt of your letter with its proposal, which touches me deeply. 

" With respect to ' Casa Guida,' I am quite unable to render any 
assistance — that is to say, in obtaining a model of the house itself ; 
nor -do I think that, from its construction, forming as it does an 
angle between two streets, any striking result could be procurable 
that way. But I possess a small carefully-executed oil-painting of 
the interior of the main room precisely as it was left at the time of 
my wife's death. I would not allow a single article in it, great or 
small, to be touched till the artist, Mr. Mignaty, had finished the 
picture. If the exhibition of this would be acceptable, it shall be at 
your service whenever you please to send for it — a trouble I would 
spare you were it not the safer course to entrust it directly to your* 
self rather than deliver it to the servants at the Exhibition, who 
might be uninformed of your wish. 

" Yours very sincerely, 

"Egbert Browning." 



Mr. Whitley accordingly sent his son for the 
precious relic, which excited great interest during 
the whole time it was at the Exhibition. 



166 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

So much, then, in a general way, for the contents 
of the Eine Art Galleries ; and now let 

Principles 

ofciassiflca- US take a similar glance through the 
Industrial Sections of the Exhibition, of 
which we have already given the classification. 
But first of all it may be worth while to point out 
that this classification represented a sort of fusion of 
the systems adopted in the various Exhibitions held 
in England with those which had formed the basis of 
the National Italian Exhibitions of Milan and Turin. 
At these it was considered necessary that Italy 
should be represented in all the manifestations of 
her intellectual, moral, industrial, and artistic life. 
The aim was to furnish the amplest materials for 
judging of the progress made by the nation in every 
department. Hence industries were represented 
which were in a barely inchoate condition, but 
which yet served to show the growing energies 
of the country and the efforts it was making to 
achieve its economic and industrial independence. 
The London Exhibition, on the contrary, was pri- 
marily intended to give an impulse to those industries 
in which the Italians could not only hold their own 
as compared with other nations, but in which they 
had attained a higher degree of perfection. This 
accounted for the non-representation of the more 
elementary manufactures — those devoted to the 
production of rough articles of common use ; as 
also for the absence of manufactures of a higher 
order which had not yet reached a sufficient degree 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 



167 



of perfection to compare favourably with English 
articles of the same kind. In spite of this, how- 
ever, the number of exhibitors was considerable, 
amounting to 1,083 in the Industrial Sections alone.* 
In Classes I. and II. (Yegetable Products and 
Farm and Dairy Products) the visitor industrial 
to the Exhibition found represented in Exhibits, 
its entirety that which is the chief source of 
Italy's wealth — the produce of her fertile soil and 
magnificent climate, and of course macaroni, the 
dish par excellence of the Peninsula, was extensively 
exhibited. But by far the most numerous class of 



* Number of Exhibitors in each Class. 



Description. 



Number 
Exhibitors. 



10 

11 

12 
13 
14 



15 



Vegetable products ... 

Farm and dairy produce and presei'ved food ... 

Wines, liqueurs and other beverages, oils 

Minerals and metallurgy ... 

Mechanical engineering, machinery, electricity... 

Colonial and chemical products ... 

Silk, hemp, linen and textile products 

Paper, printing, bookbinding 

Furniture, decoration, carriages ... 

Artistic industries (porcelain, glass, ruosaics, ceramics, 

jewellery, &c.) 
Manufactures not otherwise classified 
Products of the sea, naval architecture ... 
Education; Itahan institutions ... 

Music and musical instruments 

Miscellaneous 

Total of exhibitors in Industrial Sections 

Fine arts (paintings, sculpture, &e.) 

Total of exhibitors ... 



31 
106 
314 
35 
34 
69 
35 
37 
91 

146 

94 

9 

52 

30 



1,083 
660 



1,743 



168 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

exhibits in this court was that of wine, Hqueurs, 
spirits, tonic bitters, and all the oils peculiar to 
Italy, especially olive oil. The wines exhibited 
embraced all the best-known brands of Italy, in- 
cluding Muscat and Falernian, the Marsala of Sicily, 
which differs considerably, both as to strength and 
flavour, from the Marsala to which we have been 
accustomed in England ; the Lacryma Christi of 
Vesuvius, the Lambrusco of Modena, the Chianti of 
Tuscany, and the less-known wines designated Monte 
Vesuvio, Piedmont, Barbera, and Barolo, all forming 
samples which "riveted the attention" of the jury 
appointed to test their quality by their "brilliant 
and unexpected promise." 

Considering the dearth of mineral wealth in Italy, 
the display in this department was perhaps as good 
as could be expected, though the Peninsula has 
minerals of its own, such as sulphur, mercury, 
asbestos, and marble. As Italy does . not claim, 
like England, to be the ojjicina gentium, it was 
not surprising that mechanical engineering and 
electricity were not largely represented, the total 
number of exhibits being only 46 ; but of these 
several were of a novel character, especially a 
machine for cleansing grain, a machine for rubbing, 
flattening, facing, and polishing iron, a new gas 
motor, and a patent steam-generating machine with 
automatic expansion, models of an automatic 
coupling for railway carriages and waggons, weighing, 
bottling, and stamping machines, a machine for 



TRE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 169 

mounting and polishing eye-glasses, &g.. an electric 
motor for telephones and domestic purposes, an 
automatic railway signalling machine, and appliances 
for the production of sausages, confectionery, &c. 
Of the " Colonial and Chemical Products " perhaps 
the most conspicuous — as it was also the most 
objectionable — feature was formed by the nostrums 
and patent medicines adapted to the "lachrymose 
tempers and rickety frames " of those who might 
prefer Italian poisons and washes to Italian wines ; 
though in the field of " Textile Products and 
Fabrics " the Peninsula did infinitely more justice 
to itself, especially in the matter of its silk manu- 
factures. Naples, Salerno, Bellagio, Turin, Milan, 
Brescia, Como, Piacenza, Rome, Pavia, Chiavari, 
and Messina were all represented, so that the 
exhibits had been gathered from a sufiiciently wide 
area. In speaking of this court, which gave it much 
satisfaction, the jury " endeavoured to give a candid 
opinion alike of the strength and weakness of Italian 
productions in the hope that encouragement and 
warning might be of equal value to those who had 
come so far to exhibit." The number of exhibitors 
in the Lace Section of the Class of Textile Fabrics 
was small, but their exhibits were, without excep- 
tion, worthy of much commendation, considering 
the few years which have elapsed since the revival 
of the lace industry in Italy. " The present Ex- 
hibition," said the jury, "shows the great progress 
made by Italians in all branches of industry, but in 



170 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

none more extraordinarily than the art of lace-makiDg 
in Venice and its islands during the last few years." 

In the production of decorative and artistic 
furniture Italy had enjoyed such a long and well- 
deserved repute that it was natural to find this class 
one of the most prominent in the Exhibition. Much 
of the furniture shown was of a commonplace 
character, and might be regarded as illustrating the 
humbler class of requirements. But other examples 
were real works of art. Some of the furniture 
exhibits were successful reproductions of ancient 
style; some, again, were modern of the moderns. 
It was no wonder that when this court of the 
Exhibition came to be closely criticised by experts, 
the jury could not — 

"Eefrain from expressing our admiration of the exceptional 
enterprise exhibited in the section upon which we have been 
requested to adjudicate. By the making of this display of art 
workmanship in England, Italy must be credited with accom- 
plishing a feat which has never, under like circumstances, been 
achieved in the history of Exhibitions. We need hardly say that 
the main charm of the woodwork in this Exhibition lies in the 
carving, an art in which Italians still retain much, if not all, of 
the marvellous skill of their gifted ancestors. Indeed, the best of 
the modern work shown is that which consists of unaltered copies 
of old models. . . . This we say, whilst according our talented 
fellow- citizens of Italy a hearty welcome, and wishing them every 
success, which they assuredly deserve." 

The artistic industries of Italy are legion, and 
they were represented by 211 different exhibitors, 
prominent among whom were the glass-workers of 






i'C It',--';": 
J If ... t * 




THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 171 

Venice, who were much commended by the jmy for 
their "striking manipulation of varied colours;" 
while of the artistic jewellery, coral work, mosaics, 
and other decorative gold and silver productions the 
jury remarked : — 

"It is with great pleasure we are able to say that a large pro- 
portion show skill, taste, and excellent execiTtion. Many of the 
cases contain specimens of artistic design, producing an effect of 
beauty and elegance. The Venetian exhibits especially show 
delicacy and minute work, while the majority of the cameos 
strikingly exhibit a quality that does no discredit to the powers 
for which Italian artists have maintained a high reputation for. 
. centuries. Some of the mosaics are admirable. The colours in 
several cases are pleasing and well chosen, while the execution is 
perfect, and there are several larger pictures that are worthy, in 
their effect, of the higher order of painters." 

Fine art metal work, too, was well sustained 
amongst the many examples of bronze statues, 
statuettes, candelabra, and rejpousse work, &c., of 
the several firms exhibiting. 

" It is in the first instance due to the modellers employed that 
the high standard of excellence is achieved and generally main- 
tained, and this branch of art is well seconded by the evident skill 
and care of highly trained chasers, and even the men that make 
the moulds for casting must not be forgotten, for they too must be 
artists in their way. While admiring their really clever work, one 
could not help wishing there had been more originality, for, as a 
rule, they seem to delight more in reproducing from old forms 
than in giving expression to their own ideas." 

Among other exhibits in this department much 
commendation was bestowed on the pottery and 



172 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

porcelain productions from Florence, terra-cotta 
statues, mosaics, vases, picture and flower stands, 
artistic fans on silk, satin, and parchment, paintmgs 
on crystal, and lace effects produced on satin by a 
new process. All these artistic productions formed 
at once the most characteristic industry of Italy and 
one of the most attractive portions of the whole 
Exhibition. 

Under the heading of " manufactures not otherwise 
classified" the Exhibition showed a total of ninety- 
three items of the most varied character, com- 
mencing with a patent new heating stove and 
ending with a sliding target. There were several ex- 
hibitors of patent and other leather boots and shoes, 
which proved that Northampton had still a little 
to learn from Rome and Turin in the way of delicate 
workmanship. To iron and steel manufacturers the 
most interesting exhibit in the whole collection was 
a display of magnesian basic fire-bricks, which are 
now used so extensively for the Bessemer process of 
steel making. It was somewhat remarkable that 
such an exhibit as this should come from Milan, 
seeing that no basic steel is made in Italy, and that 
it was therefore necessary to look solely to foreign 
markets for a demand. Nor was it less surprising 
when we reflect that magnesian limestone, the 
material employed, is not by any means peculiar to 
Italy, but is, on the contrary, common to all coun- 
tries in which iron and steel are produced. 

One of the most striking collections in the whole 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 173 

Exhibition was that of the models of leading Italian 
steamships and men-of-war sent by the Italian 
Government to illustrate the progress made by the 
Navy from the year 1861, when the National Unity 
was established, until the present time ; and near 
these ironclads was placed a genuine gondola from 
Venice. 

The court assigned to "Italian Institutions and 
Education " was mostly taken up with educational 
works, publications, and schemes, as, for example, 
a project for a commercial port at Vado, in the 
Eiviera, and another, by an English engineer, for 
the construction of a metropolitan railway at Naples. 
Last of all, the department of " Music and Musical 
Instruments " included two keyboard harps of novel 
construction, enabling performers to obtain all or 
nearly all the effects of a harp by playing on a key- 
board similar to that of an ordinary piano. 

Such, then, is a general account of the contents 
of the Exhibition, which was no sooner 
opened to the public than it was pro- opinion of 
nounced to be, with all its inevitable 
shortcomings, interesting and instructive beyond all 
expectation ; and the Press with one accord 
hastened to compliment Mr. "Whitley on the great 
merit of this second National Life-Picture of his 
bold creating. Here are some of the opinions that 
were passed upon it by the English Press : — 

The Times : " The contrast witli the American Exhibition of last 
year is most marked, both in the character of the exhibits and in 



174 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

tlie general appearance of the whole place. ... It is only fair to 
say that the entire undertaking reflects credit upon Mr. Whitley, 
to whose energy it is almost solely due. . . . The most prominent 
feature on entering the building is the magnificent collection of 
paintings and sculptures which Mr. Whitley has been able to 
induce artists to send to England. Certainly there has never been 
any exhibition of modern Italian art in this country to be compared 
with that on view, either in quantity or quality." — Standard: "The 
Italian Exhibition has now been open long enough to enable the 
public to come to a mature judgment as to its merits, and beyond 
all doubt the verdict is a favourable one. There is none of the 
crudeness which marked so many of the American productions, 
but on all sides a quiet nobleness and generous freedom of artistic 
treatment that are worthy of praise." — Saturday Review : " The 
main building of the Italian Exhibition, which is at last in perfect 
order, is devoted to a demonstration of what Italy can do in the 
way of artistic furniture. At no previous Exhibition have we ever 
seen a more remarkable collection of delightful objects for home 
decoration. The bronzes are superlatively fine. . , . The picture 
galleries are magnificent, and contain many works of exceptional 
merit, and very few which are entirely bad. There is certainly 
enough to see in these picture galleries for several days. . . . Many 
pleasant hours, and even days, can be passed with profit in this 
Exhibition (which owes its origin entirely to the initiative and 
energy of an Englishman, Mr. J. E. Whitley) ; there is so much 
to see that is of value and interest; ... in short, so far as the 
manufactured objects of art are concerned, the Exhibition is 
surprisingly fine." — Morning Post: "For those who do not look 
on one Exhibition as being very much like another, the change 
which has come over the grounds at West Brompton is replete 
with points of interest. ... It is j)leasant to think that it comes 
at a time when the malign influence of the commonplace seems 
to be losing the hold it so long had on the English nature. . . . 
The furniture is of superlative quality, both in point of artistic 
beauty and practical finish." — Daily News : " It is a new enterprise 
of the indefatigable Mr. Whitley, whose success with the late 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 175 

American Exhibition lias entitled him to a full and fair judgment 
on his present undertaking ; he has been happily inspired this time 
in his choice of what he called his 'subject.' " — Financial Neivs : 
"Yes, the Italian Exhibition is evidently to make a hit." — Daily 
Chronicle : " Take it all in all the Italian Exhibition everywhere will 
be very interesting and instructive." — Industries : " The Exhibition 
is likely to be remembered as one of the landmarks in the history 
of Italian industrial life, and as a point of special interest in the 
development of British trade with Italy. Whether we regard it 
merely as a collection of raw produce and manufactured goods, 
illustrative of the industrial capacity and commercial position of 
one of the great nations of Europe, or as an event significative of 
progress, industry, and commerce in a rival people rising into- 
political eminence, the Show at Earl's Court is worthy of atten- 
tion." — Glasgow Herald: "The pictures at the Italian Exhibition 
are at least a thousand in number, exclusive of the water-colours 
and the sculptures. We have no hesitation in saying that this 
Exhibition of modern Italian art will be a revelation to most 
people, even to those who have some acquaintance with the works 
of contemporary Italian artists." — Vanity Fair: "The Italian is 
at present one of the finest Exhibitions we have had in London. 
The picture-gallery is full of marvellous works, rich in colour, and 
lofty and cultured in conception. Many of the exhibits are 
singularly interesting, more especially the glass, in which Venice 
excels, and the carved woodwork, an industry not popularly 
associated with the land of Cavour." — Land and Water: " That 
the Italian is far and away the best Show is absurdly incontestable. 
It is the most artistic Exhibition we have had in London for 
many years. It has not, of course, the warmth of colour and 
wealth of the Indian courts ; but for grace of form and artistic 
beauty it stands unrivalled. The very existence of such glorious 
furniture as we find here in the richest profusion is an absolute 
revelation for most Englishmen." — Queen: "Everybody who pays 
a special visit to the Italian Exhibition for the purpose of examin- 
ing the furniture is assuredly well repaid. . . . One of the chief 
features of the Exhibition is the hammered, or wrought iron. 



176 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON, 

Never before, to our knowledge, has such a large and altogether 
excellent a collection been seen in London."— PzcfonaZ World: 
" This is unquestionably the best of the three Exhibitions," — 
Tablet: "The Italian Exhibition is a remarkable triumph of 
individual enterprise,"- — Manchester City News: "We might fairly 
gay Italy in London ; for the Italian Exhibition now being held 
in the metropolis not only illustrates Kome, ancient and modern, 
but the whole of the Peninsula is represented in the fine collection 
at Earl's Court." — Globe: "The Italian Exhibition really seems 
like a little slice out of Italy." 

As compared, too, with, its predecessor, the Italian 
Exhibition was admitted to be more iustly 

Instruction , , , . . 

and balanced in all its various proportions, 

Recreation. . ,, ,,, -t i •> -i j c 

especially with regard to its elements oi 
instruction and recreation. "For," as one accom- 
plished critic of Mr. Whitley's new picture pointed 
out,* " experience had shown that, willing as we all 
are to learn something of the industrial processes 
and manufacturing ambition of foreign countries, we 
require the information to be accompanied by a 
certain amount of what is agreeable and diverting. 
No country can respond more successfully to the 
demand for a combination of the useful and the 
pleasant than Italy ; and the promoters of the 
Exhibition have kept this fact well in view. Hence, 
when visitors have drunk their fill of Tuscan straw- 
plaiting, or Umbrian pottery, or of Lombard silk, 
they will be able to turn into a visible reproduction 
of the Eoman Forum, to gaze on a replica of the 
Temple of Yesta, to fancy themselves in the Blue 

* In The Sta>ndard. 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 177 

Grotto at Capri, and to transport themselves, with 
the aid of a very Httle imagination, to the Bay of 
Naples and the volcanic smoke of Vesuvius. More- 
over, the peculiar manners and customs of the various 
parts and provinces of Italy will be brought vividly 
before them ; and those who have not had the good 
fortune to pay a visit to the fascinating land itself 
will learn something concerning the primitive theatre 
and early stage plays of the people to whom we owe 
our pantomimes as well as our operas. Italian dishes 
can be eaten to the sound of Italian music, and the 
curious epicure can swallow his maccheroni — if he 
knows how — or carve his agro-dolce dish of wild 
boar to the piping of the Pifferari, or the notes of 
the Venetian mandoline. Tutti i gusti son giosti, says 
the tolerant Italian proverb, and there will be dishes, 
and music, and entertainments for all tastes, as there 
are in Italy itself. But, when all has been seen and 
said, the greatest wonder of all will still be that it is 
Italy — which was only yesterday the Italy of Pope- 
Kings and Austrian Viceroys — that provides such an 
Exhibition." 

Certainly no picture of the national life of Italy, 
that favoured land of beauty and pleasure, Welcome 
could have been anything like complete ^^^^• 
without a very considerable element of popular 
recreation; and in briefly indicating the sources of 
the recreation thus furnished by Mr. Whitley to the 
visitors of his Exhibition reference must first be 
made to the " Welcome Club," which again formed 

12 



178 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

one of the favourite social centres of the London 
season, and contributed as much to the attractive- 
ness of the grounds as it had done in the case of 
"America in Miniature."* The Switchback Eail- 
otitdoor way, too, which had been so prominent a 
'^**''^°*^°^^' feature in this national picture of America, 
again plied, or rather plunged its undulating way 
among the mimic peaks of the snowy Alps ; while in 
the foreground of this mountain landscape there was 
pitched the hunting tent of Victor Emanuel, with its 
camp-bed, rifles, and other equipments — all in charge 
of the Re Galantuomo's favourite Jager.f As Italy 
may be said to have her head pillowed on snow knd 
her feet swathed in flowers, so the contrast thus 
presented by her geographical extension was well 
expressed by the Alpine scenery — forming a most 
wonderful panoramic illusion — which bounded the 
Exhibition Grounds on one side, fronted by a charm- 
ing patch of pillared parterres intended to represent, 
on a reduced scale, the Borghese Garden just outside 



* See p. 87 ante. This year the Chairman of the Club v/as Colonel J. 
T. North ; Vice-Chairman, Mr. Whitley ; Honorary Secretary, Capt. H. 
Bruce M. Carvick ; and Assistant Secretary, Capt. Ealph N. Taylor. The 
Committee was composed of Vincent A. Applin, Esq., General Sir H. P. 
de Bathe, Bart., Earl De la Warr, Sir Juhan Goldsmid, Bart., Augustus 
Harris, Esq., Sir J. Heron-Maxwell, Bart., Sir Victor Houlton, G.C.M.G., 
J. S. Jeans, Esq., Sir Alfred Kirby, Eight Hon. Sir Henry Layard, G.C.B^, 
Sir J. E. Millais, Bart., Colonel Mosley, Major Flood Page, John Priest- 
man, Esq., Lieut.-Col. Sewell, and Charles Wyndham, Esq. 

■f- This tent, which figured at the National Exhibition in Turin (1884), 
was graciously lent for this occasion by King Humbert. For this 
valuable exhibit the Council were largely indebted to the good offices of 
Commendatore De Bels Brounlie, British Vice-Consul in Turiu. 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 179 

the walls of Rome, It was, of course, impossible to 
reproduce within the Exhibition Grounds those pic- 
turesque groups of trees so characteristic of an Italian 
landscape, the gigantic pines and drooping cypress ; 
still the *' Borghese Garden," with its profusion of 
rare flowers of the most varied colour and perfume, 
its marble balustrades, graceful fountain, and groups 
of statuary, sufficed to carry the mind away to the 
country which had been the cradle of horticulture as 
well as of the higher arts. 

Moreover, as Italy has a past no less glorious and 
interesting than her present is promising Rome of 
and her future hopeful, it would obviously ^^andl^iTe ^ 
have been a grave oversight on the part of Savoys. 
the Exhibition organisers to omit profiting by the 
force of contrast, and do nothing to enable visitors 
to realise the Eome of the Caesars as well as the 
Eome of the Savoys. The result, therefore, of theii* 
solicitude in this respect was that the Exhibition 
Grounds were adorned with a series of scenic and 
architectural reproductions of some of the most 
celebrated monuments and localities of ancient and 
mediaeval Italy, including the Palazzo dei Signori of 
Perugia, the FaQade of the Cathedral at Como, the 
Temples of Yespasian, Saturn, and Yesta, the Palace 
of the Caesars, the Eorum Eomanum, the Arch of 
Titus, the Arch of Constantine, the Arch of Septimus 
Severus, the Column of Phocas, the Yia Sacra, the Locus 
Yestalium, a Street in Pompeii, and a Eoman Market 
Place. Setting off and completing the series of fasci- 



180 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

nating pictures thus represented, the Gardens further 
contained a diorama of the enchanting Bay of Naples, 
as well as a reproduction of the Blue Grotto of Capri 
— the Fingal's Cave, -so to speak, of Italy — a group 
of Tuscan farm buildings, several characteristic cafes 
and kiosks (including the " Quirinale " Eestaurant), 
Faenza pottery and other art -product pavilions, 
wine chalets, band-stands, a marquee capable of 
holding 4,000 persons, and used especially for the 
daily concerts given by the much-admired mandoline 
players of Naples, as well as by the famous Sorrento 
singers and Tarantella dancers. A separate theatre 
and concert-hall * was also devoted at other hours to 
the performances of the celebrated troupe of marion- 
ettes conducted by the brothers Prandi, of Brescia, f 
whilst on special occasions it served for meetings, con- 
certs in which distinguished Italian artists took part, 
as well as for lectures on the resources of Italy ; | and 

-'- This building, which was capable of accommodating upwards of 1,200 
persons, was designed by the architect, Mr. T. W. Cutler, in imitation of 
the Palazzo dei Signori of Perugia. 

f Of these marionette performers, The Standard wrote that "never 
before had so elaborate and complete a troupe been seen in this country ; " 
while another critic (" Dagonet," in The Beferee) prophesied that "they 
would draw all London." Their chief performance was "Amor," a grand 
ballet in two parts and eighteen tableaux, beginning with the creation of 
the world, traversing some of the chief fields of Italian history, and 
ending with the final apotheosis of " Love." 

I Following the practice of other great Exhibitions, both national 
and international, Mr. Whitley desired that lectures should be held 
jperiodically on the arts and industries of Italy, with a view to popular- 
ising such subjects and to diffusmg a knowledge of such Italian products 
as possessed most interest for Englishmen. Many authoritative and 
competent persons spontaneously offered to comply with this wish. The 
first lecture of the series was delivered by Mr. C. E. Parker Ehodes, late 






\\,\Mlt 



\1 \'tM!U ' 




THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 181 

last, and most remarkable of all, a reproduction of 
the Coliseum with its Eoman sports, gladiatorial com- 
bats, wrestling bouts, chariot and foot races, trium- 
phal processions, and all the other stirring spectacles 
that went to make up a Eoman holiday. In the 
preceding year the huge space at Earl's Court, now 
transformed into the Flavian Amphitheatre, had 
formed the scene of "Buffalo Bill's" performance; 
but the revolver, the scalping-knife, the lasso, and the 
Winchester repeating-rifle of " Wild West " warfare 
were now exchanged for the gladiatorial short sword, 
the net and the trident of the Eoman arena ; and it 
was hard to say which species of personal combats 
exercised the greater spell on the spectators. 

As a mere show this reproduction of "Eome under 
the Caesars " was admitted to be one of the r^^^ 
finest and most interesting things of the coiiseum. 
kind that had ever been essayed in England, and a 
perfect triumph of scenic art. By continuing the 
semicircle of seats right round, the " Wild West " 
Arena had been converted into a wonderful resem- 
blance of the Flavian Amphitheatre, its dimensions, 
for one thing, being exactly the same as those of the 
Coliseum. The section opposite the modern audi- 
torum had been ingeniously arranged so as to imitate 
the solid tiers of seats which rose up from the old 

of H.B.M.'s Consular Corps, on " The Future of Italian Wines ; " and he 
was followed by Mr, William Hudson, President of the Wine Jury, with 
a most interesting paper on "Wine in relation to the Wines of Italy " 
(see Supplement, p. 486) ; while Mr. J. S. Jeans spoke on the " Recon- 
struction and Eeyival of Italy " from the statistical point of view, 



182 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

arena. The front seat was occupied by a crowd of 
people arrayed in old Eoman costume, while the 
perspective delusion of the canvas above this, with 
its tiers of crowded seats, was wonderfully complete. 
On one side was a spacious stand for the Emperor 
Titus, his Consort and Court, and on the other a 
band of music in Eoman dress — gorgets, crested 
helmets, and scarlet tunics. 

About five hundred executants — all correctly 
habited — had been trained to take part in the 
various performances which were given within this 
amphitheatre, and which were wound up by a 
dazzling triumphal procession of Eoman legionaries, 
Etruscan warriors, Gauls, Britons, Consuls, Senators, 
Yestal virgins, gladiators, furred barbarians bearing 
copper shields, priests, charioteers, and equestrians 
— a procession which never failed to elicit loud 
cheers from the spectators, of whom about 20,000 
could be accommodated with sitting and standing 
room.* 

This Coliseum Show certainly formed a most 

* The following programme will give some idea of the comprehensive and 
attractive nature of this Coliseum entertainment : (1) Grand Entrance of 
the Emperor Titus. (2) Foot Eaces. (3) The Chariots. (4) Amazon 
Contest. (5) "Wrestling Bouts, (6) The Rescue of the Innocents : Quadro 
Vivente in the Arena — a living reproduction of Prof. Sciuti's "Battle of 
Imera " and Human Sacrifice by the Carthaginians. (7) Horse, Foot, 
and Chariot Competitions. (8) Obstacle Race. (9) Net and Trident Com- 
bat. (10) Grand March ; Roman Guards — Etruscan Guards — Gauls — 
Legionarii — Imperial Guards — Pretorians — Young Gladiators — Gladiators 
— Female Gladiators — Buccinae — Ensign-bearers — Lictors — The Vestals' 
Guard — Flaminii — Trumpeters — Augurii — Runners — Wrestlers — Slaves 
— The Emperor Titus — Consuls — Senators — Yestals — Matrons — Populace 
— Auriga — Mounted Guards. 




O 2 



ipilillM 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 183 

attractive feature of the Italian Exhibition, yet no 
one could say of it, as had been asserted of the 
" Wild West," that it was " the tail that wagged 
the dog." With the view of obviating a repetition 
of this reproach, Mr. Whitley resolved to prove that 
the Italian Exhibition could be made a complete 
success without the aid of spectacular accessories, 
and consequently he waited until his new venture 
had received the certificate of public applause before 
seeking to enhance it by the additional attraction of 
a few dramatised pages from the glowing chronicles 
of Suetonius and Gibbon. The "Wild West " per- 
formances began with the opening of the American 
Exhibition; while the public were only admitted to 
view the amphitheatric diversions of Imperial Eome 
after two months' probationary inspection of the 
industrial and artistic products of modern Italy, by 
which time the sting had been taken out of the 
reproach that was levelled against the American 
Exhibition. 

At the same time the Director- General neglected 
no means of attracting as many visitors as vast 
possible to the Exhibition, and in addition and vaSy 
to renewing his arrangements with the of visitors, 
various Eailway Companies for the selling of com- 
bined tickets (travelling and entrance) at reduced 
rates, he granted special facilities to schools, colleges, 
military corps, and working men's societies, and 
these facilities were taken advantage of very largely. 
Wishing that even the classes least favoured b^ 



184 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

fortune should enjoy the advantages offered by the 
Exhibition, the Executive Council determined to 
make it as easy as possible for them to visit it, and 
thus obtain at once recreation and instruction. The 
best means of doing this were carefully studied, and 
it was decided in the first instance to grant the 
utmost facilities to art and trade schools, and to all 
those institutions chiefly concerned with the educa- 
tion of the children of the poor. These facilities 
were afterwards extended to all educational institu- 
tions which applied for them, and the Exhibition was 
thus visited by numerous bands of pupils, including 
two hundred children from the Police Infants' 
Asylum at Strawberry Hill, and the male and female 
pupils of the Italian School in London. " It is well 
known," says the Italian Eeport, " that the English 
take a lively and constant interest in all matters 
connected with Italy, and from generation to gene- 
ration regard it as a golden dream to visit Italy, to 
ascend Vesuvius, to wander among the ruins of 
Herculaneum and Pompeii, to explore the recesses 
of the Catacombs, to view the majestic piles of the 
Coliseum and of the ancient aqueducts, to stand on 
the Bridge of Sighs, and to gaze over the Canal 
Grande from the Bridge of the Eialto. It was 
natural therefore that they should flock in crowds to 
an Exhibition which favoured their aspirations ; but 
what chiefly distinguished these crowds was the 
superiority of the class which mainly composed 
them. This was shown not only by their appear- 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION, 185 

ance, but also by the nnmber of carriages which 
filled the streets adjoining the main entrances, and 
by the interest manifested by visitors in the Fine 
Art and Artistic Industries Sections." * 



-'' Among those who visited the Exhibition were the Ambassadors and 
Ministers of Austria, France, Italy, Bussia, Spain, Turkey, Belgium, 
China, Denmark, Japan, Hawaii, Hyderabad, Holland, Persia, Portugal, 
and Sweden, Lady Abercorn, Lord Aberdare, Lady Abinger, Lady 
Alexander, Princess Alice of Hesse, granddaughter of the Queen of 
England, Comm. E. De Angeli, Signor E. Arbib, Dowager Duchess 
of Athole, Due D'Aiimale, Lord Aveland, P.O., Marquis of Aylesbury, 
Judge Bacon, Hon. Mrs. Baring, Earl Bathurst, Kt. Hon. Sir M. E, 
Hicks-Beach, Lady Beauchamp, Lord Beaumont, Countess of Bective, 
Lady Belcher, Countess of Belmare, Sir Eisdon Bennett, Et. Hon. Geo. 
A. F. C. and Lady Bentinck, Lt.-Gen. Sir M. Biddulph, Baroness 
Bolsover, Sir Algernon and Lady Borthwick, Viscount Boyne, Prince and 
Princess Betzold of Germany, Lady Brabourne, Lord and Lady Bramwell, 
Marquis of Bristol, Lady Brown, Earl Brownlow, P.O., Baroness Burdett- 
Coutts, Lady Burleigh, Sir Charles Burton. H.E.H. the Duke of Cam- 
bridge, Lord and Lady Colin Campbell, Sir Geo. Campbell, Earl of 
Carisford, Lady Cartwright, Lord Edward Cavendish, Lady Frances 
Cecil, Comm. E. De Cesare, Duchess Sforza Cesarini, Duke of Bucking- 
ham and Chandos, Gen. Sir F. E. Chapman, Prince Christian, Lord 
Randolph Churchill, Lord Churchill, Adm. Earl of Clanwilliam, Duchess 
of Cleveland, Lady Combe, Viscount Combermere, Lord Coleridge, P.C, 
Lord Colchester, Earl of Cork and Orrery, Countess of Cottingham, Earl 
of Crawford, Lord and Lady Crewe, Sir Thomas Dakin, Lord Danniver, 
Lady Dean, Baron Deichmanu, Countess Deguney, Lady Dennen, Earl 
of Devizes, Lord Donington, Marchioness of Downshire, Lady Drake, 
Marquis of Drogheda, Sir Chas. Du Cane, Lady Dunbar, Earl of Dysart, 
Countess Dunraven, Earl of Effingbam, Earl and Countess Egmont, Col. 
Lord Ellenborough, Lord Ellesmere, Marchioness of Ely, Lord Esher, 
Lord Eversley, Lady Farnborough, Prince Di San Faustino, Baron 
Favart, Earl of Faversham, Lady Featherby, Signor E. Ferrari, 
General Fielding, Earl of Fife, Ex-Empress of the French, Sir Wm. A. 
Eraser, Bt., M.A., Lady Freake, Sir Douglas Galton, Lady Gar- 
minster, Lady Gifford, Et. Hon. W. E. Gladstone, Sir Julian and Lady 
Goldsmid, Lord Gordon, Et. Hon. Geo. J. Goschen, Lord Eonald Gower, 
Lady Grant, Lady Granville, Sir Edward and Lady Green, Lady Gros- 
venor, Sir William Guise, Earl of Haddington, Lord Hammond, Lord 
Haroilton, Lady Ida Hare, Lady Harnage, Countess of Harwood, Lord 



186 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Special facilities were also granted to workmen's 
Facilities societies, which were afterwards extended 
Working ^0^ only to all workmen resident in 
^^^' London, but also to those from the 
country ; and special arrangements were made in 
order to enable the latter to visit the Exhibition 
as easily, and with as little expense, as possible. 
By an agreement with the principal railway com- 
panies the latter issued on all days of the week, 
and from all the stations on their lines, cheap 
artisan tickets at greatly reduced prices, including 
the railway fare and admission to the Exhibition, 
upon presentation of a certificate proving that the 
holder thereof was a hond-ficle artisan. Numerous work- 
men's societies took advantage of these concessions, 

Hayes, Marquis of Headfort, Eear-Admiral Wm. A. Heath, Lady 
Henny, The Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse, Lord and Lady 
Hillingdon, Lady Holland, Rt. Hon. Sir Massey and Lady Lopes, Lady 
Hood, Sir Victor and Lady Honlton, Lady Howardj Sir John Walter 
Huddleston, Surg.-Gen. Sir W. Guyer-Hunter, Lady Hutchinson, Earl 
of Ileliester, Lady Kensington, Earl and Countess of Kiroberley, Lady 
Kinnaird, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Lahouchere, Lord and Lady Lamington, 
Lady Laughton, Sir Wilfrid Lawson, Sir Henry Layard, Duchess of 
Leinster, Et. Hon. Viscount Lewisham, Lord and Lady Linton, Lord 
Listowell, Sir Charles Lockwood, Marquess of Londonderry, The Bishop 
of London, Marquis of Lome, H.E.H. the Princess Louise, Countess of 
Lovelace, Lady Lycett, Lady Lygon, Viscount Lymington, Lord and Lady 
Lyveden, Lady MeCormac, Lord and Lady Magheramorne, Lady Maine, 
Duchess of Manchester, Lord and Lady Manners, Cardinal Manning, 
Earl of Mansfield, Earl Manvers, Dowager Countess of Mar and Kellie, 
Duchess of Marlborough, Countess of Mayo, the Lord Mayor, the Lady 
Mayoress, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg, Viscount Melville, Lady Mil- 
ford, Lady Miller, Lord and Lady Monk, Dowager Lady Montague, 
Duchess of Montrose, Coram. A. Monzilli, Et. Hon. Sir John Eobert and 
Lady Mowbray, Prince Victor Napoleon, Lady Needham, Duchess of 
Newcastle, Sir Charles and Lady Nicholson, Duke of Northumberland, 
Lady Nottage, Don Ladislao Odescalchij Lord O'Hagan, Lady Ottaway, 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 187 

and applied for certificates both for parties and for 
individual members ; and it may be mentioned that, 
amongst other institutions which availed themselves 
of these railway reductions, the military authorities 
of Portsmouth sent 800 of the Eoyal Marine Artillery 
to visit the Exhibition, as a means of recreation and 
instruction. 

Delegates of the London Trade Council (200 in 
number, with their wives) were entertained at the 
Exhibition by the Executive Council, on which 
occasion they were addressed by Cav. Bonacina. 
(President of the Italian Chamber of Commerce), 
who thanked these representatives of British industry 
for their "noble disregard of antiquated prejudices " 
in coming to see the Exhibition, from which he trusted 
they would carry away a better impression of united 

Viscount Oxenbriclge, Lord Clarence Paget, the Comte de Paris, Lady 
Sophia Palmer, Lady Alice Parks, Earl Percy, Sir Lionel Pilkington, 
Lady Pilston, Sir Lyon Playfair, Lady Pollard, Gen. Et. Hon. Sir H. F. 
Ponsonby, Sir John Henry Puleston, Sir John Wm. Eamsden, Prince Di 
Camporeale, Lady Eeyton, General Pitt Elvers, Lord Eiverstock, Lord 
Eoberts, Sir Eobert Eollinson, Et. Hon. Sir John Eose, Lord Eothschild, 
Mr. George A. Sala, Sir Edward Seaton, Viscount Sherbrooke, Lord 
Sidney, Lady Smart, Duke of Somerset, Earl Spencer, Lady Staples, 
Baroness De Stern, Sir Donald and Lady Stewart, Countess of Stowe, 
Countess of Stradbroke, Earl of Strafford, Sir Tatton Sykes, Bart, Lady 
Tavistock, Lady Jane Taylor, H.E.H. Princess Mary of Teck and the 
Duke of Teck, Lord and Lady Vane Tempest, Sir Henry Tichborne 
Count Tozzoni, Lady Trevelyan, Lady Trewe, Lady Mary Trefusis, 
Lord Truro, Sir Charles Tupper, Lady Walter, Lady Walters, Lord 
and Lady Walsingham, Sir Charles Warren, Lady Warwick, Sir Sydney 
Waterlow, Duchess of Wellington, Lord and Lady Westbourue, Duke of 
Westminster, Earl Wharncliffe, Lady Willoughby, Sir Samuel Wilson, 
Lord Braby Wilton, Lord Windsor, Lord Wolverton, the Et. Hon. and 
Most Eev. the Lord Archbishop of York, Earl of Zetland, Marq^uis Chigi 
^ondadari, &c., &c. 



188 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

and regenerated Italy, which, owed so much to Eng- 
land, and which would ever cherish sentiments 
of the liveliest gratitude towards their country.* 
On the same day, too, the Exhibition was visited 
by about 160 Italian artisans (forming the Italian 
Workmen's Society of London), who were likewise 
harangued by Cav. Bonacina on the significance 
of the occasion, and great was the cheering among 
these representative working men of both countries 
when the Sorrento minstrels, by way of setting a 
seal on all this international fraternising, struck up 
the Eoyal Italian March. 

But such fraternising had become, long before 
Anglo- "tliis, a marked feature of the Exhibition. 
Italian Already, a day or two before it was opened, 
nising. Mr. Whitley had entertained at lunch the 
leading members of the English and Italian Press 
— 350 in number, when enthusiastic compliments 
were exchanged between these journalistic repre- 
sentatives of the two countries ; f while the turn of 
another set of spokesmen came later on (6th of 

" At this meeting the following resolution was passed unanimously : — 
" That this meeting of British workmen, representing many thousands of 
trained artisans and mechanics engaged in nearly a hundred distinct and 
separate industries, expresses its earnest gratification for the opportunity 
of viewing in this Exhibition the exquisite industrial and artistic produc- 
tions of the Italian people, worthy of that fabled land of many arts, and 
deserving of inspection by the people of the metropolis and the kingdom 
generally ; and considers that such collections are not only educational 
to the working population of the country, but are also advantageous to 
all classes of the community, as a means of cementing international 
interest, friendship, sympathy, and social intercourse, which form the 
surest basis of peace as well as human progress throughout the world." 

f In the course of the luncheon the following telegram was received 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 189 

June), when the Executive Council gave a similar 
banquet to a company of distinguished artists, lit- 
terateurs, and art-critics, including Sir Frederic 
Leighton, Mr. Andrew Lang, Sir Henry Layard, 

from the Press Association in Eome, which had been apprised of the 
character of the gathering : — 

"Ambrosi, Italian Exhibition, London. 

" Kindly convey to our English and Italian colleagues in London the 
assurance of our friendship and brotherhood. 

" Glorious old England, by holding out her hand to young Italy at 
the London Exhibition, assures us of her invaluable friendship and 
sympathy, which Italy most heartily reciprocates. We hope that Italy 
will do herself credit at the Exhibition, which will, we trust, prove a 
great success. Convey our thanks to the organisers and to the Executive 
Council. Our President, the Deputy, Signor Bonghi, is on his way to 
London. Viva England. Viva Italy. 

" Press Association, Eome." 

The foUowng reply was immediately despatched : — 

" Press Association, Eome. 

" The Anglo-Italian Press Committee, assembled at the Exhibition 
on the eve of the opening, have received your cordial telegram, and 
sincerely reciprocate your greetings and good wishes. We hope that the 
old and tried sympathy with the cause cf Italy, which in the course of 
years has grown to a firm friendship, may ripen into an indestructible 
alUance founded on community of sentiments and aspirations. 

" Whitley, 
^'Director-General Italian Exhibition.^' 

Later on (8th of August) the Correspondents of the Italian Press were 
again treated by Mr. Whitley to a special entertainment at the Welcome 
Club, the guests including Signor Gallenga, of Times fame, the repre- 
sentatives of the Nazione, Perseveranza^ Besto del Carlino, Gazzetta 
di Torino, Popolo Bomano, Gazzetta di Parma, Piccolo, Gazzetta 
Nazionale, Secolo, Illustrazione Italiana, Industria, and other Itahan 
periodicals. On this occasion CavaHere Bonacina, President of the 
Italian Chamber of Commerce in London, who had just returned from 
Monza, where he had been received in audience by the King, related 
how His Majesty had shown himself acquainted with all the details of 
the Exhibition, and had expressed his appreciation of the work of the 
Executive Council. 



190 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Mr. Manville Fenn, Mr. Oscar Wilde, Sir Victor 
Houlton, Signer *Sciuti, Cavalier e Grant, Mr. J. G. 
Boehm, Mr. W. E. Pollock, Mr. Alma Tadema, 
Count Candiani, Signer Bonghi, who had returned 
from Eome expressly for the occasion, and others.* 
This occasion was also marked by great indulgence 
in the exchange of compliments, and this current 
of mutual goodwill only grew broader and deeper 
subsequently when the Executive Council gave a 
banquet at the Exhibition to representative Italians 
in London, f at which most enthusiastic speeches 

•'' Signer Bonglii drank "to the kindly relations between English and 
Italian art, and between English and Italian art-criticism, to English artists, 
to Enghsh art-critics, and to the President of the Eoyal Academy, him- 
self so great an artist and so fine a judge of art — two quali^es but rarely 
combined, as Plato said more than two thousand years ago " ; while Sir 
Frederic Leighton, concluding an enthusiastic speech about Italy and 
her art, said : — " My countrymen at this table will join me, I am sure, in 
heartiest well-wishing to the sons, present and absent, of those men who 
more than four centuries ago lifted Christian art to the summit of its glory. 
I drink to them, and in them to the future of the art of Italy; and I 
rejoice to be able to couple with this toast the name of the patriot, the 
many-sided man of letters, the wise administrator, and the statesman 
to whom it is in a great measure due tbat the Exhibition is to-day a 
reality, the Commendatore Euggero Bonghi." 

I At this banquet (16th of July) more than 250 guests sat down to 
dinner. Colonel J. T. North, President of the Reception Committee, 
took the chair, with the Director-General and Commendatore Bonghi on 
either side of him. Among others present were Cavaliere Bonacina ; Baron 
Heath, Italian Cousul-General ; Cavaliere Buzzegoli, Italian Vice-Consul ; 
Count Candiani, Naval Attache to the Italian Embassy ; Cavaliere G. 
Grant ; Lord Aberdare ; Sir John Puleston ; Sir Victor Houlton ; Signers 
GaUenga, Tito Mattel, Zuccani, Focardi, Ortelli, &c., as well as a large 
number of exhibitors, and the leading representatives of the English and 
Italian Press. Prominent among the speeches delivered was that of Signor 
GaUenga, who dwelt in grateful terms on the hospitality accorded by 
England to the Italian exiles in the days when their own country was still 
under a foreign yoke. 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 191 

were delivered. In proposing the health of the 
Prince of Naples, Honorary President of the Exhi- 
bition, Mr. Whitley said : — 

" As you are aware, on the 12th of May I had the honour of 
inviting the Lord Mayor of London to open our Exhibition, which, 
however, then lacked the finishing touches. The picture which 
we proposed to paint, that of the new life of Italy, is now, I 
venture to say, complete ; and if we may rely on the verdict of 
public opinion in this country, I think that I may add, without 
exaggeration, that this picture, considering the short space of 
time in which we conceived and executed it, is such as the Italians 
need not be ashamed of. If the other picture, which some of us" 
were engaged in painting last year in this same studio, was a 
splendid representation of 'Energy,' we may at least claim that 
this year's picture is a no less successful representation of ' Har- 
mony.' As all of us cannot, unfortunately, wield the chisel or the 
brush, we must perforce be content to illustrate our ideas and 
aspirations in other ways and by other means. I know full well 
that even many of those who eloquently contend for the pre- 
eminence of the plough over the sword are frequently obliged to 
take part — and that eagerly — in invasions of a very different 
character from the one which you, gentlemen, have so successfully 
accomplished in this sea-girt isle. But yet I find such an in- 
expressible attraction in devoting one's efforts to make the plough 
an object of respect and honour, that I certainly do not blush at 
having opened the door that you, gentlemen, might find an 
entrance into our hearts and homes. The austere critic may dub 
me a rebel or a renegade. Allow me to say that I am as sorry for 
him as George Stephenson was for the ' coo,' 

" It seems to me most beneficial for the greatest number that we 
should assist with might and main in directing human efforts 
towards working more and fighting less, and to cease once for all 
from only talking and writing about it. I may be wrong ; but if 
it is true that nature and art are worthy of earnest scrutiny, then 



19^ NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

I do not know of a more pleasantly instructive method for the 
inhabitants of Great Britain to study those interesting subjects, 
than by casting a glance into the garden of Europe. Not indeed 
in the manner the old northern tribes looked down from the snow- 
clad Alps upon the smiling plains of Lombardy; not with the 
rapacious glance of the conqueror, thirsting to transform fertile 
hill-sides into scenes of carnage, but rather with the glance of 
pleasure, admiration, and affection. Perhaps I may be told that 
this is the language of rhapsody, worthy only of those who dream 
of a millennium. Be it so ; but before admitting the charge I 
would ask you gentlemen present, who have such reasons for 
congratulation, whether after all there is not some method in this 
madness. . . . 

" Italy has responded nobly to our call. Hundreds of thousands 
of persons who have never seen, and who will never see, the Italy 
beyond the Alps, have seen the Italy of Kensington, and the 
practical and permanent result for that glorious country, which in 
our day is the Benjamin and the best-beloved member of the 
European family of nations, will be as immeasurable as the ever- 
widening circles produced by the pebble dropped into the still 
bosom of a lake. The many esteemed colleagues whom I see here 
present this evening know that if the pebble is a small one, we 
have found it heavy enough to lift — so heavy, indeed, that without 
our unity of action, our enthusiasm for our work, our intense faith 
in its well-known usefulness, and without that encouragement and 
sympathy which from the first have been so generously granted to 
us as well in Italy as in England, we should probably never have 
been able to meet here this evening to celebrate the accomplish- 
ment of our task. I venture to add that it is impossible to estimate, 
at present, the real importance of this Exhibition for Italy. Only 
time (with its beneficent results) will judge impartially and give 
unto Cffisar that which is Cesar's. 

"Although absent in person, I am quite sure that our august 
Presidentj H.E.H. the Prince of Naples, is with us this evening 
in spirit, and I therefore invite all of you to join me in drinking to 
the health) long life and happiness of that illustrious Prince, who 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 193 

so worthily begins his public career by heading our small invading 
army, during its first campaign, into so vast an economic field as 
Great Britain and her Colonies. Gentlemen, I have the honour 
of proposing the toast of the evening. I drink to the health of our 
Honorary President, H.E.H. the Prince of Naples." 

At this point Mr. Whitley, touching the knob of 
an electric apparatus, made the "Star of Italy," 
which till then had been concealed by a curtain, 
shine out in a blaze of light, and its appearance was 
hailed with enthusiastic cheers. Before the gather- 
ing broke up telegrams were sent to the Prince of 
Naples, to the King, the Queen, and the Prime 
Minister. The Director- General was then accom- 
panied to his residence to the sound of music and 
amid continual cheering. 

Great also was the enthusiasm displayed a little 
later (2nd of August), on the occasion of the Queen 
inauguration of the " Queen Margherita " ^argherita. 
Eoom in the Exhibition by the unveiling of a life- 
size portrait of Her Majesty by Professor Moretti, of 
Perugia — a work of which Mr. Whitley had procured 
the loan, to quote the words of Signer Gallenga, 
the distinguished journalist, " after a thousand 
obstacles and delays." As a work of art this portrait 
— burnt in on glass — was no less remarkable as a 
new invention, than for the skill displayed in its 
execution, and was altogether a most charming 
presentment of one of the loveliest women of her 
time — so lovely as to allure the Director- General 
into the language of happy metaphor, ^'If even," 

13 



194 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

he said, "the beautiful portrait of Queen Margherita 
were not to be unveiled to-day, we -might almost 
say that the Queen of Italy is with us, for when had 
we such a day of sunlight as this ? ' ' 

But this was not the only distinguished honour 
that had been paid by the directors of the 

Italian ... 

Charities' Exhibition to Queen Margherita ; as the 
20th of July, Her Majesty's name-day,* 
had been set apart for a fete on behalf of the Italian 
Charities in London — the Italian Hospital, the 
Italian Beneficent Society, and the Italian Evening 
School. To the Italian Hospital Mr. Whitley had 
from the first allotted a free stall for the sale of 
articles for its benefit (under the care of Signora 
Ortelli and other ladies who wore the Bed Cross 
badge on their arms), and also authorised the placing 
of a certain number of boxes in the more frequented 
parts of the Exhibition for the collection of contribu- 
tions by visitors ; and it was to supplement the 
stream of charity flowing from these sources that he 
organised the special fete above referred to. Its 
chief feature was a grand concert, the vocalists being 
Madame Trebelli, Signer Buncio, Signer di Puente, 
Signer Guido Papini, Signer Bottesini, with Signoi 
Bicaccia conducting, and Signer Tito Mattel at the 
piano. Needless to say that the fete was patronised 

* Two days later the Marquis di VUlaraarina, gentlemau-in-waiting to 
the Queen, telegraphed to Mr. Whitley : " Her Majesty the Queen desires 
me to send you her thanks for the courteous good wishes sent on her name- 
day, and to express her lively satisfaction at the success of your coura- 
geous undertaking on behalf of Italian industry." 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 195 

by all the friends of Italy in London, and they are 
neither few nor unimportant. 

Hitherto all the hospitality had been on the side 
of the Exhibition authorities, but now they 

"^ A Compli- 

were asked to exchange the role of enter- mentary 
tainers for that of guests at a banquet ^^^^® • 
which was offered, in the Hotel Metropole (29th of 
September), by the Italian colony in London, and 
by the exhibitors, to Mr. Whitley and his President 
of the Reception Committee, Colonel North.* The 
toast of the two guests of honour, proposed by 
Signor Bonghi, who lauded the great and happy 
results of their efforts to familiarise Englishmen 
with Italy and her products, was received by all 
standing, and with a triple salvo of cheers ; and 
Mr. Whitley on his part, replying in fluent Italian, 
recapitulated the incidents connected with the con- 
ception and course of the Exhibition, saying, among 
other things : — 

" The Italian Exhibition has now been open nearly five months, 
nnd instead of the interest in it flagging, the British public and 



* In the unavoidable absence, through illness, of Count Eobilant, the 
Italian Ambassador, the chair was taken by Commendatore Bonghi. 
On his right sat Mr. Whitley, Cavaliere Bonacina, Cavaliere Zuccani, 
Signor E. Arbib, Cavaliere Polaceo, Signor A. Gallenga, Messrs. T. 
Carew Martin, AUatini, Serena, and Cavaliere Froehlich. On his left 
were Colonel J. T. North, Baron Heath, Consul- General, Cavaliere 
Ortelh, Cavaliere Buzzegoli, Commendatore Monzilli, Commendatore de 
Cesare, Cavaliere Grant, Mr. W. Hudson, Cavaliere Pavia, &c. The re- 
maining seats at the table of honour, as well as those at the tables at 
right angles with the latter, were occupied by the exhibitors and agents, 
iand by the representatives of the leading English and Italian papers. 



196 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

* the stranger within our gates ' come to see us in larger numbers 
than ever. Up to yesterday 1,258,000 persons have visited the 
Exhibition, and the universal and unanimous verdict of this country 
is that the Exhibition is unique of its kind. . . . 

" From the most remote periods Italy has been a teacher to the 
rest of the world. One of the archaeological attractions of the 
meeting of the British Association held this month at Bath, was a 
recently discovered and most beautiful Eoman tesselated pavement, 
and now, after the lapse of centuries, we find Italy once more upon 
these shores — once more amongst us to educate and refine our 
artistic tastes and, let us hope, also, to bring us ' glad tidings ' in 
the matter of beverages, replacing for the masses poisonous con- 
coctions by honest wines. . . . 

" The net result to Italy of our heavy work is that she has now 
got a permanent foothold m this country, and I am honestly proud 
that in the years to come I may turn to my children and, without 
either philistinism or immodesty, urge them to follow the example 
I have tried to set them ; and as to Italy, I think I have proved that 
for that glorious country I have unlimited affection and disin- 
terested devotion." 

" The speeches that followed," says an Italian 
account of the banquet, "were interspersed with 
choice pieces of music exquisitely rendered under 
the direction of Cavaliere Tito Mattel, with the 
assistance of Signora Eubini-Scalisi and Signori 
Caprile and Papini. This, with the grandeur of 
the hall and the lavish character of the entertain- 
ment, helped to render the banquet most imposing. 
The general sentiment of those who were present 
was that the fete, both on account of its object and 
of the patriotic feeling which pervaded it, deserved 
to be long remembered." 



TH:E ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 197 

But in spite of this splendid testimony to the 
success of the Exhibition from those who Report to 
were at once most interested in it and best ^Govern-" 
quahfied to judge, it had not been without °^®"*- 
its secret enemies as well as its open detractors ; 
and so it came about that (on 4th of July), when the 
Exhibition might be considered as having taken 
final shape, and as now presenting an imposing 
appearance, Mr. Whitley determined to send in an 
elaborate report to the Italian Ministers, and the 
Italian Ambassador in London, as well as to Signer 
Eattazzi, of the Ministry of the Eoyal Household, 
both in discharge of the duty incumbent on him as 
Director-General, as also to refute certain unfounded 
statements circulated by persons who, not haying 
visited the Exhibition, had possibly been misled as 
to the true state of matters. The result of this 
report was as discomfiting to his foes as it was 
flattering to himself. Erom the Italian Ministers 
of Public Instruction and Einance, as well as from 
the Ambassador in London, he received most warm 
acknowledgment of the services he had rendered 
to the cause of mutual understanding and friendly 
intercourse between the two countries, while the 
Secretary-General of the Eoyal Household wrote : — 

" I am mucli obliged for your courteous attention in sending me a 
copy of the letter addressed by you to some of the Italian Ministers. 

"I have perused the document with great interest and pleasure, 
and it has confirmed my sense of the great services you have rendered 
to Italian arts and industries, services •which both the King and his 
Government know how to appreciate at their full value. 



198 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

"I congratulate you most heartily on the satisfaction afforded 
you by the success of your noble enterprise, which I trust will grow 
and prosper. 

" For my own part I shall always be happy under any circum- 
stances to substantiate the sincerity of the sentiments expressed 
above." 

At the same time Signor Boselli, Minister of Public 
Instruction, telegraphed : — 

" What you tell me in your report of the 4th inst. explains the 
splendid success of the Exhibition to which, with indefatigable zeal, 
you have devoted and still devote the most assiduous and unremit- 
ting attention. Therefore I have much pleasure in confirming the 
words of congratulation I have before addressed to you, and which 
are the sincere expression of my heart towards you." 

It was on this same occasion, too, that Signor 
Bonghi, referring to the attack on the Italian Exhi- 
bition in the Italian Senate by Signor Rossi, thus 
wrote: — "Whitley, to whom belongs the merit of 
the conception of the Exhibition, is a miracle of 
precision of thought, and of rapidity of action. 
Would to Heaven that Italy had such a man as he 
to direct her affairs ! ' ' 

With a view to maintaining a strict neutrality as 
■ regards the appointment and the awards 

The Juries. ^ . ^ -i i i 

of the juries, the Executive Council had 
resolved to entrust all the arrangements relating to 
the selection and proceedings of those bodies to the 
Italian Chamber of Commerce in London. As it had 
done with reference to the allotments, the classifi- 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 199 

cation of exhibits, the carriage of goods and the 
appointment of agents, so, too, in the matter of this 
dehcate subject, it left everything in the hands of 
the Chamber, dechning, on its part, all responsibility. 
It undertook, however, to defray the expense of suit- 
ably entertaining the jurors during their long and 
difficult labours, as w^ell as to provide the necessary 
attendants and other usual accessories. This task of 
organising and appointing the juries by the Chamber 
of Commerce VT'as by no means easy. Considerable 
experience in such matters was requisite, in order- 
to determine the principles on which it would be 
most expedient to conduct the examination of the 
various sections. An intimate knowledge of the 
London market was also necessary, with a view to 
the selection of competent and authoritative persons 
to conduct such examination. 

On the first of these points the Chamber was of 
opinion that it would be superfluous, if not useless, 
to repeat in London the awards which had been 
given from time to time in Milan, Venice, Bologna—- 
in a word, at all the Exhibitions held in Italy. It 
was therefore agreed that, whilst due regard should 
be paid to the intrinsic merits of the products, the 
jurors should at the same time consider their special 
suitableness to the English markets, so that their 
awards might not merely be certificates of the ex- 
cellence of the best artistic, industrial, and natural 
products, but might also serve as a sort of vacle 
mecum for the Italian exporter, who would find in 



200 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

them a clear indication of the merits and defects of 
Italian products with reference to the tastes, habits, 
and requirements of the English markets. 
. The selection of the persons who were to form 
the juries therefore necessitated careful and patient 
consideration. Those chosen were all members of 
leading English firms, some of them of universally 
recognised authority in their respective lines of busi- 
ness. To the Director-General, on the other hand, 
fell the task of communicating to all the Chambers 
of Commerce and to the parties interested the awards 
of the juries and a list of the Diplomas, which were 
of three degrees, granted by the Executive Council in 
the several classes. 

Of all these Jury Eeports, that on wines (which 
Italian ^111 be fouud in our Supplement, p. 480) 
wine-trade. -^^^ perhaps the most interesting and valu- 
able ; and if the Exhibition had done nothing but 
direct the attention of the English public to the 
subject of Italian wines, its organisers would have 
been entitled to the sincere thanks of their fellow- 
countrymen.* Mr. Whitley himself, in a- lecture on 
the development of the foreign trade in Italian wines 
(which is also given in the Supplement, p. 497), made 
certain practical proposals which may yet prove 
fertile of profit to both countries. 

-•' The Italian wine-growers had responded to the a^Dpeal of the Execu- 
tive Council and of their National Chambers of Commerce by sending a 
collection of exhibits surpassing any ever seen before outside of Italy. 
The exhibitors of wines were over 300 ; and this number did not include 
those who sent only Vermouth, liqueurs, or spirits. The samples of wine 
shown at the Exhibition numbered over 1,200. 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 201 

After being open for 148 days, and drawing a total 
of 1,743,445 visitors, being a daily average ciose of 
of 11,780, the Exhibition was closed on ^^RepOTt 
the 31st of October. The fact was duly tocnspi. 
announced by telegraph to the Prince of Naples, 
who hastened to convey to Mr, Whitley his " con- 
gratulations on the success of the enterprise you 
initiated, and which you directed with praiseworthy 
solicitude, perseverance, and sagacity until its close." 
Two days after the doors of the Exhibition were 
shut, Mr. Whitley addressed the following report as 
to the results of his enterprise to the Italian Premier, 
Signer Crispi : — 

" The Italian Exhibition in London, after a brilliant period of 
existence, has reached its close ; and your Excellency will now, I 
trust, permit me to set forth briefly the course of its development, 
the reception it met with from the British public, the advantages 
Italy has derived from it, and the still greater benefits she may 
look for in the future. 

" The project of an Italian Exhibition in London was due to 
private initiative. Its realisation was considered by all as attended 
with the greatest difficulties ; but though many Italian manufac- 
turers regarded it doubtfully, it was crowned with the fullest 
success ; and, although its development was incomplete, it was a 
worthy manifestation of the forces of modern Italy. 

"In spite of the drawback of a most inclement season, and in 
spite of obstacles and difficulties of many kinds, the Italian Exhi- 
bition proved as a whole so attractive, and awakened in the British 
public so lively and agreeable a sense of surprise, that thousands 
and thousands of visitors went there not merely for pleasure or for 
a lounge, but for the noble purpose of self-instruction, and with the 
practical view of forming business relations. 



202 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

" I am proud and bappy to be able to say tbat tbe bopes I 
expressed in my initiatory circulars of September and October, 1887, 
in favour of tbose wbo sbould take part in tbe Exhibition, bave been 
more than realised. 

" Altbougb the sbortness of time available, tbe cost and tbe 
dangers of tbe carriage of goods, and tbe insufficient publicity tbat 
was given to tbe project, undoubtedly prevented a complete partici- 
pation of Italian artists and manufacturers, still a most interesting 
collection was got togetber, wbicb to many was quite a revelation. 

" In tbe Fine Art Section tbe Britisb public, tbougb regretting 
tbe absence of some of tbe most renowned artists, attended in large 
numbers, and tbe greatest interest was manifested by all classes of 
tbe population. 

"Numerous reproductions of exbibits in tbe Fine Art Section 
and in tbe various industrial classes were sold, and orders of con- 
siderable magnitude were given botb by private individuals and by 
Englisb firms. , . 

" Not less great and important were tbe results acbieve'd by tbe 
exbibitors of natural products. Italian wines bad tbe opportunity 
for six montbs of being daily tasted and appreciated by thousands 
of visitors, and tbe very flattering verdict given in tbeir favour by 
tbe wine jury will contribute in no small degree to tbe development 
and brilliant future wbicb is in store for tbat brancb of commerce 
in tbese islands. 

"It is wortby of notice tbat tbe reports publisbed by tbe several 
juries on tbe various industries emanate from representatives of 
tbe most respected firms in Great Britain, and it is certainly no 
small belp to Italian manufacturers being praised by tbose whose 
sound judgment and high position lend to tbeir words an indis- 
putable authority in the eyes of the Britisb public. 

" The amount of the sales effected by the- exhibitors is estimated 
at a minimum of about ten million Italian lire, as stated by the 
Italian Chamber of Commerce in London. 

" The permanent results that have accrued to Italy from this 
Exhibition will be recognised and estimated with reference to their 
undeniably useful and profitable character." 




EXHIBITORS' TESTIMONIAL TO MR. WHITLEY. 
(Italian Exhibition.) 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 203 

But, as in English, courts of law, a man's testimony 
in favour of himself is accounted of less 

Thanks 

value than the evidence of independent from me 

• I T . T , l^ ^ Exhibitors. 

Witnesses, let us supplement the above 
report by the following communication which was 
addressed by the Exhibitors themselves to Mr. 
Whitley three months only after the opening of 
the Exhibition : — 

" Italian Exhibition,. 

" West Beompton, London, S.W., ■ 
'' August 1, 1888. 

" John E. Whitley, Esq., 

" Director-General of the Italian Exhibition. 

" The onagnificent idea you conceived of inviting 
Italy to an Italian Exhibition in London, and the 
admii'ahle manner in which you advocated, organised, 
and brought to a successful issue that undertaldng , 
redounds to the honour of Italy, of yourself, and of 
your luorthy colleagues. 

" We, the undersigned exhibitors and representa- 
tives, being convinced of the substantial advantages, 
both moral and material, lohich have accrued since the 
opening of the Exhibition, and luhich still continue to 
accrue to ourselves and to the firms we represent, and 
being further convinced that this, the first exclusively 
Italian Exhibition held abroad, reflects in a represen- 
tative manner the new industrial^ and artistic life of 
our country, feel it to be at once a duty and a pleasure 
to express to you, Sir, our sincere and hearty admira- 



204 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Hon of your noble initiative and of your umuearied 
labours, ivhicli luill, we trust, meet luitli the universal 
acJcnoivledgment and praise to tvJiich they are so 
abundantly entitled.'' 

[Here follow the signatures of exhibitors.] 

At the close, too, of the Exhibition Mr. Whitley 
And from received letters of grateful acknowledg- 
the Cham- jjjent — 35 in number — from the Cham- 

oers of 

Commerce, bgrg of Commerco of the chief Italian 
towns,* while the Minister of Commerce (Signor 
Grimaldi), speaking in the Chamber of Deputies, 
declared in words, which we have prefixed to this 
chapter, that, '' from a commercial point of view, the 
Exhibition had been a complete success." Nor 
can we refrain from quoting the words with which 
the secretary to the Turin Chamber of Commerce 
(Signor Palestrino), who was commissioned by the 
Italian Government to superintend the return of the 
various collections contributed by the Government, 
concluded his Report. " It only remains for me, 
dear Mr. Whitley," he wrote "to express to you 
once more my sincere admiration aud my profound 
gratitude for the remarkable work which, with 
rare tenacity and incomparable activity, you have 
brought to completion, to the advantage of my 
country. I trust that the moral and material results 

* These towns included : — Ancona, Arezzo, Bergamo, Bologaa, Cagilari, 
Caserta, Catania, Civitavecchia, Como, Cosenza, Cremona, Ferrara, 
Florence, Foligno, Genoa, Lecce, Leeco, Macerata, Mantua, Milan, 
Palermo, Parma, Pesaro, Pisa, Eeggio, Eavenna, Eimini, Eome, Salerno, 
Siena, Syracuse, Treviso, Turin, Udine, Venice, 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION, 205 

of the London Exhibition will not be lost for Italy. 
Certainly all Italians will ever remember the name 
of John E. Whitley, the com-ageous initiator, the in- 
defatigable organiser, and the worthy director of the 
first exclusively Italian Exhibition held abroad."* 

But of all the compliments which were thus paid 
to Mr. Whitley for the great success of his 
beneficent work, perhaps the most elaborate of the 
and flattering was embodied in the following ^^^^^^*^°»- 
communication addressed to him by the well-known 
statist, Signor Commendatore Eaffaele De Cesare, 
who had visited the Exhibition and done much him- 
self in Italy to promote its accomplishment : — 

" KoME, Fehruarij 1, 1889. 
" Dear Sir, — You have asked me for some moral reflections on 
tlie Italian Exhibition in London, and have urged your request so 
courteously that I cannot decline to comply with it. Now that the 
Exhibition is a thing of the past, it behoves us to judge of it, as of 
all things that belong to the past, with perfect fairness, and above all 
without any parti pris. Having had the honour of being a member 
of the Koman Committee, and haviog visited the Exhibition last 
October, when I accompanied my friend Commendatore Antonio 
Monzilli, Director at the Ministry of Industry and Commerce, I am 
in a position to give free expression in this essay to my opinion as 
to the merits of the Exhibition, and to set forth the advantages 
which have accrued from it, and still more those which may be 

* Eoom may also be allowed here for tlie following letter : — 

" 29, De Vere Gardens, Dec. 21, 1888. 
"Dear Mr. Whitley, — I have just returned from Italy after an 
absence of some months, and can report very favourably of the impres- 
sion made there by the success of the Exhibition. Believe me, dear Mr. 
Whitley, yours very sincerely, " Egbert Browning." 



206 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

expected to accrue from it, to Italy. 1 shall therefore write * The 
Moral of the Italian Exhibition in London ' as on a former occa- 
sion I wrote ' The Moral of the Antwerp Exhibition.' This new 
essay, though perforce more condensed than its predecessor, will 
not, I trust, be lost for us Italians. 

" In the first instance I wish to emphasise this point, that none 
of the Exhibitions in which Italy has taken part during the last 
twenty-eight years entailed less expense on the Treasury, or con- 
ferred greater advantages on the exhibitors. "When we consider 
the cost of previous Exhibitions, such as the Vienna Exhibition of 
1873, the Paris Exhibition of 1878, the Antwerp Exhibition of 
1885, and when we take into account the various National Exhibi- 
tions held here during recent years, and compare the expenditure 
they involved with the slender pittance which the Government paid 
for the carriage of exhibits to London and back, we are forced to 
the conclusion that the Italian Exhibition at West Brompton can 
only be censured, with reference to the Government support it re- 
ceived, by those who are determined to find fault at any cost. 

" I have procured the official figures of the expenses connected 
with former Exhibitions. The Vienna Exhibition of 1873 cost one 
million lire, the Paris Exhibition cost 850,000 lire, that of Antwerp 
half a million ; the Milan Exhibition of 1881 received from the 
Government a subsidy of half a million lire, the same amount 
being paid last year for the Exhibition held at Bologna. The 
London Exhibition will not cost the Government 80,000 lire. Nor 
was the number of exhibitors in London small. They amounted 
to 1,743. At Antwerp the number was 665, in Paris in 1878, 
2,041. The participation of exhibitors in former Exhibitions was 
promoted by the Government with the numerous means at its dis- 
posal. For the Italian Exhibition in London the Government did, 
indeed, do much by means of circulars and recommendations ; but 
private initiative, assisted by certain Chambers of Commerce, with 
laudable zeal, did most. You, dear Mr. Whitley, were the Peter the 
Hermit of this beneficent crusade : for you traversed the half of 
Italy, speaking in public at Turin, Milan, Florence, and Eome, and 
fi^tonishing us Italians by the great and picturesque facility with 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 207 

which you speak our language. You had interviews with the King, 
several Ministers, and many politicians, and were able to inspire all 
with the conviction that the Italian Exhibition in London was 
destined to be crowned, not with a mere academic or conventional, 
but with a thoroughly practical success, and that it was calculated 
to promote the development of our production and national wealth. 
"The distinguishing feature of the Italian Exhibition in London 
was found to be its originality. Its object was not academic, but 
essentially and avowedly commercial. Inducements were held out 
to exhibitors, not in the shape of awards, but of the advertisement 
and sale of the products in the London market, the largest and 
most varied market in the world. There was no international jury 
appointed to deliver compared and often complaisant or incompetent 
verdicts. The jury was an English jury, selected from amongst 
the most competent men in the United Kingdom, who were to judge 
of the merits of the various XDroducts, first intrinsically, and then with 
reference to the English market, and the greater or lesser proba- 
bilities of their finding a sale there. The verdicts of the jury were 
not to be limited to the awarding of prizes, and to the explanation 
of these prizes a few years after in reports which are read by few. 
They were rather to form a collection of simple and practical 
counsels as to the merchantable qualities of, and as to the means of 
accrediting, Italian products in England. And now, if we peruse 
the collection of the awards and observations of the various juries — ■ 
which are really practical lessons in commercial technology — pub- 
lished just after the Exhibition was closed, as well as some reports 
published even earlier, we have what I would call the * Moral of 
the Italian Exhibition in London.' Where could one find a mono- 
graph at once more exact and more complete, more persuasive and 
more simple, than the "report of the wine jury, to which is ap- 
pended the magnificent lecture delivered by Mr. Hudson on the 
28th of September ? In perusing these pages we perceive what an 
important future is in store for our wines in England, if we will 
only make them in accordance with the requirements of that 
market. This future is of all the more value to our country in 
.view of the tremendous crisis which at present affects the wine 



-208 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

interest. Hence the desirability of our producers and capitalists 
uniting and forming powerful companies, and carrying the English 
market by the good quality of their products and by an adequate 
system of advertisements. If the Italian Exhibition in London 
had had no other effect than that of letting us know exactly what 
is wanted in order to open up the English market to our exuberant 
wine production, it would deserve to be gratefully remembered by 
the Italians and by their Government. 

" Nor will the Italian Exhibition prove barren of results, like 
those of Vienna, Paris, and Antwerp, as regards other products of 
our agriculture and industry. In my opinion, as I have stated on 
former occasions, Universal Exhibitions, with their antiquated 
method of international juries and awards, are played out. 

" I returned to Antwerp three years after the Exhibition of 1885, 
at which I had had the honour of being President of the Italian 
jury, and I spent forty days in Antwerp, Brussels, and other 
Belgian cities, endeavouring to ascertain whether, as a sequel to the 
indisputable success achieved by our countrymen, any premises had 
been opened for the sale of Italian produce, or whether any com- 
pany had been formed for the importation of those industrial or 
agricultural products which had met with most favour at Antwerp. 
Unhappily, I was convinced that nothing of the kind had occurred. 
Indeed, the result was worse than merely negative. Many Italian 
exhibitors of jewellery, pottery, glass, and furniture, who had sold 
well at Antwerp, fared badly at the great Exhibition in Brussels. 
Signor Ferro, one of the most esteemed and enterprising exhibitors, 
who, with profit to himself, opened a Venetian glass-blowing 
pavilion at the Antwerp Exhibition, opened a still larger one at the 
Brussels Exhibition, and in six months lost what he had made at 
Antwerp, and something more besides. So different were the 
results of these two ventures, in the course of three years, in two 
cities situated in the same kingdom, at a distance of only fifty 
minutes by rail from each other. For a country like Italy, which 
stands in such urgent need of commercial expansion. International 
Exhibitions on the old plan are, as an advertisement, of ephemeral 
advantage. The advertisement lasts as long as the show is. open. 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 209 

What is wanted is continuous and extensive advertising. I have 
not seen, in any country in Europe, any Italian agricultural or 
industrial product advertised on the gigantic scale on which, for 
instance, Pears' soap and Colman's mustard are advertised ; nor 
indeed even on a more modest scale. We are as yet poor and in- 
experienced. We only understand commission business, and shun 
all risks. Among the Latin peoples we are, in a commercial re- 
spect, the most backward and disorganised. The spirit of collective 
enterprise is wanting. We go to Exhibitions, we sell, we take 
orders, and come away again without having i^rofited by our ex- 
perience and by the knowledge acquired of foreign markets. 

" It will not be so in London. The Exhibition leaves something 
that will survive it. In the first place, the advertisement you 
organised was immense, and I have much pleasure in recording this. 
The v/hole Exhibition, which lasted six months, and was visited by 
about two million people, was a gigantic advertisement. And not 
only the Exhibition, but all its adjuncts: the magnificent catalogue, 
of which 500,000 copies were sold, the reproduction in the gardens 
of some of the principal monuments of Italian art, the lectures, 
the reports of the juries and the high authority of the latter, the 
banquets with their complement of speeches, and, lastly, the power- 
ful and disinterested support of the Enghsh Press, which every day 
dwelt at length, and in the friendliest terms, on the Exhibition, 
describing every feature with the greatest minuteness. The great 
sight of London from May to November was the Italian Exhibition 
at West Brompton. The results far surpassed all expectations. 
Never was so much sold before in any Exhibition, particularly of 
those products which are a specialty of Italian industry, viz., 
furniture, bronzes, terra-cottas, glassware, &c. At no previous Ex- 
hibition were so many orders for reproductions received, orders 
amounting, in some cases, to the whole amount of work the exhib- 
itor could turn out in a year. If we could ascertain the exact 
amount of the sales and commissions, I believe the total would be 
enormotis. Lastly, no Exhibition ever prepared the ground for 
the formation of a great company for the importation of Italian 
Wines like that which is How being formed in England, and which 

14 



210 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

will, I trust, unite its efforts to those of the companies formed for 
the same purpose in Italy. 

" The success of the Exhibition in London is partly due to a 
special circumstance. You, dear sir, are well acquainted with the 
flower of the Italian colony in that city, and know what an amount 
of moral and economical wealth it represents, and what assistance 
you received from it in organising the Exhibition. The Chamber 
of Commerce concentrates these forces. They are merchants, 
bankers, and shipowners, who together represent a capital of 
many millions and a still more important capital of activity, talent, 
and respectability. The names of Messrs. Zuccani, Bonacina, 
Arbib, Ortelli, Narizzano, Serena, and Allatini are guarantees of 
commercial honesty and seriousness. Long absent from their 
country, they lived in it again during the six months of the 
Exhibition, and were enabled to gauge its economical and industrial 
progress, and to see how much the English market might be opened 
up to Italian products, more particularly to such as now find the 
French market closed against them. The idea of a great depot 
of Italian wines originated among them, and we may look to them 
to take the initiative in other schemes, including possibly that of 
an Italian Bank. By means of the Exhibition the colony has 
been brought into touch with the mother country, and now places 
at the disposal of the latter the benefit of its experience and of 
its moral and economical forces. On the other hand, my fellow 
countrymen must understand — and I say so frankly — that if they 
do not profit by the teachings of the Italian Exhibition in London, 
the fault will be entirely their own. Above all, they must under- 
stand that the time is past for a commission business of a few 
products ; that this is a time for conquests — conquests by the 
strong, the capable, and the honest. In London there is an Italian 
agricultural and industrial trade ; but it is poor as compared with 
that of other countries ; it possesses no collective organisation, and 
often damages itself by a competition actuated by spite and envy. 
This is the case as regards butter and cheese. Perhaps since the 
institution of the Chamber of Commerce these scandals have 
diminished ; since the Exhibition we may hope that they have 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 211 

ceased. Commerce is strong in proportion as it is organised. 
Among the Italian merchants, particularly those who deal in 
alimentary produce, and who represent the larger portion of Italian 
trade with England, it has not been found possible to form a 
syndicate. It would almost seem, dear Mr. Whitley, as if we 
Italians carried on amongst each other, even abroad, something of 
that civil war which occasioned our miseries in the past ; and this 
war, fought out with every kind of weapon^ exercises a deleterious 
action on all our trade, discrediting and impoverishing iti 

"If the Italian Exhibition in London were to be repeated, as I 
trust will be the case in a few years' time, some blemishes which 
marked the last one will be guarded against. The Exhibition at 
West Brompton undoubtedly betrayed the haste with which it had ■ 
been got up. In October, 1887, I was staying at Citta di Castello, 
in Umbria, when I received a letter from Cav. Koberto Stuart, who 
was staying at Perugia. He informed me of the project and asked 
me for my support. 

" The matter seemed to me a dream. I went to Perugia and had 
a long interview with that dear friend, but he failed to convince me, 
I do not say of the usefulness of the project, but of the possibility 
of carrying it out in such a brief space of time without the direct 
aid of the Government. I knew very little about the American 
Exhibition, and had read the letters that had passed between 
Guglielmo Grant and Edoardo Arbib. I did not know you, and I 
had not yet been in England. One evening, in the following 
November, G. Grant held a first meeting at his house, to which a 
few of us were invited. Among those present were ; Bonghi, 
Vitelleschi, Doria, Sforza Cesarini, Jacovacci and Odescalchi. 

" More doubts than hopes were expressed ; finally, however, it 
was agreed to hold a larger meeting and to form a permanent com- 
mittee. This was done, and towards the end of December the 
committee was formed under the presidency of Commendator© 
Bonghi. Several capable and energetic persons formed part of it. 
If the pecuniary support of the Government was limited to the 
conveyance of the exhibits to London, it must yet be admitted thaty 
from the first day of its existence, the above-mentioned Committee 



212 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

received the most ample, hearty, and useful support from the Mmistry 
of Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce, from the Ministry of 
Marine, and from that of Foreign Affairs. Signer Bonghi worked 
most energetically for the success of the enterprise, which received, 
moreover, a powerful impulse from yourself, for, during the few 
weeks you were in Italy, you succeeded, thanks to your prodigious 
activity, in forming other committees, arousing public opinion, and 
in obtaining from the King the acceptance by the Crown Prince of 
the honorary presidency of the London Exhibition, together with 
the promise that His Eoyal Highness should be present at the in- 
auguration, or visit it later on. In the space of only three months 
the Exhibition was organised, and 1,743 exhibitors responded to 
the appeal. In the beginning of April, the Plata sailed from Genoa 
for London, bearing its precious cargo, and followed by the anxious 
solicitude of the Central and Provincial Committees. Guglielmo 
Grant's mind was not relieved till he learned that the Plata had 
arrived safely in the London Docks. 

" A few months later Commendatore Monzilli and I went to 
London to visit the Exhibition. We arrived on the very evening 
when the Italian colony and the principal exhibitors were giving the 
banquet in honour of yourself and of Colonel North, in the grand hall 
of the Metropole Hotel, which banquet was to have been presided over 
by the Italian Ambassador, Count Di Eobilant, and was, owing to 
the illness of the latter, presided over by Commendatore Bonghi. 
We found over 300 Italians assembled together to do you honour, and 
to express to you the gratitude of our country for all that you have 
done for it, by conceiving and carrying out your bold design. At 
that banquet the Italian colony was represented by all its leading 
members, men who have achieved distinction either as financiers, 
as artists, or as philanthropists. Many speeches were delivered, 
some of which sounded rather hyperbolical to my friend Monzilli 
and myself. Having some experience of such banquets, we thought 
that the excellence of the dinner and of the wines (all of which, 
with the exception of the champagne, were Italian) had fired the 
imaginations and loosened the tongues of the orators. 

•' But after our first visit, the following day, to West Brompton, 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 213 

after we bad witnessed the results of your activity and that of your 
colleagues, we experienced, dear sir, a legitimate sense of pride and 
complacency. When we saw so many beautiful articles admired 
and desired by thousands ; when we saw our country and its 
products, in that country which excels in reclame, made the subject 
of a reclame which it would have cost us millions to purchase ; and 
when we beheld among the products displayed in wide and splendidly 
illuminated galleries so many artistic and historic mementoes, it 
seemed to us as if we were in Italy, and as if Italy were being 
visited by wondering and admiring crowds. It looked like a dream. 
A year before it had not even been thought of. Now the ' Italian 
Exhibition ' stood revealed in all its grandeur. If the season had 
been less inclement, not two, but four millions of Englishmen 
would have visited West Brompton. 

" But, returning to the point, the Exhibition betrayed the haste 
with which it had been got up. It would have been unfair to judge 
of industrial and agricultural Italy, as a whole, by what was there. 
Many industries were represented imperfectly ; others excessively. 
The art collection, for instance, was exuberant, and did not lead to 
much business, though the sales in that section amounted to about 
420,000 lire. There was a plethora of small exhibitors, the plague 
of all Exhibitions, who had sent rubbish, or at best goods that were 
quite unsuited to the English market. Such is the force of tradi- 
tion, that to all Exhibitions one can send, not necessarily what is 
essentially good and marketable, but all that is considered good by 
the party who presents it. Hence disenchantments and disappoint- 
ment?. It was proclaimed in vain that the Italian Exhibition in 
London was to be different from previous Exhibitions ; that it was 
necessary to send, not what caprice or vanity suggested, but what 
was likely to be profitable. Something was obtained in this direc- 
tion, but not as much as would have been desirable. There were 
400 exhibitors of wines and liqueurs who provoked the severe verdict 
of the jury, their wines being in large measure unripe, sharp or 
thick, and their liqueurs utterly detestable in a country like Eng- 
land that requires matured wines and perfect liqueurs, which it 
buys regardless of cost. The good wines were sold largely ; but the 



214 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

jury were severe on the liqueurs, stigmatising them as a ' useless 
production,' and advising the Italians not to persist in their manu- 
facture. Samples of cereals were also sent to a country which 
grows the best cereals in the world. Though the most stringent 
instructions were sent to our provincial committees, we did not 
succeed in keeping out exhibitors of useless products. Perhaps it 
was not an unmixed evil ; for the considerations they suggested to 
the jury will bear good fruit. 

" I earnestly trust, dear sir, that in the interests of my country, 
the Italian Exhibition in London will be repeated, and that it will 
be carried out on a more practical footing. The experience of the 
past warrants confidence in the future. We must, and doubtless 
shall, do more and better. The lessons contained in the reports 
of the juries will not be forgotten ; on the contrary, they will 
mark a new departure in the development of Italian trade with 
England, a trade which we Italians must do our best to render 
active and flourishing. The first Exhibition has served as a study 
or inquiry ; it has, so to speak, sounded the depths of the waters. 
With regard to the principal products, the result of our experience 
is that, in the matter of wines, England wants matured wines, the 
fermentation of which is complete, and which contain no extraneous 
substances ; that our liqueurs are handicapped by the use of bad 
alcohol, and that their pretended originality and petty imitation 
of the liqueurs of other countries are also against them ; and 
lastly, that we should manufacture good spirits of wine that 
might take tbe place of the French article, which, since the in- 
vasion of the phylloxera, has been kept for home consumption. 
The place left vacant by France is hotly contested by Spain, 
Portugal, and California. From the samples sent to the Exhibi- 
tion, the jury inferred that Italy might successfully compete with 
those countries, and that her spirits of wine might hold their owii 
on the English market. 

" Continuing this rapid survey of the reports of the juries, I find 
for each product some appropriate words of advice, and as regards 
the alimentary products this advice is often a revelation. As an 
old juror at International and National Exhibitions, I am in a 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 215 

position to speak with some authority. The English jury pro- 
nounced the Itahan butter good, but varying in quality according 
to the places it came from: badly packed, and, therefore, ill-adapted 
to travel far. Amongst our cheeses, Gorgonzola has gained much 
iu public favour ; but, owing to the unfortunate competition 
between producers and merchants, its quality is no longer what it 
once was, and prices are falling off. With reference to olive oils, 
the jury observed that the samples exhibited could not be considered 
exceptionally perfect. They remarked that the improvement in the 
manufacture of seed oils was greater than in the manufacture of 
olive oils, a verdict which coincides with the one contained in my 
report of the Paris Exhibition of 1878. All that the jury say 
about the Italian pastes, eggs, and sausages is perfectly correct.. 
The report on art furniture is comforting. The jury pronounced 
this collection to be without a parallel in the history of Exhibitions. 
At the same time they pointed out that certain articles would suit 
the English taste better if the style of decoration were less 
pompous, the lines more accurately drawn, the framework better 
finished, if, in a word, the old masterpieces were more faithfully 
reproduced. The success of the Exhibition at West Brompton was, 
in fact, chiefly due to the art furniture. 

"Here I pause. This essay might be prolonged, but the moral 
of the Italian Exhibition in London must be gathered not so much 
from these pages, as from the reports of the juries. All that I 
have written is the result of observations I made in London and of 
conversations I had with competent persons. In my opinion that 
Exhibition was an economical event of capital importance, and a 
great lesson in practical economy which will not be forgotten. We 
shall see ere long whether Italian producers will profit by it to the 
full. In view of such results we may well forget the disagreeable 
things which are inseparable from every Exhibition ; and you, dear 
Mr. Whitley, who, amid so many triumphs have not been exempt 
from trials, should derive comfort from the thought that the work, 
to which you devoted all your energies of body and mind was a 
com^Dlete success. The same applies to those esteemed members of 
the Italian Chamber of Commerce in London who, in the fur- 



216 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

therance of your enterprise, sacrificed time, energy, and money. . . . 
Of all the Exhibitions Italy has taken part in during the last 
twenty-eight years, none was more profitable to the exhibitors and 
less burdensome to the finances of the State than this one. This 
is a dogmatic truth which I proclaimed at the outset and which I 
repeat at the close. To believe, or to pretend to believe, the 
reverse implies ignorance or prejudice, the reasons for which may 
be several, and not all of them, perhaps, avowable. 

" Believe, dear Mr. Whitley, in the esteem and gratitude of all 
— and we are not a few — who know you in Italy. II tempo e galaii' 
tuomo. 

"E. De Cesake." 

So successful, indeed, had been the Exhibition 
of which the moral was thus so com- 

A Second . -\ rn 

Italian prehensivoly drawn by Signer de Cesare, 
that, even before it had reached the 
middle of its course, it was seriously proposed to 
repeat it in the following year on a much larger 
and more representative scale. But, although the 
initiatory steps were taken in this direction, and 
although the scheme was favourably viewed by 
King Humbert — by whom Mr. Whitley was again 
graciously received at Eome soon after the close of 
the Italian Exhibition of 1888 at West Brompton — it 
encountered such an amount of lukewarmness and 
supineness in some other quarters as to render im- 
possible its realisation so soon as contemplated ; and 
meanwhile others of the aspiring sick and halt 
among the nations had profited by the temporary 
indecision of the Italians to step down before them 
into the industrial Pool of Siloam, 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 217 

But as the lapse of time filled them with regret at 
havinsf missed this other opportunity of 

^ rr .7 Italian 

advantage to themselves and their country, Gratitude to 
so it also tended to increase their gratitude 
towards the man who had done so much to promote 
their economic interests ; and this growing feeling 
found due expression in the form of a handsome 
gold medal, accompanied by an illuminated address, 
which, in the third year (1891) after the Exhibition, 
was ceremoniously presented to Mr. Whitley at the 
Italian Embassy in London, " on behalf of Italians 
for the services he rendered to Italian artists, manu- 
facturers, and producers, by organising and directing 
the Italian Exhibition." The presentation received 
additional significance from the fact that the day 
selected for the ceremony — the 7th of June — was the 
*' Statute," Italy's greatest national fete, and that it 
was made in presence of the Italian Ambassador, 
Count Tornielli, the official heads of the Italian 
colony in London, and other notabilities. Baron 
Heath, Consul-General, read the address, which was 
as follows * : — 

" In organising and carrying ovit with such complete success in 
this metropoHs, the Itahan Exhibition of 1888, you afforded to 
Italy — awakened to new life as a nation — the means of proving, 
not only to England, but to all the civilised nations represented 

* The Committee were most fortunate in the choice of the two artists 
— viz., Signer C. Marini, Professor of Decoration at the Professional 
School in Florence — for the illuminated address, and Cavaliere G. Giani, 
of Rome, for the gold medal. The medal measm'es sixty millimetres in 
diameter and one centimetre in thickness. On one side it represents a 



218 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

in this great world-centre, that, under the beneficent influence of 
liberty, she had succeeded in developing her arts, commerce, and 
industries in a manner worthy of her ancient fame. , 

" The benefits to our young country, which have accrued from 
your work, are great indeed. The Exhibition of 1888 provided 
Italy with an excellent opportunity of drawing attention to, and 
winning admiration for, the products of Italian Arts and Industries. 
The Italians who were then able to appreciate the talent and zeal 
that you expended on this great work have voted you the Gold 
Medal which I have this day the honour of presenting to you, in 
the name of the Committee which was formed with that object. 

"I trust that although this testimonial reaches you somewhat 
late, you will nevertheless receive it with pleasure. 

" This medal is an emblem of the gratitude felt for. you by 
Italians, who consider you as one of their most trusted and 
valued friends. May it also assist to remind the civilised world 

background radiant with tlie rays of a rising sun, whilst the foreground 
is occupied by a majestic figure of Fame crowning the Arts and Industries, 
amidst the emblems of Labour and the fruits of Science. The inscription 
on the medal is : — • 

"Al benemeeito John E. Whitley, Esq., 

Iniziatore e Dikettoee-Generale 

della Exposizione Italiana, 

LONDEA, 1888. 

Gl' Italiani riconoscenti." 

As to the illuminated address, it is a real masterpiece, and an honour 
to Italian art. It is conceived in the pure cinquecento style. In the 
centre of the picture are the allegorical figures of Italy and England, 
united by the God of Commerce. The two upper angles, adorned with 
Eaphaelesque designs, bear the coats-of-arms of the two countries ; in 
the lower angles the various sections of the Exhibition (Art and Industry) 
are symbolised by allegorical figures. The centre of the upper and lower 
borders is occupied by two portraits, which are striking likenesses — that 
of H.R.H. the Prince of Naples, Honorary President of the Exhibition, 
and below, that of Mr. Whitley. The interior spaces contain the address 
and the names of the members of the Committee. Finally, the address 
was contained in a massive ebony frame, executed and presented by Signor 
A. Picchi, of Florence, the inventor of the system of " Cornici a sbalzo," 





GOLD MEDAL PRESENTED TO MR. WHITLEY 
BY ITALIANS. 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 219 

that as long as there are, in England and in Italy, hearts and 
minds like jonrs, the bonds of friendship which unite the two 
nations will never be severed." 

To this address Mr, Whitley replied : — 

" YouE Excellency — Gentlemen,— When I look around upon 
the numerous company assembled here this Sabbath morn, and 
note the friendly and sympathetic expression upon the faces of all 
present, my first and natural feeling is one of gratitude to God, 
who rules and governs all men and all things, that He has 
spared me to enjoy the experience of this Sabbath day, as a 
pendant to that of another Sunday morning'^ which I spent very 
differently, just about five years ago, at Boston, in the United States- 
of America. On that Sabbath morn I received a communication 
from General Goshorn in Cincinnati, stating that, owing to advices 
received from London, he felt compelled to withdraw from his 
position of Chairman of the Committee I had constituted in 
connection with the American Exhibition, which was to be opened 
the following year in London. I knew that if the General really 
insisted upon resigning, I should have to begin all my work da 
capo, and as I had already spent two years upon the preliminaries, 
this was anything but an agreeable prospect. 

" I at once determined to take the next train for Cincinnati, and 
whilst covering the nine hundred miles between Boston and that 
City, I said to myself, ' These good . Americans are too much 
absorbed by their daily affairs to be able to appreciate the full 
importance of such an Exhibition. They are too much accus- 
tomed to meet every human effort with the question, " What axe 
has he to grind ? " to be able to comprehend and appreciate 
my real intentions, or the beneficial results to themselves which I 
am so desirous of attaining.' I was, in fact, rather annoyed at this 
want of faith in, and enthusiasm for, the good cause ; and I 
decided that if the American Exhibition should prove a success, I 
would invite our Italian friends to hold the second of the series of 
National Exhibitions^ and this because I was sure that Italians 



220 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

would respond to my invitation more enthusiastically than our 
affaires American Cousins ; and because I was then, as I am still, 
of Lord Byron's opinion, that Italy is — 

" ' The garden of the world, the home 
Of all Art yields and Nature can decree.' 

"I venture to suggest that no gentleman here this morning 
regrets having helped to carry out that determination, namely, to 
hold an exclusively Italian Exhibition in London. 

" Most gentlemen present are aware that the Italian Exhibition 
enjoyed an extraordinary success at Earl's Court, being visited by 
1,743,445 persons, and supported by 1,728 exhibitors. 

*' I was not surprised to receive a suggestion from our friend 
Cav. Melis at the close of the Exhibition, that if its history were 
published, it would be better to issue it in tbe English language 
than in Italian. I considered the Exhibition, however, to be so 
excellent a manifestation of the artistic and industrial life of Italy, 
that I arranged for the publication of the record of our work in 
both languages — Italian and English — and I have since been 
continually in receipt of large numbers of letters, from all parts of 
the world, asking for counsel and advice, as to the organisation of 
similar ' tournaments of peace,' both in this and other countries. 

"If I maybe permitted the simile, you gentlemen planted in 
1888 a tree of an excellent species — a tree of such abounding vigour 
and vitality, that even in the year in which it was planted it began 
to bear fruit, and the crop it has since produced has increased 
annually, both in quality and quantity. Last year the ' Italo- 
Britannica Eoyal Italian Mail Steam Navigation Company ' and 
the ' English and Italian Banking Corporation ' were ripened into 
vigorous existence ; this year we hope that, amongst other precious 
fruits the tree will produce, there may be one which is to be known 
as ' The Italian Art Gallery in London.' . . . 

" I have mentioned three of the results of our arduous labours 
during that period, viz., ' The Italo-Britannica Eoyal Italian Mail 
Steam Navigation Company,' the ' English and Italian Banking 
Corporation,' and the proposed Italian Art Gallery. Just as I 



1HE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 221 

ventured to prophesy some years ago that success would attend the 
organisation of an exclusively Italian Exhibition in London, so I 
make bold to predict success for the three interesting undertakings 
just referred to. All of them are civilising and ennobling enter- 
prises, for whilst the first two continue the good work of bringing 
men of different nationalities and languages into closer union, the 
other will not only have the same beneficial effect, but will also 
tend to refine and elevate the tastes of my fellow-countrymen. 

" We read of the joys of gallant explorers on their return to 
hearth and home — when, under their own vine or by their own 
fireside, they recount to their children and neighbours the details 
of the dangers they have escaped and the stirring scenes through 
which they have passed. We read, too, of similar delights ext 
perienced by valiant soldiers on their return to camp after a hard- 
fought battle. 

" Your Excellency, I feel this morning much as those men must 
feel. I am near the end of the fourth of my campaigns,* each Of 
which has, in a sense, been an anomaly, for, although I have been 
permitted to conquer four different nationalities, yet each of them 
has also taken me captive. This morning I feel like a soldier who 
has been called out of the ranks to be made a ' corporal,' as a 
reward ' for good conduct,' or to receive his first ' medal and clasp * 
for ' bravery in the field.' 

" The sensation is to me entirely novel. Hitherto I have been 
more accustomed to hard blows than to rewards. You will therefore 
be better able to imagine my delight at being summoned here by 
the President of the Committee to receive this spontaneous token 
of good feeling from my Italian friends when I inform you that, 
although I have fought hard in a good cause for seven years, this 
is the first time that I have received the flattering distinction of any 
special acknowledgment of such services as I may have been per^ 
mitted to render. 

*' I have been far too much absorbed in the details of the 
campaigns to feel at all aggrieved that others should have been 

■'' T^he Gertdan Exhibition of 1891 was now in rn-ooress. 



222 l^ATlOMAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

singled out for public recognition who had not borne so large a 
share of the burden and heat of the day as I ; but, being of flesh 
and blood, I am not devoid of feeling, and I assure your Excellency 
that I am so profoundly touched on this occasion, by your Excel- 
lency's kind and flattering expressions, and by the spirit which 
moved your Excellency to select Italy's national holiday for the 
presentation, that I beg your Excellency to remember these are 
moments when men do not appear at their best. I am too full of 
gratitude for intelligence to have ample play. I trust your Ex- 
cellency will, therefore, judge me rather by what I have endeavoured 
to do for Italy than by my manner of thanking Italians for the 
honour they so generously confer upon me. 

" Whilst helping Americans, Italians, Frenchmen and Germans 
to paint and construct, in this centre of the world's activity, 
elevating and useful pictures of the arts, manufactures and products 
of those four great countries, I have had a unique experience of 
human nature amongst the most gifted sons of those nations ; and 
I am happy to record that, when I shall have completed the fourth 
volume of the work I have been engaged upon for so many years, I 
shall be able to affirm, as the outcome of that experience, that I, 
at any rate, have found man's noble qualities, in all countries, far 
outnumber his bad ones. 

" In concluding this poor and inadequate attempt to convey to 
you some faint expression of my gratitude for your great kindness 
and courtesy of to-day, I will only add that these beautiful works 
of art will ever be prized by myself and my family as precious 
heirlooms, as memorials of your great and beautiful country, and 
of valued friends of my own among its ablest and most distin- 
guished citizens." 

In the Italian Exhibition Mr. Whitley had com- 
Material pleted the second volume of his self-ap- 

^^Morar^'^ pointed work, and those who profited most 
Rewards, j^y {^^ composition had expressed their 

thankfulness by contributing a golden seal or clasp, 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 223 

so to speak, to the stately tome. The Itahans proved 
themselves profoundly grateful to Mr. Whitley for 
the material good he had done them, while his own 
countrymen were equally warm in their acknowledg- 
ment of the pleasure and instruction which they had 
derived from the contemplation of his work, nobly 
and indomitably done ; and if this had not been 
sufficient in itself, which it was, to recompense him 
for his efforts, it would have been impossible for him 
to console himself with the reflection that he had 
reaped, through his connection with the Italian 
Exhibition, any more substantial reward. As he 
wrote during the course of the Exhibition : — 

" As I remarked at the meeting I had the honour of addressing 
on the 10th of January, 1888, in Turin, the initiation and organisa- 
tion of this Exhibition have not been prompted by any narrow- 
minded motives on my part. It is obvious that work of this 
character, if successfully carried out, produces immense permanent 
benefit to the country exhibiting, and is, therefore (as all precedent 
proves), work deserving of Government sympathy; yet, several 
months before the Exhibition was opened, I informed Cav. Bona- 
cina, President of the Italian Chamber of Commerce in London, 
that, whatever pecuniary surplus the undertaking might realise for 
me, personally, I should most cheerfully present to any Italian 
charity he might name. Although my share of the work has been 
the lion's share, my share of the pleasure such work affords me has 
been greater still ; for I consider it an honour and a privilege to be 
permitted to carry through to a successful issue an Exhibition 
the organisation and direction of which is usually found to be 
quite sufficiently onerous to occupy the attention of quite a staff 
of Government officials." 



CHAPTBE ly. 

THE FRENCH EXHIBITION, 

(1890.) 

" The French Exhibition in London had its reward in its brilliant suc- 
cess. It was not only a commercial and industrial triumph, but in 
organising it you have accomplished a work of political as well as of 
national importance. I say political because, although exhibitions are 
deemed to have nothing to do with politics, I myself venture to differ 
from this opinion, and to maintain that exhibitions, more than anything 
else, contribute to the development of the highest and happiest of all 
politics — ' the politics of peace.' "—M. Jules BocJie, French Minister of 
Commerce and Industry. 

SPEAKINa in October, 1890, towards the close of 
the French Exhibition of his organi- History of 
sing, Mr. Whitley said : " Exhibition ^i^^i^^^^- 
work counts double, and at the close of the Italian 
Exhibition I was urged to take rest, and followed the 
counsel wisely tendered. During my absence my col- 
leagues arranged with several Spanish gentlemen to 
take over the premises and grounds at Earl's Court 
for the year 1889. In September of that year, having 
taken a rest, I thought that if I could obtain some of 
the many excellent exhibits from the Paris Universal 
Exhibition, I might, in 1890, have the honour of afford- 

15 



226 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

ing instruction and pleasure to many of my country- 
men who had not visited that magnificent display. I 
found, however, that the Director of the Paris Exhi- 
bition held a different opinion ; and, as gentlemen from 
Brussels were pressing me to give Belgians the prefer- 
ence for the year 1890, I came to an understanding 
with them that the third of the series shouldhe Belgian. 
Unfortunately, our friends in that country made a 
political matter of the project ; I, therefore, hazarded 
a second attempt to induce the French to come over 
amongst us, and this time with more success. There 
remained, however, but two or three months in which 
to organise everything, and indeed some one has said 
of the Exhibition about to close at Earl's Court, that 
it is ' a beautiful frock made out of a bit of ribbon ' 
(une belle rohefaite cVun hout de ruhan), referring to 
the small space of time available for its organisation. 
When I asked my French friends, in February last, 
to bestir themselves and help me to paint a pretty 
picture of French arts and industries in about two 
months and a half, they perhaps thought that 
a sojourn of two or three years at Charenton was 
indicated for myself ; but they laUgh best who laugh 
last, and our exhibitors from France are about to 
return home wiser, wealthier, and therefore, pre- 
sumably, happier men ; so that if they owe gratitude 
to any one, it is certainly due to the President and 
members of the French Committee of the Exhibition 
who have worked splendidly and as one man." 

Such is the brief history, in his own words, 



THE FBENCH EXHIBITION. 227 

of the next "Life Picture" which Mr. Whitley, 
as if by a simple turn of his national Another 
kaleidoscope, presented to the astonished ^^aiefdo^^ 
view of his countrymen. As no good scope. 
French cook will ever shrink from the problem of 
how to transform the sole of an old boot into a 
toothsome fricassee, so it now again fell to Mr. 
Whitley to make up a stylish gown out of a tag of 
ribbon, and the marvel was that he again succeeded 
in achieving what seemed to be the impossible. It 
was February, 1890, before he issued his preparatory 
circular, and by the middle of May there was the 
Lord Mayor of London again opening a French 
Exhibition of Arts and Industries at West Brompton 
with expressions of wonder and admiration at its 
having been organised in so short a space of 
time.* As Gambetta, during the German invasion, 
stamped French armies out of the ground, so Mr. 
Whitley had created this French Exhibition by what 
" ppeared to be the art of a conjuror. The faculty 
of doing this was a high one, and was well described 
by the Council of the Italian Chamber of Commerce 
in London when reviewing the successful results of 

* In October, 1889, Mr. Whitley visited Brussels, at the invitation of 
Consul- General Seve, who was desirous that preference should be given 
to a Belgian Exhibition for 1890. The Minister of Commerce and 
Industry, Monsieur de Bruyn, made arrangements to render every assis- 
tance, but there appeared to be insuperable difficulties, so that Mr. 
Whitley, after being kept in suspense by the Belgian authorities from 
October, 1889, until February, 1890, determined to carry out his original 
intention and organise a French Exhibition, although he only arrived in 
Paris, to commence work, on the 6th of February, 1890, accompanied by 
Mr, L. Duchene, one of his trusty lieutenants. 



228 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

the Italian Exhibition at Earl's Court.* " This 
Chamber," said the Council, " which throughout the 
organisation of the Exhibition shared his hopes, his 
doubts, and his labours, can, better than any one 
else, bear witness to his noble and powerful personal 
qualities, and can safely affirm that the splendid 
result obtained is mainly due to his indomitable faith 
in the success of his project. His is, indeed, a 
marvellous nature, combining with the enthusiasm, 
the idealism, and the fervour of an Italian, the 
tenacity, the practical spirit, and the clearsighted- 
ness of his countrymen. Thus he was able to infuse 
into others his own faith in the realisation of what 
seemed impossibilities, and, at the same time, with 
a firm hand and incomparable energy, he carried out 
this most difficult enterprise, animated, perhaps, 
more than by any other sentiment, by sheer love of 
overcoming difficulties, and by an ardent devotion to 
our great and beautiful country." It was no wonder 
also that Professor Tyndall wrote at this time to 
Mr. Whitley: — "You are a wonderful man; I can 
only look on and admire your power of organisation." 
And now the Erench, in their turn, were quick to 
succumb to the spell of his sympathy and 
Initiatory goHcitude, as thcsc feelings were expressed 

Circular. ' ox 

in a Circular which he issued from Paris 
(8th of Eebruary, 1890), whither he had gone, like 
another "Peter the Hermit," to use the words of 

'•= Journal of the Italian Chamber of Commerce in London, No. xiv. 
p. 240. 



THE FBENGH EXHIBITION. 229 

Signer de Cesare/* to embark on this third beneficent 
crusade. In this Circular Mr. Whitley said : — 

" The reasons which prevented my organising an Exhibition in 
1889 having passed away, I conceived the idea, last September, of 
an exclusively French Exhibition in London for 1890. I communi- 
cated the scheme to Mr. Georges Berger (Director-General of the 
Centennial French Exhibition of 1889), who did not consider 
the moment opportune. But now that matters have once more 
resumed their habitual calm, you will no doubt realise that an ex- 
clusively national exhibition of your industries, of your commerce, 
and of your arts, in a country such as England, will naturally have 
all the greater success because it follows close upon your own 
International Exhibition of last year, which but comparatively 
few Englishmen were able to visit, whereas the great mass of 
the nation are ignorant of your products, though most desirous 
to know them and purchase them. . . . London is not only the 
largest city in Europe, but it is also the market of the world, 
for the buyers and representatives of the first houses in the 
world have their head- quarters there ; and there is a fact of the 
utmost importance which each one of you, gentlemen, is doubtless 
acquainted with, and that is, that the value of French exports to 
England exceeds 500,000,000 fr. every year ! This is a figure 
which the French ought to be most careful to maintain. . . . The 
Italians, at the Exhibition of 1888, sold more than ten milhon fr. 
worth of samples alone, and a great number of them have since 
then opened branches in England. Their success in 1888 was so 
marked that they begged me last year to organise a second Italian 
Exhibition for the present year. . . . After these two very successful 
Exhibitions, the American and the Italian, I received, as I have 
already remarked, from the exhibitors of the two nations, and from 
all the notabilities who had taken part in the two undertakings, 
including H.M. King Humbert and the Italian Government, the 
most gratifying tokens of satisfaction at the results achieved. 

* See p. 206 ayite. 



230 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

" French exhibitors may also sow seed which will produce fruit, 
not only during the Exhibition, but for many years to come. 

" It appeared to me that it would be really a pity not to take ad- 
vantage this year in London of the great 2^^'^^tige obtained by 
French exhibitors in Paris last year. It must be remembered, as 
I have already said, that not more than two or three per cent, of the 
population of Great Britain were able to visit the International 
Exhibition in Paris in 1889, and yet it may be reckoned that at least 
twenty per cent, of the English population have the strongest 
desire to see a portion of the marvels exhibited at that Exhibition. 

*' As for me, gentlemen, I am devoting to the work all the energy 
I possess, in order to make sure of success, and I can answer for 
the cordial welcome which my countrymen and the English Press 
already extend to our work." 

The idea enunciated in this circular was taken 
Sympathy up and strougly supported by the French 
Co-operation Chambers of Commerce, the Press, the 
in France, trade Syndicates, leading artists and manu- 
facturers, as well as by the English residents in Paris. 
And an equally gratifying reception was accorded it 
by the French colony and the Press in London. 
After issuing his Circular Mr. Whitley proceeded to 
put his ideas into practical shape, and succeeded in 
obtaining the hearty co-operation of his friend, M. 
Eugene Henry (who at once generously placed 
himself, his staff, and his offices at Mr. Whitley's 
disposal), and a large number of the most important 
French Corporations, including the Committee of 
Initiative of French Exhibitions Abroad, presided 
over by M. G. Sandoz, and composed of the most 
eminent representatives of French art, industry, 




-'^.l^ 




THE FRENCH EXHIBITION. 231 

arid Gommerce ; though the adhesion of this powerful 
body was only given on condition of its being first 
allowed to send over to London a special deputation 
of ten experts to inquire into the prospects and 
practical aspects of the scheme.* This deputation 
of inquiry reached London on the 24th of March, 
and were entertained by Mr. Whitley, at Earl's 
Court, at a lunch, presided over by Mr. J. S. Forbes, 
Chairman of the London, Chatham and Dover Eail- 
way,t who, in toasting success to Mr. Whitley's new 
enterprise, warmly eulogised his great powers of 
organisation and generalship. After luncheon, the 
deputation made a most minute inspection of all the 
buildings and gardens connected with the proposed 
Exhibition, verifying one by one the statements of 
their host, making sure of the means of access, the 
stability and convenience of the arrangements, and 
all what not. Before leaving London the deputation 

* The deputation or committee thus chosen consisted of MM. G. 
Sandoz, president ; Lamaille, commission agent ; Bordas, Secretary 
at the Ministry of Public Works ; Descubes, of the Ministry of Public 
Works ; Pierron, one of the engineers entrusted with the construction 
of the Paris Exhibition of 1889 ; Courtois Sufflt, architect ; FoUiot, mayor 
of Chablis ; Blondel, merchant ; Layus, publisher ; and Bonnel de Loug- 
champ, solicitor. The Committee was also accompanied by M. Charles 
Toche, artist, and M. Jambon, the principal decorative artist of the Paris 
Exhibition. All of them were men of unquestionable competence and 
experience, who afforded, in consequence, every assurance that the duty 
which was entrusted to them would be fulfilled in the most thorough and 
competent manner. 

f Among the guests were Mr. Powell, manager of the Metropolitan 
District Eailway; Mr. Henry Chapman, M. Majolier, president of the 
French Chamber of Commerce in London ; Dr. Vintras, chief physician 
of the French Hospital, and the principal representatives of the French 
Press in London. 



232 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

called on the French Ambassador, M. Waddington, 
and the Consul-General, M. Caubet, to whom it had 
brought a special letter of introduction from M. 
Eibot, Minister of Foreign Affairs, as it also had a 
conference with the President of the French Chamber 
of Commerce in London ; and on its return to Paris 
it drew up a report most favourable to Mr. Whitley's 
scheme. 

This Eeport was unanimously approved by the 
French Committee, who thereupon voted the orga- 
committees.3^iga^j^JQj]L of a French Exhibition in London, 
and also proceeded to form a special Committee for 
promoting the work.* At the same time the publi- 
cation of this report at Paris increased the interest 
already felt in the scheme, and at once elicited warm 
commendation from the Press, f as well as numerous 

* Of this French Committee, the President was M. Gustavo Sandoz ; 
Vice-Presidents, Baron Delort de Gleon, MM. Octave Doin and Legrand; 
Hon. Presidents of Fine Arts, MM. Carolus Dm-an and J. L. Gerome ; 
Treasurer, M. Gaston Pillois ; Secretaries, MM. Chassaing, Hartmann, 
Lamaille, Eoger Sandoz, Vigneron, Layus. 

I As an example of Press opinion in France, take the following from 
Le Travail : — " This year the French Exhibition in London wiU only 
include French produce — it will be exclusively French in everything. 
Our industrial genius will shine in all its brilliancy, our art in all its 
splendour. . . . People will say, ' What ! another Exhibition ! ' and will add, 
' Did not all England come to Paris last year ? ' Yes, another Exhibition ; 
and, far from being an evil, it is a good thing that a fresh occasion is again 
given us to show our treasures. How many very handsome things can 
but gain by being shown afresh, and how many others which, at last 
year's Exhibition at the Champs de Mars, were perhaps slightly thrown 
in the shade, will benefit by being placed in broad hght and seen at their 
best, far from the competition of other countries ! As to saying that 
all England came to Paris last year, or at least all English customers of 
France, it is a very sweeping assertion. Out of a population of thirty- 
seven million inhabitants less than 4 per cent, visited France, and we 



THE FRENCH EXHIBITION. 2S3 

offers of patronage and support from prominent per- 
sonages in the French world of industry, commerce, 
and art, including M. Eugene Pereire, President of 
the Transatlantic Steamship Company ; M. Eiffel, 
the eminent engineer and constructor of the modern 
" Tower of Babel"; M. Gerome, the great painter; 
M. Bartholdi, the well-known sculptor; and many 
distinguished members of the old and new Salons. 

have sense enough to think that out of the remaining 96 per cent, a good 
many EngHsh, Scotch, and Irish buy our goods. We may as well, at 
this point, remind our readers that over a quarter of our export trade is 
done with England, whilst only one-seventh of our imports comes from 
the English market, and it has always been so. We sell to English 
people several hundred million francs more than we bny fro7)i them, 
whUst most other countries sell more to us than we to them. Thus, for 
example, and to put exact figures before our readers, we will remind them 
that we sold to England ^34,000,000 worth of our goods in 1886, and 
^£33,000,000 in 1887. These figures are so eloquent that mere words 
would be out of place. 

"It is thus absolutely proved that our true interest is to exhibit in 
London this year, as brilliantly as possible, most of the goods which last 
year received such high praise. Our artists and manufacturers will meet 
in England with the most sympathetic welcome : this is proved to us by 
the cordial support Mr. Whitley's fresh undertaking receives from the 
English Press. Going to London this year to show the British people, 
eager to admire, after hearing so much in their praise, all the products 
due to French labour, is not only an act of courtesy towards a country 
which has sent us such a number of visitors ; it is also our duty to our 
best customers, and to our most important buyers by far. 

" Will any one object that the undertaking is in the hands of a 
'foreigner,' and that one may doubt his good direction and the regu- 
larity of his proceedings ? Our answer to this is, that the man of high 
worth who presides over the organisation of the French Exhibition in 
London is no novice, and his jpast speaks highly in his favour. Both the 
American and the Italian Exhibitions arranged by him on the same 
spot in London — Earl's Court and West Brompton — have been most 
successful, in the greatest and widest sense of the word, as at- 
tested by thousands of newspapers in both coinitries, by the praise of 
authorities in America and in Italy, including exhibitors themselves, who 
thanked Mr. Whitley in the warmest terms." 



234 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

In order to render the Exhibition as complete and 
attractive as possible, it was resolved to entrust the 
selection of the articles to be exhibited, as well as 
the appointment of the Jury of Awards, to exclusively 
French Committees. 

Moreover, to facilitate this arrangement it was 
decided to divide the exhibits into twelve 

Classifi- 
cation of groups, each under the charge of a sepa- 
rate French Committee ; and after some 

little deliberation the following was the classification 

agreed upon : — 

Gkoup 1. — Vegetable products, Stuffs, Silks, Dress, and Fasliions. 

Geoup II, — Agricultural and alimentary products, Leather. 

Group III. — Wines, Liqueurs, Beer and other beverages, Oils. 

Group IV. — Minerals, Metallurgy, Machinery, Horticultural 
and Agricultural Implements, Electricity, Eailways, Ooachbuilding, 
Architecture, Building Materials. 

Group V. — Chemical and Colonial products. Perfumery, Applied 
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical products, Medical and Surgical Appli- 
ances. 

Group. VI.— Education, French Institutions, Art and Educa- 
tional Materials, Paper, Printing, Bookbinding, Engravings, 
Photographs. 

Group Vll. — Furniture, Decoration. 

Gtioup VlII. — Artistic industries, Jewellery, Bronzes, Ceramics, 
Enamels, Watchmaking, Wrought Metals, Goldsmith's work. 
Mosaics, Glass and Crystal works. 

Group IX. — Articles de Paris, Miscellaneous Industries, Toys. 

Group X. — Products of the Sea, Fisheries, and the Chase, Naval 
Architecture. 

Group XL — Music and Musical Instruments. 

Group XIL— Sculpture, Oil Paintings, Water Colours, Archi- 
tecture. 



THE FBENCH EXHIBITION. 235 

How representative and influential were the Com- 
mittees entrusted with the task of securing committee 
first-class exhibitors in each of these groups, work. 
will be seen from a glance at the names of the mem- 
bers composing them, as given in our Supplement 
(p. 503). They quickly got to work, and their labours 
were rewarded with such success that the French 
Grovernment, when presented by M. Sandoz, Presi- 
dent of the French Committee, with a preliminary 
report of what had been accomplished by himself 
and his colleagues, expressed, through M. Eoche, 
the Minister of Industry and Commerce, its friendly 
interest in, and good wishes for, the success of the 
undertaking, as well as "its thanks for the efforts 
which the Committees were putting forth, and which 
promised to result in the Exhibition being the most 
important yet held by France abroad." 

It is true that, in the twelve French Committees 
presiding over the various groups of organising 
exhibits, Mr. Whitley enjoyed the aid obsfaSs 
of organising appliances such as he had overcome, 
never before been able to command ; but even now 
this did not save him from the necessity of making 
as great personal efforts as ever for the success of 
his new undertaking; and the period of two and 
a half months he spent in France, travelling, lec- 
turing, devising, holding meetings, persuading and 
encouraging, was rich in the record of dif&culties 
overcome and victories achieved, even over foes and 
traducers who aimed their secret darts at him from 



^36 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

EnglaDd. Boasting his scheme to be the result of 
private enterprise and initiative, he had no reason to 
complain that the French Government did not 
espouse and countenance it even to the extent that 
the Grovernment of Italy had done so. But the 
attitude of the Bepublic was at least that of a 
benevolent neutrahty ; while from a great number of 
distinguished Frenchmen, having at heart the eco- 
nomic good of their country and the improvement 
of its pohtical relations with England, Mr. Whitley 
received the warmest encouragement and support.* 

■'' Among those who thus favoured the idea of a French Exhibition in 
London may be mentioned the Due d'Aumale, who, as the possessor of 
large estates in Sicily, had sent samples of bis wines to the Italian 
Exhibition at Earl's Court in 1888. In September, 1889, on the occasion of 
his first going to Paris in connection with his French scheme, Mr. Whitley 
had visited the Due d'Aumale at Chantilly, and was encouraged to 
persevere in his work, though of course an Orleanist Prince was pre- 
cluded by his political position from doing more. Of this interview at 
Chantilly we get a glimpse in the sketch of the Due d'Aumale as drawn 
by the writer of The World^s "Celebrities at Home" (2nd October, 
1889) : "M. de Chazelle informs him that his guests have arrived, and in 
a few minutes the Due d'Aumale is welcoming his brother Academician 
and neighbour, the Due de Noailles, who has brought over his two sons 
fi'om Champlatreux ; Monsieur Logel, tutor and companion to the Comte 
de Paris before he joined the ranks of the contributors to the Bevue des 
Deux Mondes ; Mr. John "Whitley, full of soiaie great exhibition project 
which is to put all possible competitors to silence next spring ; Monsieur 
Oacgle, Professor at St. Cyr, and translator of Prince de Plohenlohe's 
" Letters on Strategy ; " and Colonel Paul Ceresole, President of the Swiss 
Confederation in 1873, and more recently Abbe de la Confrerie des Vig- 
nerons in the historical festival at Vevey. The Due d'Aumale has said 
a few words about military literature to the Professor, explained the 
peculiar merits of Meissonier to Mr. Whitley, chatted over old days at 
Besan9on with Colonel Ceresole, and placed the young Due d'Ayen 
completely at his ease, when breakfast is announced, and he leads the 
way across the vestibule, pausing for an instant to point out the beauty 
of Dubois' equestrian statue of the Constable de Montmorency on the 
terrace as seen from a particular window." 




O 

« 2 

i i 

o 5 



THE FRENCH EXHIBITION. 237 

The same remark applies to this side of the 
water, where 'Mr. Whitley had little difficulty in 
again forming a Eeception Committee, which in- 
cluded some hundred of the most distinguished 
names in England.* 

On the 8th of February Mr. Whitley had issued 
from Paris his Initiatory Circular ; it was opening 
the end of March before the report of the Ceremony. 
French Committee of Inquiry sent to London had 
enabled him to begin the real work of organisation ; 
and on Saturday, the 17th of May, the French 
Exhibition at Earl's Court, though not yet anything 
like complete, was, nevertheless, so far advanced 
as to be ready for opening by the Lord Mayor. 
The ceremony, which had been preceded, as on 
previous occasions, by a luncheon to the Press, f was 
rendered all the more imposing from the fact that 
his Lordship, accompanied by the Lady Mayoress, 
the Sheriffs, and the City Marshal, came in full 
civic state, and formed the centre of a distin- 
guished assemblage, which included M. Caubet, 
the French Consul-General ; M. Sandoz, Chairman 

='= See Supplement, p. 500. 

f In proposing " The Press " at this luncheon, Mr. Whitley said : — 
" It may be possible to organise an Exhibition without your assistance, 
but it is most assuredly impossible for an Exhibition to become an 
acknowledged success without your powerful support. I therefore 
claim your indulgence if the picture we are endeavouring to prepare for 
the British public is not yet quite complete ; biit it ivill be shortly 
completed, and when I add that this Exhibition, from first to last, has 
been entirely organised in three months, I am confident that that 
indulgence will not be withheld from us — for ' the Press ' is not only 
just, but generous." 



238 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

of the FrencJi Committee ; Colonel North, Presi- 
dent of the Eeception Committee ; Dr. Yintras, 
of the French Hospital ; and the scene of the cere- 
mony, which was most beautifully decorated with 
flowers and festoons of French and English flags, 
received additional picturesqueness from its back- 
ground-groups of grave and white-robed Arabs from 
the African territories under the sway of France. 
But of these children of the desert more anon. 
' Advancing to the middle of this singular scene, 
Mr. Whitley said :— 

"My Lord Mayob, my Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen, — In 
inviting you, my Lord Mayor, to declare this Exhibition duly 
opened, I desire to remind your lordship that this is the third of 
the series of National Exhibitions held in these premises. 

" The idea of endeavouring to organise an Exhibition of French 
Arts, Industries, and Products in this city occurred to me two or 
three years ago, but it appeared unwise to make the attempt whilst 
our neighbours in France were so busily engrossed with the 
organisation of the most magnificent Exhibition ever held — that 
of last year on the Champ de Mars. 

" I, therefore, waited until last September before conferring with 
representative Frenchmen on the subject ; unfortunately they did 
not consider the moment a favourable one. They feared that 
exhibitors were too fatigued by the efforts put forth in 1889, and, 
as a matter of fact, it was not until the month of February in this 
year that the work of organisation commenced. 

" I was then so fortunate as to obtain the hearty co-operation 
of my friend M. Sandoz, and of a most representative French 
Executive Committee, and, desirous that the Exhibition should be 
thoroughly national in character, I stipulated that no exhibitors 
should be accepted who were not chosen by that Committee. 



THE FBENCH EXHIBITION. 239 

" If our Exhibition be not yet as complete, as instructive, or as 
interesting as we intend to make it, we confidently rely upon the 
fact being taken into account that what Jias been done has been 
accomplished within the short space of three months. 

" It would have been a pity to allow the opportunity to pass of 
displaying in London, this year, at least some portion of the beauti- 
ful exhibits and attractions which were so admired by those who 
visited the magnificent International Exhibition held last year in 
Paris, for we must remember that but a very small percentage of 
Englishmen had the privilege of visiting that Exhibition. 

" A noble institution — the French Hospital in London — is all 
the worthier of support because of the fact that, though French 
in name, it opens its doors to the afflicted of all nations, and one 
reason why our work in connection with this Exhibition has been 
a pleasant task arises from the hope we entertain that we may 
be able to aid that Hospital this year, by contributing largely to 
its funds. 

" By consentiug, my Lord Mayor, as Chief Magistrate of this 

- great City, to inaugurate the French Exhibition in London, you 

are extending not only the hand of welcome to French Exhibitors, 

but you are also thereby largely contributing to the alleviation of 

suffering. 

" I have, therefore, all the greater pleasure in inviting your 
lordship to declare this Exhibition open for the instruction and 
enjoyment of the public." 

The Lord Mayor replied : — 

" Ladies and Gentlemen, — It gives me great pleasure to be 
here to-day to take part in the opening ceremony of this excellent 
and meritorious Exhibition. It seemed to me, when I first heard 
that such an Exhibition was projected, that it was a particularly 
appropriate and happy idea, especially following so closely the 
great Exhibition in Paris, which was admittedly one of the finest, 
as it was certainly the most successful, that has ever been held. 



240 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

I imagined, and I am glad that in that I was not mistaken, that 
you would be able to gather together in London, and to show to 
the British public many of the magnificent exhibits, those 
splendid Works of Art, which adorned the French Courts at 
Paris last year. Then again, you have among you living types of 
the various races which form the great Colonial dependencies of 
the French Eepublic, and which so interested the visitors to the 
Paris Exhibition, and I shall be much surprised if your great 
Arab Encampment, when finished, does not take London by storm, 
from the interest and excitement it will create. 

" In my opinion, these Exhibitions have many-sided opera- 
tions and results. They first of all serve to perpetuate and to 
enhance the good feeling which ought to exist, and which 
happily does exist, among the great nations of the world. They 
next give a considerable and beneficial impetus to the trade and 
commerce of the countries represented, while to ourselves they 
afford to our skilled workpeople, in the various branches of trade, 
' object-lessons,' so to speak, from which many an excellent idea 
may be taken to heart, and elaborated in our own manufactures ; 
and, in no small degree, do these Exhibitions afford healthy 
amusement and innocent recreation to that great class of sight- 
seers and holiday-makers, whose name is legion in this London of 
ours. 

" I venture to believe that this French Exhibition will answer 
all these purposes and many more, and I heartily wish it success. 
The French and English nations have long felt a sympathetic and 
friendly interest in each other's prosperity. May they ever go 
forward in the van of national and moral progress, and may their 
only rivalry be in those peaceful and prosperous walks of Art, 
Science, and Industry, in which they now stand pre-eminent 
among the nations of the world, and which are here so well 
represented. It gives me great pleasure now to declare this 
Exhibition open." 

After the playing of '' God Save the Queen " and 



THE FBBNCH EXHIBITION. 241 

the "Marseillaise," M. Sandoz, in the name, and as 
President, of the Initiatory Committee of French 
Exhibitions abroad, thanked the Lord Mayor for his 
courtesy and kindness in coming to preside at the 
opening ceremony. " We thank you from the 
bottom of our hearts, my lord," said M. Sandoz, 
" and at the same time we beg your permission to 
thank the Lady Mayoress for having been kind 
enough to accompany you, and thus to add to the 
honour you have done us. May we hope that she 
will take the French Exhibition under her patronage. 
Her patronage and that of the ladies of England is 
heartily desired by us, for we know by experience 
that it always brings good fortune and is only 
accorded to that which is noble, beautiful, and 
worthy of interest." Altogether, it was a most 
successful day, " a day," in the words of a French 
chronicler, "marked by no mishap, by not even the 
slightest accident, nor even by a cloud, for the 
heavens, which had evidently ranged themselves 
with France, remained clear till a very late hour. 
Union, good will, cordiality, and good humour 
characterised this great assemblage of Frenchmen, 
who, perhaps for the first time, on foreign soil, 
talked not of politics, feeling only a sentiment "of 
sincere patriotism, and, what Englishmen must have 
thought very remarkable, ceased not to speak in 
the British diapason, that is to say, in an undertone." 
" Noble, beautiful, and worthy of interest," were 
the words which M. Sandoz had applied to the con- 

16 



242 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

tents of the Exhibition, but before describing, or at 
Exhibition l^ast characterising these, let us glance at 
Buildings ^Yie setting or framework which Mr. Whit- 

and o 

Grounds, ley had been at much pains to refurbish and 
render worthy of this third great National " Life- 
Picture " of his, and its "Tournament of Peace " ; 
for the Exhibition buildings and grounds were as 
a garment which had to be remodelled and trimmed 
afresh to suit the varying fashion of every new year. 
In connection with the Fine Art and the Industrial 
Sections there had been constructed, close to the 
main entrance, a spacious and tasteful pavilion, 
called the " Salon du Prince de Galles," the idea 
and treatment of which were to ensure its becoming 
one of the most beautiful features of the Exhibition, 
as well as its being used for the reception of dis- 
tinguished visitors. The exhibits here, specially 
contributed by the leading exhibitors, were in- 
tended to illustrate the various styles and progress, 
of Erench decorative art. Being resolved to spare 
no pains to make the artistic adornment of the 
Exhibition worthy of the valuable display within 
its walls, the Executive Council had decided to 
redecorate the whole of the premises, and accord- 
ingly placed this important work in the hands 
of MM. Eube, Chaperon, and Jambon— the artist- 
decorators who had been entrusted with the super- 
vision of the elaborate ornamentation of the Paris 
Exhibition in the preceding year. The southern 
and northern fa9ades of the main building and the 




<: 2 



:=5 ^ 



'TiiE PbENGE exhibition. 243 

6ther feiitrances had been decorated by them with 
arabesques, frescoes, shields, and variegated designs. 
The colours, though bright and striking, were well 
chosen, gold had been freely introduced, and the 
general effect was eminently tasteful and pleasing. 
The walls, fences, and bridges, &c., in the gardens 
had also' b^en redecorated, but in a less ambitious 
styl'a Waills of freestone, with open balustrades, 
and panels with shields and crowns depending from 
borders of foliage were the principal features. The 
interior of the main building had also been repainted, 
and draped with hangings of primrose and pale blue, 
and from the roof hung rows of French and English 
flags, relieved by bannerets on gilt staves. The 
colonnade at the main entrance had also been 
decorated in a pleasing manner. At intervals 
throughout the length of the nave, and marking 
the location of the various groups, prosceniums or en- 
seignes of exceedingly handsome design were erected. 
The grand staircase, leading from the main building 
to the Pont des Arts and the Earl's Court entrance, 
had been remodelled so as to provide two spacious 
landings or platforms, from which a splendid view 
of the whole of the interior of the main building 
could be obtained. Finally, the gardens had been 
carefully laid out so as to present the utmost variety 
in the space available, and, with the extensive 
pleasure grounds, lawns, trees, shrubberies, walks, 
and numerous seats, combined to offer a most attract 
live resort and place of recreation. 



244 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

The General or Industrial Sections of the Exhibi* 
Industrial ^^^n, Comprising the Groups numbered from 
Exhibits, i^ to XI. inclusive (see p. 234), occupied 
the whole of the main building — an area of upwards 
of 140,000 square feet — and, with the Fine Art 
Department, formed such an interesting display as 
redounded to the honour of France no less than to 
the credit of the Committees, and to that of the 
man who had thus revived in London, though 
on a smaller scale, the glories of the Centennial 
Exhibition in Paris— the most successful the world 
had ever seen. It is true that, owing to the brief 
space of time within which it had been organised, 
the Exhibition did not present anything like finished 
form until three weeks after it was opened ; but 
in this general account of its contents we need 
not detail the various stages by which it reached 
completeness. As in the case of the Italian Exhi- 
bition, the most attractive feature of its French 
successor was undoubtedly the Fine Art Section, 
though the Industrial Groups were also full of 
novelty and interest, and we think we cannot better 
characterise the exhibits in these groups than 
by giving the following enumeration thereof in the 
order in which they met the eye of the visitor start- 
ing from the Main Entrance at West Brompton : — • 

Group VI., Embracing Education, French Institutions, Art 
and Educational materials, Paper, Printing, Book-Binding, En- 
graving, and Photograplis ; Pierre Larousse's Grand Universal 
Dictionary of the Nineteenth Century; medical and other 



THE FBENCH EXHIBITION. 24Q 

treatises ; illustrated books, Atlas of Geography, and engravings ; 
copper-plate engravings ; works on Architecture ; cigarette paper 
in great variety ; printing in colours ; exemplified also by 
the Librairie Illustree ; illustrated posters ; hand-painted bills 
and posters ; india-rubber reductions and enlargements of litho- 
graphic and typographic plates ; galvanotypy ; reproduction of 
copper plates ; heliotypy, photographic prints, and printing 
inks ; chromo-lithographs ; samples of printing in photogravure ; 
cliches taken from photo-engravings, water-colours, and photo- 
graphs, prepared for the printing-press ; and galvanotype castings 
taken therefrom ; samples in black and in colour of proofs taken 
from cliches of pen-and-ink sketches, water-colours, pictures, 
and photographs ; photographic plaques and pellicules ; cards for 
photographs ; photographs, and revolving stand for them ; writing 
inks, liquid gums, and sealing wax. 

Group VIII., An important one, ranging over a wide field of Art 
products, and divided into three classes, Class I. representing 
Jewellery, Goldsmith's work, and Watch and Clock-making. Of 
Jewellery in every material the supply was indeed a copious one, 
including brooches, pins, sleeve-links, and ear-rings of polished 
steel ; fancy silver jewellery, and ivory miniatures ; sleeve-buttons 
in gold, silver, and plaque ; ladies' necessaires in gold and silver ; 
gold and silver necklaces, brooches, bracelets, and rings set with 
diamonds, rubies, sapphires, emeralds, and pearls ; mourning 
jewellery in gold and silver, bracelets, ear-rings, combs, pins, 
and other items of personal adornment ; watches of all kinds ; 
travelling clocks ; fancy knots and handles for walking-sticks and 
umbrellas ; ivory, mother-of-pearl, and onyx ornaments ; purses 
of fanciful design ; engraved shells and mounted cameos ; cut 
stones ; imitation antique silver work ; articles in platinum wire ; 
fancy inlaid bracelets, brooches, and chains ; woodwork inlaid with 
tortoiseshell, gold, and silver ; fans, steel and oxidised jewellery, 
and artificial pearls, a steel coronet, held together by 8,000 rivets. 

Class II. of Group VIII. embraced Artistic and Imitation Bronzes, 
and Wrought Metals. Of bronzes a strikingly beautiful, as well as 
copious display, representing an overwhelming variety of subjects; 



246 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON, 

bronzes for gas and electric lamps, being reproductions of antique 
models ; imitation bronzes and marbles ; marbles and bronze sets 
of mantel-pieces, and bronze chandeliers and flower-holders ; fine 
marble work, and antique silver plate; metallic basket work — a 
novelty ; hygienic copper saucepans, inlaid with silver ; statues, 
busts, and jardinieres in imitation bronze and terra-cotta ; poly- 
chrome bronzes, statuettes, and jardinieres. 

Class III. of Group VIII. embraced Ceramics, Enamels, Mosaics, 
and Glass ; enamel mosaics for pictures ; glass ware in great 
variety ; statuettes in china, terra-cotta, and porcelain ; fancy 
glass and crystal ware, of tempting colours and designs ; terra- 
cotta, invested with the beauty of Art ; decorated porcelain, 
mounted on bronze, and said to be expressly manufactured for the 
English market ; fancy china ; painted and dressed terra-cotta 
statuettes, and porcelain ; special models of table services in china ; 
round, oval, and square glass shades for clocks and other articles ; 
decorated window glass, window lead- work, and diamond glass ; 
artistic imitations of antique and modern articles in marble, bronze, 
wood, iron, ivory, and china ; enamels, bonbonnieres, scent-bottles, 
vases, and small articles of furniture ; porcelain wreaths and 
flowers, nosegays, and mirrors ; decorated china, porcelain, and 
terra-cotta, with fancy plush items ; sheet glass, glass slabs, 
smooth and rough glass pavements, glass tiles, and glass mould- 
ings ; glass windows of artistic designs. 

Gkoup VII., devoted to Furniture and Decoration, included 
furniture with brass and marble ornaments and brass work 
for decorative purposes ; monumental chimney-piece, of artificial 
stone, in the style of the fourteenth century ; hangings of 
Cordova leather ; and chairs, covered with the same material, in 
the various styles of the period of Henry II., Louis XIV., Louis 
XV., and Louis XVI. ; carved wood barometer after the Louis XVI. 
style ; luxurious furniture and curtains ; reproductions of antique 
tapestries ; panels and boards of various wood, a specialty being 
the application of boards for the purpose of visiting-cards ; draw- 
ings and water-colours for decorative purposes ; screens and show- 
c,ases ; with carved console table ; artistic leathe;r work^ decoratiyp 



THE FBENCH EXHIBITION. 247 

panels, screens, card-tables, chairs, and arm-chairs in various styles; 
reproductions of ancient costumes and ornaments for theatrical and 
other Art purposes; easels, artists' studio cabinets, modelling 
tables, pedestals, automatic easy-chairs. 

Group XI., Music and Musical Instruments, including violins, 
violoncellos, guitars, mandolines, harmonicas, and accordions ; 
pianos ; mechanical hand-organ with statuettes in motion ; and 
mechanical piano, performing by means of perforated sheets ; 
organs and harmoniums ; musical works, methods, studies, and 
compositions for the piano ; new portable tympani, or kettledrums, 
without barrels ; and new metallic bassoon, having the exact tone 
of the old wooden pattern ; a novel piano with steel foundation, 
removable. 

Group I. comprised Vegetable products, Stuffs, Silks, Dress and 
Fashions, these exhibits, though not numerous, being marked by 
all the taste and elegance usually associated with the products of 
the Gay Capital. Of Embroidery, both hand-made and machine- 
made, several examples, with reproductions of antique pieces ; 
silks and shawls ; tulles and lace ; bonnets, fans, and sun-shades 
of exquisite taste ; silk and cotton lace ; embroidered dresses, and 
trimmings for robes and mantles ; table linen, curtains, Venice 
point and Art guipures ; an embroidery-frame at work ; shirts and 
braces ; jersey cloth ; ready-made corsets ; lace and embroidery ; 
urs, robes, and mantles ; knitted silk purses, and satin garters, 
and boots and shoes of the most luxurious type. 

Group IX., A miscellaneous collection, amid which articles de 
Paris, almost summing up the potentialities of fanciful production, 
abounded in great variety : — morocco leather work ; cabinets, 
clock-cases, cigar-cases, &c. ; basket ware ; Eiffel Tower flower- 
stands, dog-kennels, flower-pots, sedan-chairs, paper-racks, and 
music-stands ; non-explosive india-rubber balloons for advertise- 
ments ; shells converted into ornaments of domestic utility ; me- 
chanical, pneumatic, and other toys ; jumping dogs, monkeys, and 
bears ; pocket and surprise fans ; mother-of-pearl, bone, and ivory 
fans, richly mounted and beautifully painted ; polished steel jewel- 
lery ; chains for watches, scissors, keys, and dogs ; sleeve-buttons, 



248 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

whistles, and numerous other items of the Hke nature; metallic 
basket-work ; lamp-shades, of really remarkable beauty, both as to 
colour and design ; pocket walking-sticks made of steel — that is to 
say, after expansion, capable of being packed into the semblance 
and compass of a cigarette case ; mourning jewellery in wood, and 
jet chains, necklaces, and bracelets ; musical boxes and other 
mechanical toys — geese, rabbits, dogs, sheep, cats, and eleiohants ; 
collars and straps for dogs ; basket-work, of high Art merit, in 
amber, coral, and fibrine ; engraving on glass ; night lamps, with 
screens, shades, and other supplementary appliances ; the stands 
of bronze and other materials studded with coloured stones ; trunks 
and travelling-bags, of novel design and unfamiliar aspect, one 
trunk being capable of conversion into a bed ; gloves, and imitation 
jewellery ; metal penholders and pencil-cases, and glass penholders 
and pens ; briar-wood pipes, pronounced to be anti-nicotine ; 
jewellery in profusion, the processes of gilding and silvering being 
here practically demonstrated ; unbreakable dolls of all kinds ; 
combs, brushes, and fans of tortoiseshell ; the looking-glasses 
framed with the same material seemed to derive distinction 
from the alliance ; articulated dolls, both dressed and undressed ; 
fans and fancy articles, such as fire-screens, flower-stands, &c., 
made out of various grass plants ; handbags, purses, cigar and 
cigarette cases, and other smoking accessories ; Algerian lanterns 
and night lamps ; aquariums for ornamenting the table, and me- 
chanical birds ; Oriental bronzes, and night lamps with coloured 
glass ornaments ; opera-glasses and eye-glasses, manufactured at 
Morez in the Jura ; mosaics, and ivory and tortoiseshell brushes ; 
Algerian costumes, and miscellaneous Algerian articles, such as 
caps, fans, slippers, tambourines, bracelets, brooches, belts, hair- 
pins, and scents ; optical instruments of all kinds ; cutlery in all 
its branches ; combs, pins, and other articles in imitation tortoise- 
shell ; waterproof blacking ; paper-knives bronzed and enamelled, 
and photographic albums in cases, bronzed and silvered ; new 
india-rubber contrivance for tracing designs for embroidery on 
cloth ; perambulators for children, and for the dolls that children 
love to propel, 



THE FBENCH EXHIBITION. 249 

Geoup v., Embracing Chemical and Colonial products, Perfumery, 
Applied Chemistry, Pharmaceutical products, and Medical and 
Surgical appliances. Among the most striking items were arti- 
ficial ear-drums for the relief of those who suffer from deafness, a 
vast body of medical testimony being arrayed in favour of the in- 
vention ; feeding bottles and marine linseed ; capsules and globules 
for pharmaceutical products ; works on veterinary medicine, 
veterinary drugs and instruments, and vaccine matter ; pharma- 
ceutical and antiseptic products ; physiological products, pepsines, 
peptones, &c. ; Vichy waters and pastilles ; alcoholic varnishes; 
ox-foot oil, and glues for upholstery ; raw materials for perfumery, 
flower extracts, and cachous ; strengthening and hygienic biscuits 
and chocolate ; chemical products for pharmaceutical, dyeing, and 
artistic purposes; carolus electro-magnetic medals, mineral oils; 
a new soap ; fragrant ozone, and verbena water ; stearic acids, 
glycerines, and candles ; Eau de Botot, said to have secured the 
commendation of the Medical Academy of Paris. 

Geoup IV., devoted to Minerals, Metallurgy, Agricultural and 
Horticultural implements, Electricity, Eailways, Coach-building, 
Architecture, and Building materials. Among the exhibits were 
natural mineral whitening chalk ; patent French lithoid glazing ; 
new patent system of carpentering in iron ; red and white bricks 
for building purposes ; Le Flamboyant, a portable stove, with 
smoke-consuming apparatus for the interior of chimneys ; illustra- 
tions of work in asphalt ; electrical appliances for domestic use ; 
lamps, bells, and alarums ; the Paravoleur, or Thief-stopper — an 
ingenious contrivance by which absolute security seems to be 
obtained against the entrance of thieves or other intruders into one's 
room ; electric apparatus for registering the revolutions of wheels ; 
carbons for electric piles and lights, and for microphones ; blocks 
and slabs of carved and polished marble and stone ; alabaster ; 
polishing machine and materials ; articles in bronzed cast iron ; 
metal apparatus for the manufacture of effervescing waters ; table 
syphons, and seltzogenes ; portable military kitchen for the Army 
and Navy, said to have been adopted by the French Government ; 
kitchen-ranges and washing machines ; hygienic coppersmith's 



250 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

work, designed to obviate the disadvantages inseparable from 
tinning by the incorporation of silver and copper; children's 
carriages, arm-chairs, Bath-chairs, and rocking-chairs — a very 
attractive exhibit. 

Group II. — Agricultural and Alimentary products, and leather, 
embracing dressed calf skins ; prepared and dyed sheep skins ; 
harness and saddlery ; a beautiful model, costing nearly a thousand 
pounds, for showing the working of the machinery used in the 
manufacture of a substitute for butter ; and all the delicacies 
in which France is so prolific ; truffles from Perigord ; Bor- 
deaux pigeons and quails, the aromatic mustard of Normandy, 
olives, pates de foie gras, mushrooms, plums, bottled fruits and 
vegetables of all kinds ; the chocolate of Menier ; cocoa and tea, 
and French confectionery in endless variety of form and colour. 

Gkoup III., devoted to Wines, Liqueurs, Beer, and other bever- 
ages, and Oils. Of Champagne there were several exhibitors, one 
of whom constructed his stall in the shape of a huge champagne 
bottle; sparkling Vouvray wines ; wines of the Cote d'Or; Algerian 
brandies ; Armagnac brandies ; Castagnier wine ; fine Champagne 
brandies ; Bordeaux wines of various vintages ; Cognac brandies ; 
Charente brandies ; bottled beer ; Cura9oa ; a Kiosk in the 
Western Garden retailed Normandy cider and apple brandy ; sweet 
white wine ; Chablis, first vintage 1870 ; Martinique rum ; liqueurs 
and syrups ; fruits preserved in syrup and in brandy ; wines of the 
Gironde ; Byrrh, au vin de Malaga, and Eibedine. 

It must be admitted, surely, that this was an 
imposing enough, display in certain departments of 
French handicraft, more especially those in which 
the French, as being unrivalled, were well fitted to 
furnish English artisans and producers with new ideas, 
no less than to impress the exhibitors themselves 
— who numbered 857 — with the prime importance of 
England a^ a market for their wares, as pointed out 




2: 5 



THi: FRENCH EXHIBITION, 251 

by Mr. Whitley. '' With her great and varied 
resources," he had written, " and superior geo- 
graphical position in relation to G-reat Britain, 
France, in competing for our custom, has an 
immense commercial advantage over other coun- 
tries. This is manifest from the fact that her exports 
to Great Britain already average about ^40,000,000 
annually, or more than one quart er of the whole of 
her export trade. ^'' 

The excellence and instructiveness of the greater 
part of the industrial exhibits above enumerated 
were readily acknowledged by all who inspected 
them with conscientiousness and care, although in 
the opinion of many it was the Fine Art Section of 
the Exhibition, forming Group XII., which attracted 
most admiration. The eminence of the French 
Committee,* which volunteered to enlist jijneArt 
recruits for this battalion of Mr. Whitley's section. 
French Legion of foreign auxiliaries, had been in 

* This Fine Art Committee was thus composed : Hon. Presidents : MM. 
Carolus Duran and J. L. Gerome (Painter, Member of the Institute). — 
President : Le Baron Delort De Gleon (General Commissioner for Egypt 
at the UniversalExhibition, Paris, 1889). — Vice-Presidents : M. Bartholdi, 
Sculptor ; M. Toulmouche, Painter ; M. Yon (Edmond), Painter. — Secre- 
taries : M. Jourdain (Eoger), Painter ; M. La Touche, Painter. — Members : 
M. A. Aublet, Painter ; M. Barrias, Sculptor, Member of the Institute ; 
M. Benjamin Constant, Painter; M. Beraud (Jean), Painter ; M. Billotte 
(Pi),, Painter ; M. Boisseau, Sculptor ; M. Carriere, Painter ; M. Coutan, 
Sculptor ; M. Delaunay (Elie), Painter, Member of the Institute ; M. Des- 
boutins. Engraver ; M. Duez, Painter ; M. Dumaresq (Armand), Painter ; 
M. Haro, Expert ; M. Hottot, Sculptor ; M. Lambert, Painter ; M. Eoty, 
Member Institute ; M. Toche (Charles), Painter.— ^Chief of Fine Art 
Section and Assistants : M. Guillernet (J.) ; M. Dupleix ,(A.) ; M. Glau- 
dinont (E.), Chef de I'instaUation. 



252 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

itself a guarantee of success; though Mr. Whitley 
himself, by one of those happy inspirations which 
have so often aided him in his difficult work^ had 
greatly assisted them in the performance of their 
task. Keferring to the subject afterwards, he said : * 
" I remember that one day I had the pleasure of 
meeting several friends belonging to the rival camps 
of the two salons which were then just about to open 
in the Champs Elysees and on the Champ de Mars. 
After an exchange of friendly repartee between the 
partisans of the two factions, I said to them, half in 
earnest, half in jest : ' You do not appear to be in 
perfect agreement, gentlemen ; why do you not bury 
the hatchet in a foreign country, and exhibit all 
together in our Exhibition in London ? ' And there 
is nothing of which my English colleagues and I are 
so proud as of the fact that, as I hoped, this invita- 
tion was taken seriously and accepted." f The 
President of the Eine Art Committee, Baron Delort 
de Gleon, and the chief of the Eine Art Section, M, 
J. Guillemet, rendered invaluable assistance in the 

* At tlie Banquet to the French Committee and Jurors, September 30, 
1890 ; see p. 278. 

f For the first time in history there were in 1890 in Paris two rival 
salons, both open at the same time. The bitter feud, which was the 
cause of the Army of Artists in France becoming divided into two camps, 
arose out of differences of opinion concerning the International Exhibition 
of the previous year. In 1890, therefore, there was an Exhibition of Fine 
Arts in the Champs Elysees, and another on the Champ de Mars ; and 
what was really interesting was the fact that whilst these two factions 
were "at daggers drawn" at home, Mr. Whitley got them to agree to 
have their paintings hung " cheek by jowl" in London. They responded 
to his appeal, and thus consummated what one of his French colleagues 
designated as un manage des arts on the neutral soil of Old England. 



THE FBEmn EXHIBITION. 253 

collection and selection of the works of art ex- 
hibited. 

On the walls of the Fine Art Section at West 
Brompton were hung above 800 pictures, most of 
which had been shown either at the Great Cen- 
tennial Exhibition (of 1889), at the Salon of the 
Champs Elysees (Palais de I'lndustrie), or at the 
new Salon on the Champ de Mars for the first time 
in this same year (1890) ; and this section embraced 
no fewer than 467 different exhibitors,* including 
some of the most distinguished names in the French 
world of modern art — painters like Louise Abbema, 
Auguste Allonge, Armand-Dumaresq, Albert Aublet, 
Eugene Bellange, P. E. Berton, Henrj^ Bourgault- 
Ducoudray, Horace de Callias, Carolus Duran, Pierre 
Carrier-Belleuse, Clairin, Dantan, E. Debat-Ponsan, 
Elie J. Delaunay, Guillaume Dubufe, E. Duez, A. J. 
Edouard, M. A. Flameng, J. P. Flandrin, Jose 
Frappa, J. L. Gerome, L. A. Girardot, P. Glaize, 
Paul Grolleron, J. Jacquet, F. A. Laguillermie, 
Gaston La Touche, Jules Lefebvre, Madeleine 
Lemaire, Emile Levy, E. Y. Luminals, Edouard 
Manet, L. G. Pelouse, Alfred de Eichemont, A. P. 
Eoll, Ed. A. Sain, G. S. Saint-Pierre, L. P. 
Sergent, Paul Soyer, Aug. Toulmouche, de Viellefroy, 
E. C. Ton, Zacharie-Astruc, &c. ; and sculptors like 
Aube, Barrias, Bartholdi, Bogino, Joseph Cheret, 
Gustave Dore, Doublemard, Falguiere, Gerome, 

* Exhibitors in Industrial Sections, 857 ; Exliibitors in Fine Art 
Section, 467 ; works of art exhibited, 1,024. 



254 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Madra&Si, Marquet de Vasselot, Antonin Mercie, 
Moreau-Yauthier, Eingel d'lllzacli, 0. Eoby, Bene 
de Saint-Marceaux, E. Soldi, &g. 

We repeat that the masterpieces of these and 

Press other famous painters and sculptors de- 

Fine°Art" cidedly formed the most meritorious and 

Section, attractive section in the Exhibition; and 

with regard to the impression produced on the public 

mind by these art treasures which Mr. Whitley had 

contrived to procure for the edification of his 

countrymen, we think we cannot discharge the duty 

of an impartial chronicler better than by quoting 

a few opinions from the leading organs of public 

opinion : — 

T]ie Saturday Review wrote : — " When we remember that it is 
iiot official, it is remarkable how so excellent a collection of the 
arts and industries of France has been collected and arranged in 
Bo short a time. Never before — certainly not since 1862 — has 
there been seen in London such an extensive display of French 
bronzes and jewellery, real and imitated. The great firm of Susse 
Freres has a magnificent display, the principal attraction of which 
is a work by Croisy> intended for a centrepiece, and called ' The 
Army of the Loire.' It is a reproduction of the monument erected 
at Le Mans to the memory of General Chanzy, and has been pur- 
■chased by public subscription for presentation to the Due d'Orleans,. 
* as a souvenir of his gallant desire to serve in the ranks of the 
French army as a private soldier.' It is certainly well calculated- 
to make us eiivy the artistic talent of our neighbours; for un- 
questionably no moderli monument, at once so picturesque and in 
every sense so completely a work of art, is to be found throughout 
the length and breadth of the United Kingdom. If a proof were 
Wanted of the thoroughness with which artistic studies are pursued 



^HE FBENCH EXHIBITtOl^. 258 

in France, it would be found in the hundreds of bronze figures 
shown here, some of which are not more than an inch in height, 
others colossal, but all showing the same perfect knowledge of 
anatomy and of artistic technique. The modellers of these bronzes 
are genuine artists. In the vestibule, opposite the main entrance, 
has been placed that celebrated bronze vase known as ' La Vigne,' 
the design for which was furnished by '^Gustave Dore. If we err 
not, it was one of the attractions of the Exhibition of 1878." 

The Times declared to be " interesting the pictures of three' 
of the greatest living painters of portraits, MM. Elie Delaunay,. 
Carolus Duran, and Debat-Ponsan. The first is not so popularly' 
known as the others ; but such a portrait as that of ' Mme. Toul- 
mouche ' must confirm the deep impression that his collected work 
made last year on all who saw it at the Champ de Mars. CaroluS 
Duran, more brilliant and showy, and almost as great as a colourist, 
sends a very clever full length of his daughter in walking dress — ' 
gray and pink, with gray hat ; three studies, and the famous 
' Deposition.' The last is a sort of souvenir of Velasquez and 
Bibera, and as such, and as a study of deeply contrasted tones, it 
is admirable. The painter's pupil and friend, Miss Lee-Eobbing 
(who is American by birth, but almost naturalised in Paris), 
exhibits a * Sleep ' and a fancy portrait of a girl on a high seat 
which might almost have been signed by her master. Debat* 
Ponsan's portrait of his wife is first-rate ; but it yields in interest 
to an older portrait study, with the surroundings of a conservatory 
— the group of M. and Mme. Guillemet by the late Edouard Manet, 
the real founder of the modern Impressionist school. This is in its 
way a marvellously fine thing, worthy of the painter of ' Le Bon 
Bock ' at his best. In the large room, with the pictures of Carolus 
Duran, are many more pictures that have a certain interest, but 
perhaps the only two that call for notice are the very elegant and 
decorative scene of a French bathing-place by Albert Aublet, and 
the soft, peaceful ' Sweep-net Pishing in the Seine ' by Baillet. It 
would be hard to beat this last as a representation of the misty 
calm of an early morning in September. Quinton's 'Bonneuil 
Plam— Sunset ' might pass for a very tolerable Daubigny j and a 



^56 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

delightful pastel of • The Corbeville Chestnuts ' by Pierre Prins 
is as thorough a piece of workmanship as is to be found in 
the gallery. Luminais's ' Exorcism ' is a fine picture, which 
deserves celebrity ; Couturier's ' Sailors heaving the Capstan ' is a 
plucky exercise of the painter's invention." 

The Morning Post wrote : — " A powerful portrait by M. Wencker 
of Boulanger, the veil-known ironworker, might well pass for an 
ideal likeness of Vulcan holding with a pair of tongs a piece of 
red-hot iron which he is about to hammer into form upon the 
anvil. For English and French visitors one of the most interesting 
pictures in the galleries is that by M. Bellange representing the 
journey of Queen Victoria from Treport to the Chateau d'Eu, when 
she first visited France in 1843 as the guest of Louis Philippe. 
Her Majesty is seated in a coach drawn by eight horses, and 
opposite to her is the Due d'Orleans. There is, moreover, one 
room devoted altogether to a collection of brilliantly coloured 
scenes in Cochin China, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Japan by 
M. Louis Dumoulin." 

The following was the opinion of The Daily Chronicle : — " To 
the numerous attractions of the French Exhibition at Earl's Court 
the management have just added an extensive and interesting 
collection of paintings, which have been on view this season at 
both the Paris salons. Scarcely a day has passed since the opening 
that has not seen a new feature imported into the Exhibition, 
which, with nearly three months yet to run, may be said to possess 
the rare merit of being complete. There is, indeed, more than 
can be exhausted in a single day. The pictures alone, numbering 
as they do something like 800, are well worth a special visit. Seven 
additional rooms have been opened for the paintings and drawings 
which have arrived within the past few days from Paris, and real 
artistic taste has been displayed in hanging them. This, it may 
be mentioned, is the first time that works of art from both Paris 
■salons have been exhibited in the same year in London. The 
collection includes works by the greatest living French masters, 
and prominent among them is the magnificent painting of ' Lady 
Godiva,' by Jules Lefebvre, and also for the first time in England 



THE FBENCH EXHIBITION. 257 

there is on view the celebrated collection of drawings — to the 
number of nearly 200 — by Paul Kenouard, which were admired 
this year in Paris by the Prince of Wales." 

The Daily Telegraj^Ji : "An opportunity of seeing in London a 
large number of pictures from the chief galleries at Paris is so 
exceptional that the collection which fills several rooms at the 
French Exhibition should not be neglected by students of con- 
temporary art. As every one knows, a spirit of faction amongst 
certain leading painters in France resulted this year in the 
organising of two salons, though what the arrangements are 
likely to be for next spring it is at present difficult to say." 

The Daily Graphic: "In the use of crayon the French put 
English artists altogether to the blush. For them crayon is . 
made almost as expressive as colour and brush, and the enormous 
effect for good it exerts on their painted work is not properly 
understood in England. In the rendering of flowers in this 
manner, Madame Madeleine Lemaire and M. Yon show how 
pliable is this chalk to translate colour, delicate form, and even 
the niost fragile of textures, while M. Eenouard displays, in an 
incomparable manner, its power in reproducing character and in 
translating grace. Many of the drawings The Grajjhic owes to his 
genius — for it is nothing less — are here, together with the masterly 
work executed by him in Paris and America, constituting together 
a wonderful panorama of life in Ireland ; in the theatres of England 
and France, before and behind the curtain; in the American 
Senate ; in the prisons, and in the art worlds on both sides of the 
Channel ; in the Conservatoire, and in the Salvation Army — a 
truly marvellous combination to issue with such uniform success 
from the pencil of one man." 

The Morning Advertiser remarked: — "The many attractions of 
the French Exhibition at Earl's Court are increasing their hold 
on the public fancy, if the fact may be inferred from the 
crowds of visitors who are daily hurrying thither from far and 
near. For many of these its marvellous resources as an immense 
storehouse of art of many kinds, presenting innumerable subjects 
of profitable study, and a profusion of art manufactures which 

17 



258 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

delight the eye by the beauty of form, or of conception, which 
is so largely characteristic of French art, and the novelty which 
is constantly presented, in form, colouring, material, or treatment, 
are only now beginning to produce the favourable impressions 
which were from the first created on more perceptive or appre- 
ciative minds. The collection of furniture, ornamental porcelain 
and glass, bronzes, statuary, jewellery, dress fabrics, and a host of 
others are certainly being scanned with greater interest and atten- 
tion than ever before, and the primary object of the Exhibition is thus 
in a fair way of being satisfactorily realised. ... It is in the vast 
and splendid picture gallery, however, that the main interest of the 
Exhibition may at present be said to centre, and what remains to 
us of summer time and daylight should not be allowed to pass 
away without an inspection of its many treasures of art. During 
the last few months the directors have been hard at work with the 
object of enriching the gallery by a special exhibit of some of the 
best works which were on view in the French section of the Paris 
Exhibition of last year. They have made strenuous efforts to 
obtain also a good collection from both the Paris salons of the 
current year. The enterprise was necessarily attended with much 
diiSculty, but they have had influential and zealous collaborateurs, 
and, thanks to the united efforts of these gentlemen, a valuable and 
instructive addition of works of the highest merit has been made 
to the gallery, which must render it during the remainder of the 
Exhibition one of the best visited spots in all London." 

The Evening Standard also thus added its testimony: — "The 
managers of the French Exhibition have completed, not without 
grave difficulties, their gallery of examples of the best French 
school of painters, and there is now on view, in the cluster of 
rooms allotted to fine art, a valuable, interesting, and instructive 
collection of paintings. Many of the pictures were shown at the 
great Exhibition of last year, in Paris ; and a large number of 
others have come direct from the walls of the two salons of the 
present year. In all there are fully 700 pictures, which have been 
selected with great judgment, making altogether a choice collection 
of contemporary French art." 



THE FBENGH EXHIBITION. 259 

The World wrote : — " The derelict beings who are, according to 
their individual tastes, cursing or blessing the occur ations which 
keep them in town at this time of year may be glad to have their 
attention called to the collection of pictures now on view at the 
French Exhibition. The decidedly meagre collection with which 
the Exhibition opened has been strengthened by the arrival of a 
considerable number of works from both the salon of the Champ 
de Mars and the salon of the Champs Elysees. The result is a 
show of pictures which should by no means be inissed by any 
lover of modern art who happens to be in town. Should the 
visitor to the above 'collection of pictures feel, after he has passed 
through the galleries, that the result of so much earnest effort has 
had too sobering an effect on him, let him turn into the room 
reserved to the black-and-white drawings of M. Paul Eenouard, 
one of the best-known illustrators on the staff of The Graphic. 
These drawings are not only admirable as proofs of draughtsman- 
ship, but they are extraordinarily individual, and humorous to a 
degree that is only too rare in this melancholy world. That 
M. Eenouard is ready to appreciate the tragic side of life as well as 
the comic is proved by his sketches of * The Blind,' and the series 
of 'In the Prisons,' wherein one, of a convict in his lonely cell, 
'listening to the noise in the street,' is curiously suggestive and 
clever. Altogether this roomful of drawings will well repay a 
visit, and the authorities of the French Exhibition have done 
well to secure so great an attraction for all who can appreciate 
artistic skill, humour, and pathos combined," 

From the above extracts it will appear that Mr. 
Whitley had more than sufficiently at- 

"^ ^ . , "^ Complete- 

tained his primary aim in providing for ness of Life- 
the higher entertainment and instruction 
of visitors to his Exhibition; but as in the case of 
his two first " Life-Pictures " and '' Tournaments of 
Labour," he had rightly deemed that his duty did 



260 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

not altogether stop liere. Instruction is never more 
palatable than when it partakes of the nature of 
recreation ; while, on the other hand, recreation 
assumes its highest form when combined with 
instruction. In organising an Exhibition devoted 
to the Arts, Industries, and Eesources of Erance, 
was it possible to overlook the fact that France is a 
Colonial Power ? And yet how many Englishmen 
had ever realised this fact, or had any conception of 
. the variety of races owning allegiance to the Eepub- 
lican tricolour ? It has been said that Erance has 
colonies but no colonists, that Germany has colonists 
but no colonies, and that England has both colonies 
and colonists. Though not very prolific, perhaps, 
in colonists, France had "colonial possessions, and 
was engaged, as well as ourselves, in labouring to 
bring the expedients and resources of Western 
civilisation home to semi-primitive races." Of 
these races the most prominent are the wild 
Mahomedan tribes of Northern Africa, and Mr. 
Whitley determined, at all costs and hazards, to 
include some picturesque portraiture of these sons 
of the desert in his " Life Picture " of the people to 
whom they are subject. 

In arranging for this most interesting feature of 
The the Exhibition, his idea was to illustrate, 
"Wild East." g^g YiYi(Jiy ^s possiblc, the mamicrs and 
customs, rites, sports, and pastimes — in short, the 
daily life of the inhabitants of the countries in the 
East owning allegiance to France. In order to do 



THE FRENCH EXHIBITION. 261 

this in the most effectual way, to "transplant," as 
it were, a section of Africa to Earl's Court, Mr. 
Whitley determined to despatch a commissioner to 
that country, invested with full authority to make all 
arrangements necessary for the successful realisation 
of the project. For this task the choice fell upon 
M. Maiden -Er cole, of Paris, and that gentleman 
accordingly proceeded to Algiers, whence he 
journeyed for six days into the desert to a place 
called Tuggurth, a distance of five hundred miles 
from the coast, where, after lengthy negotiations, he 
succeeded in prevailing upon a body of one hundred 
of the natives — men, women, and children — to accom- 
pany him to England. 

It was the chief object of the commissioner to 
get together a company which should be thoroughly 
representative of the tribes from which it was selected, 
and this object was successfully attained, though not 
without great dif6.culty and expense. The whole troop 
of Kabyles, Arabs, and Mountaineers thus brought to 
England included horsemen and camel-drivers from 
Biskra, black warriors, or " Touaregs,'' from Tuggurth, 
shepherds and goatherds from Constantine, wizards 
and musicians from Setif, and dancing girls, or " Ouled 
Nayles,'' from El-Ahab-Biskra. Native trades were 
also represented; sweetmeat-makers, a ^^ ChibooJi:-" 
or pipemaker, a Burnous-weaver, an armourer or 
manufacturer of the '^ Moiohala,'' or Arab scimitar, 
dyers, basket-makers, a dentist, the sight of whose 
"tools" was enough to drive away the worst form 



262 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

of toothache, and last, but not least, a soothsayer, or 
" Taleb,'' from Wajji. 

To complete the company it was necessary that 
there should be a captam or leader m command, and 
further efforts on the part of the commissioner to 
this end resulted in the Sheikh Larbi Ben Kess-Kess 
consenting to accept the position. This chieftain is 
one of the most powerful and popular tribal leaders 
in Algeria, his followers numbering some 20,000 
persons, and he is held in high esteem by the French 
authorities for the valuable services he rendered their 
troops during the African Rebellion in 1870, in giving 
them warning of an impending attack upon one of 
their fortified posts by an overwhelming force of the 
enemy, his timely information thus enabling the 
French commander to remove his men to a place 
of safety. 

Considerable trouble was experienced in transport- 
ing the company to England. On their arriving at 
the railway station on the borders of the desert, e7i 
route for the coast, it was found that the line was 
flooded, and in order to make the journey hand-cars 
had to be requisitioned. At Algiers the Governor- 
General offered great objections to the caravan 
leaving the country, and the Arabs, after gazing on 
the sea for the first time, showed very great re- 
luctance to embark for England. In the Bay of 
Biscay frightful weather was encountered, and as 
the ship — the Ocean Liner Faliivuriis — had to lay-to 
several times, the Arabs and their animals were, to 




i 2. ° 



« z; 



THE FBENGK EXHIBITION. 263 

put it mildly, very much upset, though they escaped 
any serious damage ; and when, after his manifold 
labours and journeyings, the Commissioner arrived 
with his convoy safe and sound at Earl's Court, 
his feelings of relief can be better imagined than 
described. 

With the exception of two or three individuals 
who were engaged to inspire the others with con- 
fidence, none of the present company had ever before 
been out of their native land, and it need hardly be 
said, therefore, that they were strange to the ways 
of civilised countries, although there was nothing 
savage about them ; their politeness, in fact, being 
a most prominent trait. The men, as a body, were 
splendid specimens of humanity, tall, bronzed, wiry, 
and upright. Of the four negro warriors, black as 
jet, two were considerably over six feet in height. 
The women were for the most part well shaped and 
pretty, with large dark eyes of the true Eastern 
type. All the troops were attired in the picturesque 
and traditional costumes of their country, and great 
was the wealth of barbaric ornaments and jewels 
with which the houris from far-off Biskra were 
adorned. 

The many novel and interesting illustrations of 
" Life in the Wild East," furnished by all this pictu- 
resque company of Arabs, &c., included animal races, 
marauding attacks, native sports and industries,* 

■-!= One of the souvenirs of the French Exhibition which Mr. Whitley 
prizes most is a small bell-shaped carpet, which was made in camp at 



264 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

feats of horsemanship, representations of caravan 
journeys and tribes on the inarch, eastern dances, 
and a Moorish Bazaar and Cafe. To add to the 
reahsm of the performances, a squadron of cavalry 
men in the uniforms of the Chasseurs d'Afrique were 
engaged to figure in the Life-Picture ; characteristic 
music had been arranged ; while appropriate scenery 
and effects were painted and designed by M. Jambon, 
of Paris, who had the supervision of the decorations 
of the Universal Exhibition in 1889. 

The intention of the Executive Council had been 
to give a real and truthful representation of African 
life as it exists. Nothing was mere imitation. 
What was presented to the public was not a 
"circus" and not a "show," in the modern accep- 
tation of the words, but a faithful, though obviously 
a reduced, illustration of "Life in Africa"; and 
consequently the encampment and its tribes, with 
their rites and sports, their Arab horses, camels, 
four-horned goats, sheep, dogs, tents, implements, 
and weapons, constituted " the most picturesque and 
accurate representation of the ' Wild East ' ever 
presented to the public." * To add to the realism 

Earl's Court by tlie Arabs, and presented to him in token of their appre- 
ciation of his kindness to them during their six months' sojourn in 
London. 

* Here was one of the daily programmes of the "Wild East" enter- 
taiments: — " 1. Entrance of Laebi Ben Kess-Kess, the Renowned Arab 
Chief and his Cavaliers. — 2. Entrance of the Chasseurs d'Afiique.— 

3. ' Fantasia ' and Feats of Horseraanship, by the Arab Horsemen. — 

4. An Eastern Wedding Procession and Sports. — (1) Arab Tug-of-War ; 
(2) Dance of Touaregs ; (3) Dance of Houris ; (4) Aissaoua Larbi Ben 
Hussein, the Fanatical Follower of the Madhi, in his fiery rites ; (5) 



THE FRENCH EXHIBITION. 265 

of these fascinating pictures from the African desert, 
the hon-tam^r Darling (from the Nouveau Cirque in 
Paris) was engaged to give a series of representa- 
tions ; and the appearance of his Hons in the middle 
of the arena, following on the various episodes of 
Arab life above enumerated, gave a completeness to 
the whole which made the "Wild East" a worthy 
pendant to the " Wild West." 

Adjoining the "Wild East" arena was a French 
Bijou Circus with an ever -varying pro- outside 
srramme of attractions ; while the visitor /^**ractions : - 

o ' France in 

to the garden grounds of the Exhibition Miniature." 
was otherwise provided with an ample feast of French 
entertainment in the form of a Louvre Theatre, a 
Cafe Concert des Ambassadeurs, a promenade concert- 
hall, several celebrated cafes (reproductions of Paris 
originals), with the highest style of French cookery, 
an ever-popular switchback railway plunging about 
among the picturesque mountains of the Yosges 

Mahomed, the Arab Acrobat; (6) AliBen Hassan, the Arab Swordsman. — 
5. Horse Eaces (twice round). — (1) Arab v. Arab ; (2) Chasseur v. Chasseur. 
— 6. 'Alone in the Desert,' or 'Dying to save the Colours.' — 7. Horse 
Eace, Arab v. Chasseur (the j)revious winners), — 8. Flat Eace (twice round) 
between El Hadjyadi, the Arab Scout, Fatima, the Sheik's Daughter, 
and the Of&cer of Chasseurs.— 9. Steeplechase (twice round) between the 
Cantiniere, a Chasseur, and Amour Ben Sessi, the celebrated Arab 
Cavalier and Horse Breaker, on his Arab Thoroughbred ' Messaoud.' — 
10. The Eeturn of the Marauders' Caravan ; the halt in the Desert ; 
Attack by the Chasseurs ; their Eepulse ; the Prisoner of War. — 11. 
' ZuLEiKA ' ; or, the Cadi's Daiighter ; the Escape of the Prisoner ; the 
Chasseurs' attack on the Cadi's house ; Eecovery of the Colours ; Counter 
attack by the Arab Horsemen ; their Defeat and Flight. — 12. Grand 
Parade and Salute. — ^13. Entrance of ' Darling,' the celebrated Lion 
Tamer. The Wonderful Group of African Lions and Boakhounds, in 
Daring, Graceful, and Novel Feats." 



266 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

(that now replaced the scenery of the Alps, which 
had been depicted during the Italian Exhibition) ; a 
" Cosmorama," which transported the sightseer across 
the Channel and enabled him to take a "trip through 
France in five minutes " ; a Diorama (by M. Charles 
Toche) representing Paris as she appeared in all the 
glory of her Centennial Exhibition robes in the 
previous year; a miniature copy of M. Eiffel's tower, 
lending itself well to illumination by lamps of various 
hue; a "maze" for the gratification of those who 
enjoyed the luxury of losing themselves ; a shooting- 
gallery with a self-registering target ; an African 
jungle and a stretch of gardens in the style of Ver- 
sailles; a " Eolies Bergere," with concerts and dances 
by Algerian, Moorish, and Tunisian artistes ; a Pont 
de la Concorde ; and, last of all, an outdoor pano- 
rama of the Champs Elysees (by M. Jambon), which 
was a veritable triumph of pictorial and illusory art. 
In the midst of all these objects and amusements — 
of which the local colouring was heightened by a 
copious display of French costumes and Republican 
tricolours — it was difficult for the visitor to the 
Exhibition to realise that he was not in Paris, but 
in London ; and, indeed, the spell that came over 
him in this respect was only broken when he entered 
the English "Welcome Club,"* which again, under 

* The Committee of the "Welcome Club" this year was thus com- 
posed : — Chairman : Colonel J. T. North. Vice-Chairman : J. E. Whitley, 
Esq. Committee: Vincent A. Applin, Esq., E. D. Baxter, Esq., Lord 
Esher, Colonel George Fitz-George, Sir Julian Goldsmid, Bart., Augustus 
Harris, Esq., W. Hays, Esq., Sir J. Heron- Maxwell, Bart., Sir Victor 



TUB PBBNCH EXHIBITION. 267 

distmgnished auspices, formed a prominent feature 
of the Exhibition, and served as the main rallying- 
ground of those who frequented it for the double 
purpose of instruction and recreation.* In connec- 

Houlton, G.C.M.G., Lewis H. Isaacs, Esq., M.P., J. S. Jeans, Esq., 
Colonel Mosley, Major Flood Page, John Priestman, Esq., Captain E. M. 
Shaw, C.B., E. Spencer, Esq., M.P., Charles Wyndham, Esq. Honorary 
Secretary : Capt. H. B. M. Carvick. 

'■' How varied was the entertainment department of the French Exhi- 
bition may be judged from the following programme for the " Bank 
HoUday, Monday, August 4th.— 9 a.m. to 11.30 p.m. : Fine Arts, In- 
dustries, and Products. — The Best Paintings from this year's two Paris 
8alo?is. — Croisy's Art Bronze, piirchased by Public Subscription and 
presented to the Due d'Orleans. — Jules Lefebvre's Magnificent Painting : — 
' Lady Godiva.' — Gustave Dore's Unique Bronze Vase ' La Vigne.' — 
Bronzes, Ceramic Ware, Jewellery, Fashions and Dress, Silks, Furniture, 
Decoration, Photography, Toys, Musical Instruments, Wines, Liqueurs, 
and Alimentary Products, &c. — The Louvre and Model of. the Eiffel 
Tower. — The Champs Elysees and Illuminated Gardens ; Every Night 
10,000 Lamps by Pain ; Immense Success of the ' Wild East,' at 3.30 and 
8 p.m.- — Tribes of Arabs and their Steeds, Feats of Horsemanship, &c. — 
Most Magnificent Beproduction of African Scenery ever produced in 
London. — Eealistic Illustrations of African Life, under the Leadership 
of the Eenowned Arab, Chief Larbi Ben Kess-Kess, from the African 
Desert. — 11 to 11 : Folies Bergere. — 12 : In the Arena — the ' Wild East' ; 
also Darling and his African Lions and Boarhounds. — 1 to 2.30 p.m. : Band- 
stand (Main Building), the French Exhibition Band. — 2 (Arena Section): 
French Bijou Circus. — 2 to 4 : Bandstand (Western Gardens), Grenadier 
Guards Band. — 2.30 : Louvre Theatre (Central Gardens), ' Lily of Trou- 
ville ' : Ballet. — 3 : Band-stand (Main Building), Band of the Eoyal 
Artillery.— 3.80 : In the Arena^the 'Wild East'; also Darling and his 
African Lions and Boarhounds. — 4 (Central Gardens) : Cafe Concert des 
Ambassadeurs.— 4.30 (Arena Section) : French Bijou Circus. — 4.30 to 6: 
Moorish Pavilion (Western Gardens), French Exhibition Band. — 5.30 : 
Louvre Theatre (Central Gardens), the Eenaissance Dance Troupe. — 
6 to 7.30: Bandstand (Main Building), Band of the Eoyal Artillery.— 
6 to 8 : Bandstand (Western Gardens), Grenadier Guards Band. — 7: 
Louvre Theatre (Central Gardens), ' Lily of Trouville ' : Ballet. — 7.30 to 
10.30 (Central Gardens): Cafe Concert des Ambassadeurs. — 7.30 to 9: 
Bandstand (Main Building), French Exhibition Band.— 8: In the Arena — 
the ' Wild East ' ; also Darling and his African Lions and Boarhounds. — 
8 to 9.30 Moorish PaviUon (Western Gardens), Band of the Eoyal 



268 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

tion with the constitution of the English Reception 
Committee (vide Supplement, p. 500), Mr. Whitley 
ventured this year upon a new departure. Having 
regard to the fact that many representative English- 
men reside in Paris, he invited twenty-four of the 
most distinguished of his countrymen, who have taken 
up their permanent residence in the French Capital, 
to attend a meeting, in the month of March, at the 
Cafe Riche, and suggested that they should constitute 
themselves a Paris Committee of Reception (p. 502) 
and become members of the "Welcome Club," so that 
when visiting London during the succeeding summer 
they might entertain their Erench friends in that 
hospitable English corner of " France in London." 
This new departure proved a great success, as 
doubtless many Frenchmen would gratefully admit. 
As it may interest our readers to know something 

of the machinery by means of which in- 
How . . 

Exhibitions structiou and recreation were thus ortered 

visitors to this and the other National 
Life-Pictures in Mr. Whitley's series ; their curio- 
sity can be gratified by a perusal of the follow- 
ing account of '' The Way Great Exhibitions are 
Eun " :— * 

" That there is a vast amount of work to be got through before 
the doors are opened must have been apparent to every one of the 

Artillery. — 9 (Arena Section) : French Bijou Circus. — 9.15 : Louvre 
Theatre (Central Gardens), 'Lily of Trouville': Ballet.— 9.15 to 10.15: 
Bandstand (Western Gardens), Grenadier Guards Band. — 10 to 11 : Moorish 
Pavilion (Western Gardens), French Exhibition Band." 
- From Tit-Bits. 



TEE FBENCE EXEIBITION. 269 

tens of thousands of people who have come from every town and 
village to the great exhibitions which have been held in London 
during the last few years. For twelve months preparations are 
going on. The present French Exhibition was, however, * got up ' 
in three months. 

" First of all, the exhibitors have to be found, then their wares 
have to be brought over, and it cost something like £3,800 to bring 
but a portion of the exhibits across for the late 'Italian' — not very 
expensive, as this paid for 3,542 cases, belonging to 858 exhibitors, 
which filled one steamer, and 1,809 cases, weighing 718 tons, 
which also came by sea, besides quantities by land as far as the 
Channel. Then stands have to be put up to receive the exhibits, 
and as many as 1,500 men have been employed at one time in get- 
ting things ready. 

" Then what a staff is needed! There are 20 heads of depart- 
ments and inspectors, 40 clerks, correspondents, &c. ; 85 policemen 
— this little battalion of guardians of peace and order costing about 
£100 a week. During the run of the late exhibition they not only 
found 807 lost articles, but restored 16 lost children to their friends. 
There are 8 firemen, 3 mechanical and gas engineers, 14 gardeners 
— 200 men, though, are wielding the spade and shovel the few 
weeks before the opening — 62 door keepers, 18 carpenters, 10 
messengers; and 82 odd workmen. 

" Doctors are employed as well, and during the run of an Exhibi- 
tion with If millions of visitors they had to treat 500 patients. We 
can understand one of the 500 having his eye cut open with the 
bursting of a soda-water bottle, 2 crushed fingers, ditto crushed 
toes, or even the single case of pin swallowing ; but we think the 
couple who were seized with styes on the eyelid, and another with 
a carbuncle, might have chosen any other place but an Exhibition 
to become patients for the doctor's hands. 

" Include in the expenditure £1,000 for flags, and then close on 
7,000 feet of blue and white bunting will be needed. 

" Arrangements with railway companies have to be made. This 
is a big line, and accounts are made up between the Exhibition 
manager and the railway companies once a month. In six months 



270 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

731,722 combined railway and admission tickets were used, 510,610 
people tendered their shillings at the turnstiles, 335,558 rejoiced 
in the possession of either a season or complimentary ticket, and 
165,555 staff, exhibitors, and attendants entered. In all, 1,743,445 
people visited the Italian Exhibition whilst it was open. 

" To illuminate buildings and grounds such as those at Earl's 
Court for an Exhibition costs £5,334 5s. 9d. It is a wonderful 
engine-room which governs the light, containing as it does nine 
dynamos driven by two engines of 350 and one of 80 horse-power. 
These manufacture all that is wanted for 110 splendid arc lamps 
of 3,000 candle-power, 90 of 2,000 candle-power, 30 great mast 
lights in the grounds, and 300 incandescent lamps of 16 candle- 
power, besides a large number fixed for exhibitors. There is an 
Eiffel Tower in the grounds just now of over 1,000 lights. 

" The Eefreshment Contractor then steps in, for an Exhibition 
without its ginger beer and bath buns would be a failure. So a 
complete establishment has to be fitted up — an establishment 
capable of seating 1,100 people at one time, and containing 
kitchen, larder, store-rooms, ice-house, fish-house, &c. But even 
these immense premises look small in the 140,000 square feet oi 
space in the main building. There must also be accommodation 
for 600 hungry folk in the gardens at the same time. 

" The value of such plant is d615,000. The kitchen alone costs 
JE2,000 to fit up — the big stove in the centre being priced at £100. 
The great plate safes will hold 3,000 each. 

"All this means employment for 200 people in one department 
alone. There are 10,000 plates, 1,000 dessert ditto, 6,000 knives 
and forks, 5,000 glasses, 5,000 spoons, 5,000 cups and saucers ; 
1,000 table-cloths, and 5,000 serviettes used every day. 

" Four tons of coal and coke are daily consumed in the kitchen ; 
there are huge tanks which boil every quarter of an hour, and 
1,000 gallons of tea and the same quantity of coffee can be brewed 
at one time. Thirty tons of ice are wanted each week. 

" On a Bank Holiday as many as 1,000 dishes of strawberries 
and cream are indulged in, and 20,000 penny goods are sold, in- 
.qluding 8,000 penny bujis and 2^000 bath buns. On a good day 



THE FBENCH EXHIBITION. 271 

60,000 bottles of mineral water have been uncorked, 2,000 ices 
demolished, together with 60,000 cups of coffee, tea, and chocolate. 
Such a store of everything in the way of eatables is kept on the 
premises that there is enough and to spare to satisfy the wants of 
60,000 people. 

" A very important item, too, is the entertainments. Quite £430 
a week will be wanted for a band or two, and something like £300 
is needed for a theatre for the same period. And since ' Buffalo 
Bill ' started a huge outdoor entertainment, this must be followed 
up. In the present instance, some 98 Arabs and 30 horses have 
been brought over, and there is much that is interesting surround- 
ing them. 

" They travelled from 500 miles inland, and now they form quite 
a little Arabian colony. They get their wages weekly, and a store has 
been put up where they can purchase all they require. This shop 
is well stocked with rice, semolina, flour, garlic, sugar — nearly 
all lump sugar — coffee, lentils, and cayenne pepper, of which they 
are particularly fond. 

" They sleep in dormitories, on sloping bedsteads, each capable 
of accommodating some eight or nine men, and running from end 
to end of the room. Each man's space is partitioned off and pro- 
vided with a mattress. 

" And as these dusky sons of the desert illustrate the manner in 
which they live when at home, scenery has to be made, and the 
same artist who painted over 25 acres of canvas for the recent 
Paris Exhibition has been at work here. With thirty men he in 
six weeks painted 5,000 square yards of canvas in order to lend 
realism to the idea." 

One of the most prominent incidents connected, 
with, the course of the Exhibition was a 
grand fete generously organised by its charity 
directors (Saturday, July 5th) in aid of ^ *®' 
the funds of the New French Hospital in London, 



272 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

the noble aims and necessities of which had been 
touchingly referred to by Mr. Whitley in his address 
at the opening ceremony.* This fete received addi- 
tional significance and attractiveness from the fact 
that it was inaugurated by the French Ambassador, 
M. Waddington, and favoured by the presence of 
the famous band — composed of 80 performers — of 

* See p. 239 ante. The French Hospital in London, which was founded 
in 1867, is open to poor Frenchmen and to poor foreigners speaking French, 
without distinction of nationaUty. In 1878 it was enlarged. The Prince 
of Wales, accompanied by the Duke of Edinburgh, opened the new build- 
ings, and on that occasion the two Princes accorded the Hospital their 
official patronage. Since its foundation, to December 31, 1889, the French 
Hospital had relieved 5,531 sick persons, and had given 134,459 consulta- 
tions to 49,736 out-patients, most of them French, and the rest belonging 
to more than thirty different nationalities. In 1886 the Hospital had 
become altogether insufficient for its objects. Moreover, its lease was to 
expire in 1890, and could not be renewed, and therefore the Committee, 
in consequence of the pressing nature of the affair, determined to buy 
with the savings of the last twenty years the freehold of a piece of land, 
in order to build on it a larger French Hospital more worthy of the name 
and better fitted for attending to, and providing comforts for, the sick. In 
1887 a site with a superficial area of 5,300 square feet was purchased in 
Shaftesbury Avenue, in an excellent position in the centre of the French 
Colony, and in 1888 M. Waddington, the French Ambassador, laid the 
first stone of the new buildings of the French Hospital in London. The 
edifice was completed, and inaugurated in July, 1890. But the expenses 
of building and furnishing were far from being liquidated. The purchase 
of the ground having swallowed up all the reserve funds, the Committee 
opened a public subscription in 1887 to meet the expenses. At the first 
appeal the Queen of England, in addition to a generous donation, deigned 
to accord the Hospital Her Eoyal Patronage. The Government of the 
French Eepublic, at the instigation of M. Waddington, the French 
Ambassador, granted a generous subsidy of 50,000 francs. The Princes 
of the Family of Orleans subscribed 25,000 francs. Begun under such 
auspices, the subscription quickly assumed large dimensions ; but at least 
160,000 francs remained to be subscribed, and in consequence of this state 
of things the Executive Council of the French Exhibition liberally 
offered to organise a Grande Fete Francaise, and to give the profits to the 
Building Fund of the New Hospital. 



THE FBENCH EXHIBITION. ^73 

the Garde Eepiiblicaine from Paris. Twelve years 
previously this very fine band had come to London 
on a similar errand of charity, and now it repeated 
its visit by express permission of the French Minister 
of War, who, at the telegraphic request of the 
Ambassador, was pleased to extend the appointed 
period of its stay from one to three days. Great 
was the cheering at the inagnificent manner in which 
the band (fresh from a performance at Marlborough 
House) played the "Marseillaise," followed by " God 
save the Queen"; and it was no wonder that M. 
Waddington, on being asked by M. Sandoz to open 
the fete, said it always did his heart good to hear 
the national melody of France performed in such a 
style, for it had the same effect on the hearts of 
others. 

On this day the rates of admission had been con- 
siderably raised, and the weather was wretched ; 
but nevertheless the fete drew considerable numbers 
to witness its various attractions, which included a 
variety entertainment, the Louvre Theatre, two 
" Wild East " performances, a popular concert 
under the direction of Mr. Jacobi with his Alhambra 
band (which, among other things, played the over- 
ture to " The Dead Heart " of Mr. Irving, with all 
its stirring memories of the French Eevolution), and 
a charity bazaar organised by a Committee of 
French ladies under the honorary presidency of 
Madame Waddington. In consequence of its having 
been partially spoilt by the rainy weather, the 

18 



274 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Executive Council agreed that the fete should be 
continued on the Monday ; and for this determined 
effort, so characteristic of the man, to achieve his 
purpose in spite of all obstacles, Mr. Whitley had the 
satisfaction of receiving the following communication 
from the Committee of the French Hospital : — 

" We have the lionour to convey to you the sincerest thanks of 
our Committee for the eminent services you rendered our charitable 
institution in organising, on the 5th of July last, at the French Ex- 
hibition, Earl's Court, a grand Fete, under the patronage of H.E. 
Monsieur Waddington, Ambassador of France, in aid of the fund 
for establishing a French Hospital in London. Thanks to generous 
and devoted support, this Fete, in spite of deplorably bad weather, 
has had very considerable results, more than £1,200 having 
accrued therefrom to our treasury, and there is reason to believe 
that this sum * is not yet complete. We are aware that this success 
is the outcome of your noble efforts on our behalf, and that 
it would have been unique in its way had the result de- 
pended entirely on your will. But all the same, and in spite of 
the elements, you have assisted us greatly in the heavy task under- 
taken by us ; and so, with the view of perpetuating the memory of 
your devotion to our Institution, we have decided to engrave your 
name among the founders of our new French Hospital." 

Mr. Whitley's name was also added to the list of 
The 14th of coutributors to the Hospital for placing at 

J^iy- its free disposal an Exhibition stall; but 
his benefactions to the Erench colony in London did 
not stop here. For on the day before the Exhibition 



* ^1,493 was the actual amount which the Fete added to the funds of 
the Hospital. 



THE FRENCH EXHIBITION. 275 

closed (November 1st) he organised a matinee at the 
Theatre du Louvre, in aid of the funds of the 
National Society of French Teachers in England 
[SocieU Nationale des Professeurs de Frangais eii 
Angleterre), which was given under the patronage of 
the Lord Mayor, and attended, among others, by 
Madame Waddington. But of all the special 
gatherings of which the Exhibition was the scene, 
none was more imposing than the banquet by which 
the French colony in London — a very large com- 
munity — celebrated their National Fete on the 
historic 14th of July. Over five hundred ladies and 
gentlemen sat down to dinner, the chair being taken 
by M. Waddington, French Ambassador, who, in the 
course of his toast to President Carnot, referred to 
the excellent effects that had already been produced, 
no less by the French Exhibition of the past than 
by the one of the present year.* 

* The toast of the evening, of course, was that of " M. Carnot, Presi- 
dent of the Fren«h EepubUc," and in proposing this His Excellency said 
that he would not enter into any political matters ; but as he saw around 
hiixi both ladies and children, it was inevitable that he should remind 
them in a few words of the anniversary they were celebrating, for it was 
no less than the point of departure of the great French Eevolution — an 
era marked from the commencement by the liberty they were now enjoy- 
ing to the full. Although, however, the principal object of this festival 
was to celebrate that anniversary, it also testified afresh to that entente 
cordiale of which so striking a proof had been given last year by the 
French Exhibition in Paris. His Excellency then asked the young people 
who were listening to him to remember that the family of the Carnots, 
for three generations, had been main supporters of the Republic, and the 
principles upon which it was founded. The toast was most enthusiastic- 
ally honoured, the company joining in the "Marseillaise." M. Wadding- 
ton in turn was toasted as " the best of Ambassadors, the best of French 
gentlemen ; " and although everything hitherto had been in the French 



^76 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Eeplying to the toast of " The Visitors," which 
had been warmly proposed, Mr. Whitley, who spoke 
in fluent French, and was enthusiastically cheered, 
said : — 

" YouE Excellency, Ladies and Gentlemen, — Most of those 
present will realise that my position this evening is of. a rather 
delicate character, for, as one of those who have worked for the 
success of this Exhibition, I must be careful not to use any ex- 
pression which would convey the erroneous impression that the 
French Government, so worthily represented by His Excellency 
the French Ambassador, or the English Government, are or have 
been, in the smallest degree, responsible for, or in any way con- 
nected with, the organisation or direction of this manifestation of 
French Arts and Industries. 

" On the occasion of the recent Fete, which was organised for the 
benefit of the French Hospital in London, both those Governments 
rendered valuable assistance by permitting the splendid Band of 
the Garde Eepublicaine to constitute the principal feature of the 
Fete — but it must be understood that this action was not intended 
to signify that either Government was in any way patronising the 
Exhibition itself. 

" The Exhibition is, on the contrary, solely the outcome of 
private initiative. . , , 

"All history records and confirms the fact that, long before 
Governments had a being, man's individual initiative was the 
true and only factor in winning success, as the reward of human 
effort. ... 

" I am not going to commit the indiscretion of asking you to 
assume that this Exhibition is an adequate example or exponent 
of what we should wish to have accomplished. Being but small 

tongue, the company, in good honest English, now broke out with " He's 
a jolly good fellow." M. Waddington, in response, said he was delighted 
at the success of the French Hospital, in which he was so much 
interested. 



THE FBENCH EXHIBITION. 277 

entities in the huge human machine, we must endeavour to find 
encouragement, if not satisfaction, at being partially instrumental 
in setting one small wheel of that huge machine in motion. Those 
who have worked hardest are the first to admit what a heavy task 
it is to start such a machine, and how imperfect are our resources ; 
others, however, will follow us, stronger, more intelligent, and 
more determined, and, time aiding, they will complete our work 
in years to come, and make it ' a thing of beauty ' as well as of 
utility. 

" All members of the French colony in London who were privi- 
leged to hear that splendid band of the Garde Eepublicaine, which 
your Excellency's influence succeeded in obtaining for the Fete 
organised in this Exhibition for the benefit of the French Hospital, 
must have felt how utterly untrue and inaccurate it would be if 
any dyspeptic individual ventured to assert that Englishmen have 
not a fraternal feeling towards Frenchmen. 

"It is true that excellent music invariably elicits, in most 
countries, well-merited applause, but the applause which greeted 
the efforts of the eighty musicians a week ago, on this spot, had a 
ring and an accent in it which were intended to do more than 
thank those musicians for the pleasure their art afforded to their 
audience ; and, as this statement might be disputed, I determined, 
on the occasion I refer to, to place the fact beyond all doubt by 
calling upon the assembled thousands for three hearty cheers for 
' la France,' and before I could finish the invitation those 
thousands had taken up enthusiastically the shout of welcome and 
of greeting. If any here present heard that expression of welcome 
and of greeting to you and your countrymen, they may perhaps 
understand me when I say that M. Sandoz, our colleagues and I 
felt, at that moment, that our labours were not in vain, and that 
we might hope for some permanently beneficial results for the toilers 
in both countries." 

This National Fete celebration had been the 
occasion of much fraternising between Frenchmen 



278 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

and Englishmen; but a still better opportunity 
French for tlie exchange of compliments and 
at'v^ioDme ©xpressions of goodwill was presented 
^^^^- later on (at the end of September), when 
the members of the French Jury,* who had been 
specially appointed to adjudicate on the merits of the 
exhibits, were entertained at dinner in the Welcome 

* The Jury was composed as follows : — 

President : M. Gr. Sandoz. 
Members : 

Group I. — MM. Charles Legrand, Lemaire, Neyret, Noirot-Biais. 

Group II.— MM. Maurice Estieu, Aug. Pelletier, Emmanuel Eoublot, 
Leon Walter, Chevallier-Appert. 

Group III. — MM. Alfred AUain, Emile d'Aurignae, Charles Benoit, 
Jules Folliot, Formont, Galichon, Hartmann, Jarlauld, Leguay, Marnier- 
Lapostolle, Nicols, Stern, Tirier-Pavard, Eoux, Velten fils. 

Group IV. — MM. Paulin-Arrault, Boivin, Camille, George Carre, comte 
Deligny d'Alosno, Leon Dru, Gaene, Jonte, Muhlbacher, Gabriel Odelin, 
Eugene Pereire, Pierron, Pombla, Ray, Sudrot, Tanquerel, Vincent. 

Group V. — MM. Adrian, Buchet, Gustave Chalmel, Chassaing, Thouet, 
Desnoix, Galante, Dr. Hubert, Auguste Perre, Wickham. 

Group VI. — MM. Boudet, Doin, Lahure, Lucien Layus, Maunoury, 
Eoger Sandoz, Eugene Thouroude. 

Group VII.— MM. Cuel Gilbert, Dasson, Felix Follot, HoUande, Millet, 
Poiret, Quignon, Soubrier. 

Group VIII. — MM. Gustave Sandoz, Flamant, Vidie, Decle, Peconnet, 
Guillaume Baudouin, Margaine, Ch. Jean, Ruault, Dreux, Lahape, 
ChenailHer, Hubert, Claudius Saunier, Galli, Bieli, Berquin-Varangoz, 
Charpentier, Coutelier, Dalifol, Houdebine, Lamaille, Koty, Susse, 
Thiery Vidie, Taillardat. 

Group IX. — MM. Boudinet, Cornier, Eugene Houlet, Gustave Kahn- 
Lepage, Lemariey, Lucas, Tarbouriech, Vuitton. 

Group X.— MM. Gaston Pillois, Eueff. 

Group XI.— MM. Thibouville-Lamy, Lyon, CavaUie-Coll, Euch, E. 
Mangeot, Masson. 

The awards given by this Jury to the exhibitors (see Supplement) 
consisted of diplomas of honour, diplomas of the first class, and diplomas 
of the second class. The number of the awards had been restricted, in 
consequence of the severity of the Jury's examination, to proportions 
which would render the distinctions all the more precious. 



THE FBENGH EXHIBITION. 279 

Club by the English Eeception Committee. On 
this occasion Mr. Whitley, in seconding Colonel 
North, who, as President of the Eeception Com- 
mittee, had proposed the toast of the evening, 
delivered a speech, part of which we may quote 
as bearing on the history and results of his French 
enterprise : — 

"Gentlemen, — My colleague, Colonel North, lias proposed to 
you the toast of the evening. I rise to second that toast. In 
connection with the series of National Exhibitions at Earl's Court 
I have had the opportunity of noticing that the lion's share of the ' 
work rests upon my willing shoulders ; but I am more than recom- 
pensed by the fact that the lion's share, also, of j9/e«sanf duties 
devolve upon me, as on this occasion, when the opportunity is 
afforded me, not only of drinking to the health of the French 
Committee and the Members of the Jury, but of congratulating 
both upon the extraordinary tour de force which you have accom- 
plished in organising such an Exhibition as this in so short a 
space of time. A distinguished friend of mine, whom I met in Paris 
in February last, and did not again see until the first week of August, 
seems to have prettily and accurately summed up the situation, 
when, after visiting the Exhibition, he observed that you gentlemen 
have made ' a beautiful frock out of a bit of ribbon.' The ' bit of 
ribbon,' of course, had reference to the small amount of time avail- 
able for organisation. 

" Doubtless, there are gentlemen present who remember a time 
when the term might also have been applied to the quantum of 
exhibits which were forthcoming — for there was a brief period 
during which some of you thought it impossible to organise the 
Exhibition in two or three months. 

" Those days are now forgotten, for we are happily engaged this 
week in determining to which of the exhibitors the honour of a 
diploma shall b§ accorded. 



280 NATIONAL EXSIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

" The importance of these National Exhibitions in London may 
at first have been ignored, but it is so no longer. The Americans 
and the Italians were so well pleased that both would have liked a 
second ; and now we are invited by several nationalities to give 
them the preference for next year, including Belgians, Mexicans, 
Bussians, Dutch, Germans, and Austrians. 

''In connection with the French Exhibition, it can safely be 
affirmed that it has made its mark. 

"The admirable works, due to that inimitable ' gout frangais ' 
so admired and envied by the artisans of the entire world, and 
of which your efforts have assembled so remarkable a collection 
for our delectation here, have met with due appreciation at the 
hands of British producers and consumers alike, and will leave a 
lasting impression on many branches of English industry. You 
have thus given a powerful impulse to the artistic and industrial 
education of a friendly nation, and sown at the same time the seeds 
of new relations abroad, the beneficent effects of which will, I trust, 
long be felt by the industries of France. It would warm the heart 
of all Frenchmen present to look over the volumes of cuttings from 
the English newspapers which I possess. 

"During the first week or two there were occasionally a few 
short paragraphs expressing surprise at the backward condition of 
things, from the pens of gentlemen who were not aware of the short 
time in which everything had been organised, but now, for months 
past, all references to our work are couched in one ' key '—the 
pleasing ' key ' of praise. 

" The very complicated, and I might add antiquated, condition 
of our English licensing laws has been to some extent responsible 
for the fact that France, the recognised Mistress of the World in 
the growth and training of the vine, has had to rely principally 
upon the exhibits of three of her sons. I refer to ' La Vigne ' of 
Gustave Dore, and to the 'bottles ' of Benoit and Brabant ! 

" And as we have dined, and are still, I hope, all of us, under 
the genial influence of Brehant's bottles, I may be permitted a 
physio-psychological reflection. 

" I have travelled in many lands, and, amongst other observa- 



THE FRENCH EXHIBITION. 281 

tions I have made, is one which I have happily had occasion not 
only to make, but over and over again to confirm, viz., that a bottle 
of wine grown on a square metre in France will, even when enjoyed 
at a distance of 10,000 kilometres from the Gironde, the Cote d'Or, 
or the Cathedral of Eeims, be sure to induce thoughts of a higher 
order than a bottle of wine grown on any other square metre of the 
whole world's surface ; and I am led, therefore, to ask myself 
whether this bottle of wine— this literally famous bottle of 
generous, fragrant French wine — has not something to do with 
the leading position which the country, so accurately described as 
* La Belle France ' (because she loves all that is beautiful), so nobly 
maintains upon this planet in arts, in literature, in science, and in 
industry. 

" Gentlemen, I drink, with all my heart, to the toast of your 
health, of you who, in foreign lands, so wisely, so energetically, and 
so lovingly uphold the honour of your country by peaceful, and 
therefore ennobling effort." 



This speech of Mr. Whitley, delivered in French, 
was frequently interrupted by cheers, and at its 
conclusion evoked loud and hearty applause. M. 
Sandoz, acting as the mouthpiece of all the 
Frenchmen present, thanked Mr. Whitley for his 
kind words, and at the same time congratulated him 
in the most flattering terms, in the name of the 
Committee, on the zeal, the devotion, and the 
loyalty which he had always shown them, as well 
as on the perfect courtesy with which he had 
lightened a task often difficult and frequently 
delicate. All present joined in the tribute of praise 
so justly paid in an official manner by the President 
of the Committee and of the Jury to Mr. Whitley, by 



282 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

drinking his health, and cheering him as the founder 
and Director- General of the National Exhibitions in 
London, " Eor our part," wrote a French chronicler, 
" we are convinced that the French Exhibition in 
London was a most excellent thing, since it has 
largely contributed to strengthen the bonds of 
friendship existing between France and England, 
bonds which we must all desire to see united in 
the closest manner for the common prosperity of the 
two nations." 

It would have been very strange indeed if an 
^ Exhibition which attracted a total of 

Close of 

Exhibition. 1^329,701 visitors during the 143 days 
it remained open (from May 17th to November 1st), 
with a daily average of 9,300, had failed to strengthen 
the bonds of good feeling between the two nations 
above alluded to, by uprooting prejudice and diffusing 
knowledge, which is the greatest enemy of misunder- 
standing. To what extent the efforts of Mr. Whitley 
had helped to facilitate this happy process of mutual 
understanding between two nations, whose friendly 
relations have hitherto been too frequently imperilled 
by conflicting interests ■ and jarring jealousies, was 
well expressed by a no less able than impartial 
writer, thus * : — 

" To-morrow tlie two Exhibitions " (Frencli and Military) " which 

have provided London with an agreeable distraction during the 

summer and autumn are to close their doors. It would be invidious 

to assess the comparative attractiveness of the contemporary 

* The Standa/rd, October 31, 1890. 



THE FBENGH EXHIBITION. 283 

rather than competing sliows. It must suffice to say that both 
were welcome, and that either would have been missed. The 
metropohs is large enough to supply endless relays of visitors to 
more than one entertainment of the kind. The wonder, indeed, is 
not so much that they have been, appreciated, as that Londoners 
managed,, until within the last few years, to exist without them. It 
has been said that the English are slow to invent, .but that they 
have a marvellous faculty for utilising and improving on the inven- 
ions placed at their disposal by races of more original genius. It is 
certainly true of this modern combination of bazaar, museum, and 
al fresco fete. We have taken most kindly to an innovation which 
amounts almost to a revolution. . , . 

" The French Exhibition has afforded thousands of Londoners 
who are imperfectly, if at all, acquainted with France, and probably 
a yet greater number of their country cousins who are in the same 
plight, an excellent opportunity of learning something, as far as 
was possible in the circumstances, of the ways, habits, industries, 
and amusements of our nearest and liveliest neighbours. . . . 

" The time was when untra veiled English people looked upon 
France and things French with peculiar disdain, and assumed, in 
silence, and without inquiry, that everything in France was inferior 
to everything in England, This ignorant prejudice no longer 
prevails to the same extent ; but we very much question whether 
the average Englishman still has an adequate conception of how 
far behind France we are in several matters that materially affect 
the sum of human comfort and enjoyment. This defect of appreci- 
ation is to be remedied only partially by a French Exhibition in 
London ; but even a limited curtailment of national ignorance on 
so important a point is to be welcomed. Moreover, the Exhibition 
has probably brought home to a great many peeple whose notions 
on the subject were previously but hazy, that France, too, has its 
Colonial possessions, and is engaged as well as ourselves in labour- 
ing to bring the resources and expedients of Western civilisation 
home to semi-primitive races. It is well that Englishmen should 
have their imagination stimulated a little in that direction, so 
t;liat they may apprehend that the world does not consist altogether 



284 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

of the British Empire and the United States. When France enters 
on a rash and gigantic war, and is worsted in the struggle, then the 
attention of foreigners is attracted to French miUtary capacity by 
the highly dramatic nature of the spectacle. But in times of pro- 
found peace it is less easy to arouse intelligent curiosity in the 
labours of the most laborious community in the world. . . . 

We do not say that the French Exhibition has given to its 
visitors who relied upon it solely for enlightenment anything like a 
full and exhaustive impression of French ways and French produc- 
tions ; but it must have sensibly extended their knowledge, and it 
is most desirable that English people, of all races iu the world, 
should have the information communicated to them somehow. . . . 
It would be easy to discourse on the matters in which we are their 
betters. But the use of a French Exhibition is to remind us in 
what respects they (the French) are wiser and abler than we are, 
and to stimulate us to imitate them in those particulars." 

This was surely ample enongh English testimony to 
the success of the French Exhibition ; and 

Results. 

now for a select body of evidence on the 
same subject from the other side of the water. To 
begin with, the French exhibitors themselves had 
addressed to Mr. Whitley the following expression 
of their thanks : — 



" Feench Exhibition, 

''West Beompton, London, S.W., 

"Sept. 25, 1890. 
"John E. Whitley, Esq., 

"Director-General of the French Exhibition. 
" We, the undersigned exliihitors and representaMves 
of the French Exhibition, desire to convey to you our 




EXHIBITORS' TESTIMONIAL TO MR. WHITLb-Y. 
CFrenc;: Exhibition.) 



THE FBENCH EXHIBITION. 285 

high appreciation of the loyalty, energy, and courtesy 
you have constantly, displayed since the inception of 
the worh of organising commenced. 

'''' Xf evidence had been needed that your idea of a 
series of National Exhibitions in London would prove 
profitable to exhibitors and highly instructive and 
interesting to the British public, it would be furnished 
by the results to ourselves of our 'participation in this 
Exhibition, and by the large numbers of visitors who 
have thronged it daily since it luas opened to the public 
by the Lord Mayor last May. 

" We tender you our most sincere and hearty thanJcs 
for the untiring efforts you have so successfully put 
forth to maJce the Exhibition worthy of France, and 
practically useful to ourselves, by enabling us very 
materially to extend oar relations abroad.'' 

[Here follow the signatures of exhibitors.] 

This communication was gratifying enough in 
itself, but a still more flattering acknow- French 

ledffment of French thankfulness for his ^^'^tit^de 
o ^ to 

services was tendered Mr. Whitley when, in ^r. whitiey. 
December of this same year, he chanced to be passing 
through Paris in the eager pursuit of fresh material 
for the fourth and final volume of his National Life- 
Pictures, that of Germany. This manifestation of 
French gratitude took the form of a banquet, which 
was given in the splendid Salle des Fetes, at the 
Hotel Continental, Paris (December 9, 1890), to 



286 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

express the satisfaction of exhibitors at the success 
they had achieved in London. There were present : 
M. Jules Eoche, Minister of Commerce ; M. Yves 
Guyot, Minister of Pubhc Works ; Senators PauHat 
and Decauville ; several members of the French 
Chamber of Deputies ; MM. Favette and Sebillot, 
Chiefs of the Cabinets of the two Ministers ; and 
about 250 of the leading manufacturers and artists 
of France. M. Gustavo Sandoz, President of the 
French Committee of the Exhibition, presided, and 
in an excellent speech reviewed its history. M. 
Sandoz concluded, amidst general applause, by re- 
marking that, as the banquet followed the battle, it 
was incontestable evidence that victory had been 
won. M. Jules Koche, Minister of Commerce and 
Industry, then said : — 

" As Governments are at present constituted it is preferable that 
private initiative should direct the organisation of so practically 
useful an Exhibition as the French one recently closed in London, 
for this affords manufacturers and merchants themselves the oppor- 
tunity of developing our industry, our commerce, and therefore our 
influence abroad. 

" This fact you, gentlemen, have well understood, for you have 
refrained from asking our Government for anything beyond its 
moral support, which was, of course, assured to you in advance. 

" The French Exhibition in London had its reward in its bril- 
liant success. It was not only a commercial and industrial triumph, 
but in organising it you have accomplished a work of political as 
well as of national importance. I say political, because, although 
Exhibitions are deemed to have nothing to do with politics, I 
myself venture to differ from this opinion, and to maintain that 



THJS FBENGR EXHIBITION. 287 

exhibitions more than anything else contribute to the development 
of the highest and happiest of all politics, ' the politics of peace.' 

" Like Mi Jourdain, who made prose without knowing it, you 
have by means of this Exhibition, perhaps without being aware of 
it, been helping the best description of politics, by creating new and 
friendly commercial relations with a neighbouring nationality. 

" Some day universal peace will become an accomplished fact, 
for humanity was not created for war, but for work, for the blessings 
of civilisation, and for the development of reason. We can even 
now discern the dawning of that still distant era, and although we 
assuredly know that we ourselves cannot enter into the promised 
landj yet we are preparing the way for those who will do so. 

•' The Exhibition in London may, perhaps, be followed by other- 
Exhibitions, organised in countries whose Governments are less 
intimately associated with our own than is the British Government, 
thus accomplishing a work of humanity which might have the 
happiest results towards the bringing about of universal peace. 
You, gentlemen, are the apostles of civilisation, and therefore of 
that coming era. You have, through this Exhibition, rendered a 
service to France and to England, 1 congratulate and thank you." 

The Minister's speech was received with enthu- 
siastic applause.* Mr. Whitley, who on rising was 
received by a " ban " or " tiger," then spoke as 
follows : — 

" Your Excellencies — Gentlemen, — Amongst the many excel- 

* M. Henri Maret, Member of the Chamber of Deputies, replying to 
the toast of the Press, referred to the organisers of the Exhibition having 
utilised the services of the Press in but a very small degree, and con- 
tinued : " But the merit of your cause was its own advertisement, and 
assured your success. It so happened that a 'Peace Congress' was 
being held in London during the period the French Exhibition was open. 
That Congress was an index of the coming era of universal peace, to 
which the Minister of Commerce has made allusion — to that dream of all 
generous natures which will assuredly one day become a reality, thanks 
to you and others, who, like you, found enterprises which instruct, 
elevate, and interest all peoples." 



288 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

lent proverbs which humanity owes to the French, there is one 
which assures us that : ' Tout vient a point a qui sait attendre,' and, 
permit of my adding, * et travailler.' This excellent proverb might 
well have served as the motto to the French Committee of the French 
Exhibition held this year in London, for if ever there was a body of 
men tormented by cares and vexatious troubles at a time when they 
might with justice have expected to be aided and encouraged, those 
men are the members of the Committee who have met this evening to 
celebrate at this festive board not an aspiration, but &J'ait accompli. 

" As each here present well knows, it is no flattery if I affirm 
that, without the incessant labours of M. Gustave Sandoz, and the 
Committee he so ably presided over, in their efforts to prepare the 
way to the pacific victory which France has gained this year, we 
should not have had the honour this evening of having with us the 
eminent Ministers who represent the Government of this great 
country, for there would have been no French Exhibition in London. 
The work which falls to the lot of those who organise these 
object-lessons, called 'Exhibitions,' is of so varied a nature that 
those who devote themselves to it should at least be able to 
rely upon sympathy and moral support as an encouragement to 
them in their efforts ; but, in connection with the French Exhibi- 
tion in London, the French Committee has not only had to con- 
vince artists and manufacturers of the value which a national 
demonstration of this character would have for them, but that 
Committee has also had to withstand an avalanche of attacks 
which have been directed against them by envious and narrow- 
minded persons. However, ' all's well that ends well.' There have 
been no bones broken, and, if noblesse oblige, so does success. To-day 
we can afford to pity and pardon those who were not with us, but 
against us. 

" This evening we will, as usual, tell the truth to each other, and 
the truth is, that on our opening day many finishing touches were 
still needed to our beautiful work ; but, with the aid of the valiant 
members of the French Committee, we were able to win, very 
shortly after the opening Ceremony, the applause and the sympathy 
of hundreds of thousands of my countrymen, and of visitors from 



THE FRENCH EXHIBITION. 289 

all parts of the world, who had but two forms of expression : 
* C'est cJiarmant ; ' ' C'est splendide.' 

" I can affirm, without fear of contradiction, that never before, 
in the history of the two countries, was there seen in England such 
a magnificent collection of French paintings. This statement is 
confirmed by all who have expressed an opinion on the subject, and by 
the hundreds of articles which have appeared in English newspapers. 
The masters of the French School have once more furnished in- 
disputable proof that when the honour of tlie National ' flag ' is at 
stake, all instinctively join hands and forget those little feuds which 
are not the special privilege of those who exhibited in the Champs 
Elysees and the Champ de Mars this year, but are common to all 
countries. 

" I remember that, at the first banquet to which I had the honour 
of being invited by you, gentlemen, in this very room, in the early 
part of the year, a Eussian guest maintained that the best proof of 
civilisation in the nineteenth century was to be found in the search 
after new markets and new fields for the products of human intelli- 
gence and human industry, and he added that Englishmen generally 
formed part of the avant-garde of these pacific invasions. 

" I refer to this interesting declaration, because I hope that my 
countrymen have proved this year that if they ever did previously 
merit the designation of 'Jils de la jjerfide Albion,' there has, never- 
theless, been some progress made on our side of the Channel, and 
those who are here present will, I am sure, admit that their friends 
in England have this year afforded the children of this beautiful 
country of France the opportunity of marching shoulder to shoulder 
with them in search of those new markets to which reference was 
made by the eminent Eussian explorer. 

"Amongst the smaller difficulties which are met with by the 
organisers of Exhibitions, is that of satisfying the requests of each 
and all of the exhibitors. I must confess that during the whole 
of my experience this task has never been so light as it has been 
this year. 

" In each Frenchman I have met there was an innate sense of 
what was right and fair, and I am happy to have this opportunity 

19 



290 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

afforded me — the first since tlie close of the Exhibition — of mention- 
ing that not a single serious case has come to my knowledge of a 
French exhibitor having tried to create difficulties for the Admini- 
stration. 

" I will not venture to refer to the exhibits. The juries have 
given their verdict concerning them, and their word can be relied 
upon. Englishmen have observed with what zeal the jurors under- 
took their work. I do not know of any other Exhibition where the 
percentage of the jurors actually visiting the Exhibition was so 
large as on this occasion. 

" It speaks well for the patriotic spirit of the eighty-four gentle- 
men that they should, at their own expense, have come over from 
France to London several times to undertake tbis purely honorary 
task. 

"As for myself, the three things I prize most highly in this 
world are three simple letters signed by the exhibitors from three 
countries [and all friendly to my own, viz. : France, Italy, and 
America]. These workers of three different nationalities were 
invited by me to visit London, and when they returned home to 
their respective countries they were convinced that John Bull is 
not so black as he is often painted ; and permit of my adding that 
an Exhibition in London exclusively devoted to the works and 
products of 1,324 French artists and manufacturers cannot but 
have produced beneficent results for those who exhibited, as well 
as for those who were visitors. 

" I am proud to contribute to this species of emulation, for as 
long as nations are actively engaged in this kind of strife they will 
have neither the time nor the taste for bloody combats. 

" All peoples profess a desire to reduce armaments and to enjoy 
the fruits of peace and the peaceful contests of the intellect ; every 
nation has its writers in quantity who bravely endeavour to bring 
about this happy state of things. You and I, gentlemen, have also 
our manner of giving form and body to our notions concerning the 
best method of arriving at this longed-for goal ; but it is not by 
writing books that we hope to succeed, and we are encouraged by 
the reflection that even when our efi"orts do not accomplish all we 



THE FBENGH EXHIBITION. 291 

could desire, they are, nevertheless, in the right direction, and will 
perhaps produce permanent results. 

" Some may say that we are in search of the millennium of 
peace. If those critics mean that we prefer to be up and hard at 
work, striving to attain an end which we believe to be noble and 
humane, rather than remain seated in tranquil indifference, then 
the criticism is justified. 

" In all countries and in all times the men who leave beaten 
tracks must be men of iron will, and haye the courage and even 
enthusiasm of their own ideal. It is a consolation to remember that 
the very persons who cannot understand in what manner the 
painting which the artist is engaged upon will develop into a 
work of art, or how the efforts of organisation are to produce 
results beneficial to the history of humanity, are precisely those 
whose praises will resound the highest when the work shall be 
completed." 

Commenting on this speech La Paix remarked ; 
" Mr. Whitley delivered, in excellent a t • i 
French, a speech in which humour " ^°^^ ^uii." 
struggled for the mastery with kindliness, ' Some- 
times,' said the speaker, ' John Bull is painted a 
little blacker than he is ; but in coming to London 
you have been able to judge how much injustice 
there is in the popular description of him.' It was 
enough to listen to Mr. Whitley himself for a few 
minutes to be absolutely convinced of this." This 
was a charming compliment- to the man who, in 
virtue of the very qualities which go to the making 
of a typical "John Bull," had organised and carried 
through to a successful close the French Exhibition ; 
and the compliment was repeated to him in still more 



292 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

flattering form when Mr. Whitlej^, after the banquet 
at the Hotel Continental, was presented by M. Eoche 
to M. Carnot, President of the Kepnblic, and thanked 
by him for his services in the common cause of the 
two countries which march in the van of civilisation. 



CHAPTEE V. 

THE GEEMAN EXHIBITION. 
(1891.) 

" I feel encouraged in my task when I see tliat wise and capable men 
such as are gathered here do justice to the earnestness and honesty of 
my intentions. My aim is, above all, the maintenance of peace, for 
peace alone can give the confidence which is necessary to the healthy 
development of science, of art, and of trade." — The German Emperor'' s 
Gtoildhall Speech, July 10, 1891. 

WHILE as yet the Engiisli public were en- 
gaged in the eager perusal of the 
third volume of his works, dealing naissancein 
with France, Mr. Whitley had started off Germany, 
to Berlin, Hamburg, Bremen, and Cologne, in search 
of material for his fourth and final tome ; and, by a 
curious coincidence, he reached Germany upon this 
quest on the very day (August 9, 1890) that 
witnessed the ceremonious cession of Heligoland 
to the Emperor,* a day that will always be memor- 

* In commemoration of this event, and as typical of the friendly 
feeling existing between the two nations, Mr. Whitley commissioned 
some Munich artists to execute a beautiful al-fresco painting of the island 
for the adornment of the verandah wall at the " Welcome Club " in the 
Exhibition Grounds. 



294 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

able in the history of Anglo- German relations. He 
who sets out as the initiator of a private enterprise 
in Germany embarks upon a quest as difficult and 
desperate almost as that of the Holy Grail — seeing 
that the State is no less omnipotent than capricious, 
and that the subjects of this State take their direc- 
tions from it in most things with the disciplined 
docility of a squad of soldiers, who are as potter's 
clay in the hands of their drill-sergeant. " Not 
altogether what we will, but what our Government 
wishes," is the maxim in accordance with which the 
Germans as a rule must shape their actions ; and 
when Mr. Whitley, therefore, set about organising 
an Exhibition of German Arts and Industries in 
London, he addressed himself to a task which might 
have appalled the stoutest heart. His courage, too, 
was all the greater, as the success which attended 
his first efforts to moot the question of his new 
enterprise had been anything but inspiriting. 
Already in 1888, before opening his Italian Ex- 
hibition, he had endeavoured to feel his 

Inherent ' 

Difficulties way with some of the leading members 

of Task. . . 

of the German commercial colony in 
London, yet had, on the whole, met with nothing 
but indifference and dissuasion. But nothing could 
effectually discourage the indomitable Mr. Whitley. 
With his usual tenacity he clung to his purpose, and 
determined to achieve for Germany what he had 
already done so successfully for America, Italy, and 
France. And what more fascinating picture could 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 295 

be presented to Englishmen than the contrast 
between France and Germany, those redoubtable 
adversaries of the past, and possible, nay, probable, 
foes of the future ? Germany had worsted her 
neighbour in arms ; and would it not be interesting 
to show to what extent she now claimed equality, 
or even supremacy, in the field of arts and industries? 
France had long held unquestioned sway both in 
arts and arms, but one of her thrones had already 
been transferred to Berlin, and what was now to 
become of the other? Before the great war of 
1870 Germany had scarcely been entitled to the 
name of a commercial nation ; but unity had given 
her internal strength, while her commanding 
position in Europe enabled her to make up with 
rapid strides for her trading and industrial back- 
wardness in the past. Where there is political 
power there must also be economic progress ; and 
the result of this law is that, during the brief period 
of her nonage, Germany had sprung forward into the 
very first rank of commercial nations. To enable 
Englishmen to realise this important and almost 
incredible fact by living pictures, not by bare 
statistics, was the task which Mr. Whitley now 
set himself' — a task, as he otherwise expressed it, 
which was intended " to illustrate by the display of 
her arts, her crafts, her industries, and the products 
of her husbandry, what the workers of Germany are 
capable of producing; to show the progress they 
are making in their manufactures ; and to add to 



296 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

this more serious and didactic aspect of the object" 
lesson representations of the sports and pastimes of 
the German people, with side-glimpses at the more 
epoch-making incidents in their history." 

That such a Life-Picture from his hands would 

be again hailed with pleasure by the 

Economic EugHsh public, Mr. Whitley did not 

Progress, ^q^]^^^ there being many reasons why a 

German Exhibition in London should be popular 

and successful ; and some of these reasons were thus 

ably set forth by a friend of his (Mr. J. S. Jeans) :— 

" There are many reasons why a German Exhibition in London 
should be popular and successful. Perhaps the most obvious of 
these is that Germany is a great commercial and manufacturing 
country, seeking to extend its trade in all directions, and capable 
of presenting to the rest of the world inducements to come and 
buy. And the allied reason is that Great Britain, with the true 
instincts and policy of a sound trader, is not only seeking to sell 
in the dearest market, but to buy in the cheapest, and would as 
soon buy in Germany, at a given price, as in any other part of the 
world. 

" But there are other reasons, perhaps of a more sentimental, 
but not on that account of a less substantial and real character. 
Germany is not only geographically very near to us, but through 
many generations of eventful history the two nations have fought 
in the same campaigns for faith and freedom, have been brought 
close together by the kinship of the reigning dynasties, and have 
much in common in marching shoulder to shoulder in the cause of 
advancing civilisation. 

" We hear much, and we are likely to hear more, of German 
competition. There is hardly an industry of importance established 
on English soil that is not more or less subjected to successful 



THE GERMAN EXHIBITION. 297 

rivalry from Germany. This may not be to the advantage of the 
individual manufacturer or merchant, but in the long run it is a 
gain to the public — it promotes distinctly the greatest good of the 
greatest number. 

"As an industrial nation Germany has not long got out of 
school. Thirty years ago there was hardly any industry of large 
importance carried on in the then greatly-governed and much- 
divided congeries of small principalities and powers to which the 
generic name of Germany was applied. All this is now a thing 
of the past. The ironworks of Ehineland and Westphalia are of 
as large extent, are as well administered, and, up to a certain 
point, as successful as those of Great Britain or any other country. 
The woollen mills of Saxony are carried on with a knowledge of 
technique, and of the conditions that make for industrial success, 
that can hardly be rivalled in Bradford or the West of England. 
The cotton, thread, lace, and other factories of Chemnitz are equal 
to anything of their kind on the Continent of Europe. Krupp, of 
Essen, has taught all the world how to apply steel to the manu- 
facture of armaments, and has raised his country thereby in the 
estimation of every other Power. Borsig, of Berlin, has proved 
that German locomotives are as good and as cheap as anything 
that can be turned out of the colossal establishments of Crewe 
and Swindon. The shipyards of Stettin and Hamburg are com- 
peting vigorously, ' brow to brow,' with the shipyards of the Clyde, 
the Tyne, and the Wear, and have turned out ships for the North 
German Lloyd and other lines that are equal to any on the ocean. 
The now extensive industry of the production of coal-tar colours 
is carried on to a larger extent in the Fatherland than in any 
other country, and has been developed there with skill and 
knowledge. There is, indeed, no manufacture of national im- 
portance that has not become established in Germany with more 
or less success. 

"Not only is this the case, but Germany has become a large 
contributor to the commerce of other nations. Her export trade 
within the last twenty years has grown enormously, and is now 
close on 200 millions sterling per annum. This is a figure that 



29a NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

is comparatively dwarfed by the enormous export trade of the 
United Kingdom, but it is, nevertheless, the largest European 
contribution to the commerce of the world, after our own. 

" This, of course, is neither the time nor the place to discuss 
economic problems of a controversial character, but it is interesting 
to note that while the German Empire imposes duties on nearly 
every class of imported commodities, and while Great Britain 
preaches and practises the gospel of free trade, except for revenue 
purposes, both countries alike have been making great commercial 
progress, and have been largely extending their trade relations with 
other countries. ... 

" Much of the success that has attended recent German enter- 
prise may be laid to the credit of the educational system of that 
country. No other nation has done so much to make education 
cheap, good, and universal. As far back as 1830 the ratio of 
adults able to read and write in Germany was 81, as compared 
with 55 in England, and 42 in France. In the interval, as is well 
known, our own country has made great educational strides ; but 
even in 1881, while the ratio of educated adults had in Germany 
been raised to 94, it was still only 84 in England, and 78 in 
France. This is simply due to the universal practice in Germany 
of sending children of school age to school, and published statistics 
show that in that country the ratio of school-children to population 
was 16, as against 7 in England, and 6 in France. In 1881 the 
ratio had remained almost stationary in Germany — having only 
risen to 17 — while in England it was 15, and in France 13 per 
cent. Evidently, therefore, Germany has set the rest of the world 
an example, in reference to educational progress, that should be 
gratefully acknowledged, and if she is now reaping the fruits of 
that early educational superiority in increasing trade relations, and 
increasing intelligence applied to the conduct of business affairs, 
the reward has been too well earned to be begrudged by so generous 
a nation as our own. ... 

*• The powers of that now pre-eminently strong and prosperous 
nation lay fallow for many years, and indeed, until the result of 
the Franco-Prussian war lifted the country at one bound from a 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 299 

minor position among the States of Europe to the foremost place 
among the great Powers, Germany was apparently content to jog 
along in an almost passive manner, without either rivalling or 
competing with its more aggressive and self-assertive neighbours. 
But the splendid military system created by the late Emperor 
William and his Generals, the genius of Bismarck, the loyalty and 
devotion of the people, and the many other attributes, long latent 
and lambent, that were called into active exercise in that supreme 
crisis, disclosed to the world that the German nation was made of 
better stuff than was commonly supposed, and taught the Germans 
themselves that if they had a mind to make the effort,' they had 
every reason to look for a greater measure of national prosperity 
than they had previously known. They have made the effort, and ' 
they have largely succeeded. German competition in arts and 
industries, which was formerly a myth, is now an accomplished 
fact. Into most of the principal countries of the world German 
ideas have penetrated, and German productions, as we have seen, 
are often preferred to any other. 

" The course of events may be illustrated by a very convenient 
and well-attested fact. Up to a certain point the great neutral 
market of the world hitherto has been the United States of America. 
The Americans, despite their tariff, are by far the best customers 
for the produce of Europe, and Germany, directly after the war, 
set herself to work to secure a better hold of that as well as of 
other outside markets. She has succeeded in a very remarkable 
degree. In the year 1871 the United States only imported from 
Germany goods of the value of 25 millions of dollars. Ten years 
later this had rather more than doubled, but in 1889 the United 
States import of German goods had reached the very considerable 
sum of 82 millions of dollars, so that in less than twenty years 
Germany has improved her position more than threefold in the 
trade with that country, whereas within the same interval the 
American imports of British goods have declined, with considerable 
intermediate fluctuations, from 221 millions of dollars in 1871 to 
1781 millions in 1889. 

" Germany has of late years made remarkable progress in 



300 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

respect of that industry which lies at the foundation of all indus- 
trial greatness. In other words, she has largely developed her 
coal resources. Half a century ago the coal output of Germany 
was not more than 4^ millions of tons. Twenty years afterwards 
this output had advanced to 25| millions of tons. Thirty years 
afterwards it was 38i millions of tons. In 1889 the production 
had reached the large total of 67i millions of tons, in addition to 
which brown coal, or lignite, was produced to the extent of 17i 
millions of tons, making Germany the third largest coal-producing 
country in the world — after the United Kingdom and the United 
States. ... 

" Quite as remarkable as the advancement reached in the coal 
industry has been the increase in the production of iron ores — the 
main element in the manufacture of the most useful of the metals 
■ — the metal which Dr. Ure has described as the ' Father of Arts 
and the Mother of Plenty.' In 1848 the output of iron ores in 
Germany was under a million tons, the exact figures being 693,000 
tons. In 1868 the production had increased to 3,630,000 tons; 
and in 1878 the output was over 5 millions of tons. In this year 
there occurred an event that did a great deal for the advancement 
of the German iron industry — the practical discovery and appli- 
cation of the basic process of steel-making. This enabled 
Germany to make use of her rich resources in phosphoric ores, 
instead of depending mainly, as she had formerly done, on limited 
supplies of indigenous Bessemer ores, or 'imported Bessemer ores 
from Spain and other countries. Hence, from this point the iron 
ore industry of Germany took a great leap, and the output in 1889 
was over 11 millions of tons, having more than doubled in about 
ten years. 

" An increase in the production of iron ores means, of course, 
a concurrent increase in the production of iron and steel, at any 
rate in a country like Germany, which does not produce for export. 
The German iron industry, now of very large extent, has been a 
creation of the last thirty years. In 1868, the total output of iron 
in the Empire (including Alsace and Luxemburg) was only a trifle 
over a million tons. For the next ten years the progress was slow, 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 301 

so much so that in 1876 the make was still under two millions of 
tons ; but from the adoption of the basic process, introduced into 
Germany in 1878, the trade began to rise rapidly, until in 1889 
the make of pig iron was not less than 4J millions of tons, having 
practically quadrupled within thirty years. This increased pro- 
duction has mainly been converted into steel in the German steel 
works, and applied to all purposes of arts and industries, but 
mainly in the production of rails, wire, and plates for shipbuilding. 
At the present time Germany produces over a million and a half 
tons of steel per annum. More than one-third of this quantity is 
employed for railway purposes. ... 

" The total value of the exports of the German Empire 
(Zollverein) was 144^ millions sterling in 1878, and 156f millions 
in 1887. 

" The German Empire does a much larger trade, as it is, with 
the United Kingdom than with any other foreign country. The 
principal countries that receive exports of German produce, in the 
order of their importance, next after the United Kingdom, are — 

Austria-Hungary, Belgium, 

The United States, Switzerland, 

Holland, Eussia ; 
France, 

but a considerable amount of business is also done with Italy, 
Central and South America, and the countries of Scandinavia." 

In view of all these considerations, and of the 
consequent interest which J]nglishmen were 
thus sure to take in an Exhibition devoted object- 
exclusively to the illustration of German ©sson. 
arts, industries, and history, Mr. Whitley resolved to 
proceed with the realisation of his scheme, in spite of 
all the indifference it had met with on the part of a 
section of the German colony in London when first 



302 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

mooted in 1888, and in spite of the serious obstacles 
which it was certain to encounter in Germany itself. 
While his French Life-Picture, therefore, was at the 
height of its popularity, he set out on a preliminary 
reconnaissance, so to speak, of the field of his future 
operations, reaching Germany, as we have seen, on 
the very day Heligoland was ceremoniously handed 
over to the Emperor ; and, as if Germany had not 
yet given a just enough equivalent for this rocky 
islet, he determined, as it were, that she should pay 
the residue of her indebtedness in the form of an 
object-lesson, at once instructive and entertaining. 
Never certainly since Napoleon issued his famous 
Berlin Decree, sealing up the Continent against 
English commerce, had any foreigner ventured to 
invade the Prussian capital — that adamantine city 
of militarism, machine-mindedness, and mammon- 
worship — with such designs upon the trading rela- 
tions of Germany and England as were now cherished 
by the organiser of the National Exhibitions in 
London, and set forth by him in a Circular which he 
issued from Berlin on the 1st of September — the 
anniversary of Sedan. But was this, too, an anni- 
versary of promising augury for the success of his 
scheme ? might have been asked by those who re- 
membered that one of the main reasons for Germany 
not taking official part in the Paris Exhibition of 
1878 was her fearing that she might thus expose 
herself to the humiliation of a revanche in the arts 
of peace, to an industrial Sedan. At Philadelphia, 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 303 

in 1876, German exhibits had been adjudged to be 
*' hillig und scJilecht " (cheap and nasty) ; but at that 
time the Empire was still only, so to speak, in its 
teething period. It had now reached the years of 
manhood, and might be expected to show more com- 
mendable fruits of its vigour, with less disinclination 
to submit its performances to the criticism of its 
neighbours. 

Mr. Whitley at any rate resolved to try, and sent 

forth from Berlin a long and elaborate , •+• + 

o Initiatory- 

Circular, from which the following may be circular. 

quoted : — ■ 

"In 1891 a German Exhibition is proposed to be held, and 
I have come most cordially to invite the Germans themselves to 
organise it. As far back as May, 1888, at the opening of the 
Italian Exhibition, I proposed that in 1889, as a pendant to the 
International Exposition then being arranged in Paris, a German 
Exhibition should be held in London. 

" At that time, however, I did not meet, with the encouragement 
I looked for in leading circles, because at that time the advantages 
presented to exhibitors by national exhibitions in London were in- 
sufficiently understood. . . . 

" Germany is not only the first military power in the world ; she 
is rapidly becoming one of the most important industrial centres, 
and is therefore eminently interested in securing a first place in the 
most important market of the world. 

*' The Sovereigns of England and Germany have made this all the 
easier at the present moment, inasmuch as on the 9th of August 
ult. they presented to the world the glorious example of a conquest 
without fighting and without bloodshed.* In their wise and pacific 
3,greement there were no vanquished ; both contracting Powers were 

* A reference to the cession of Heligoland, 



304 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

conquerors ; and I could not imagine any better way of imitating 
this noble example than by helping to promote the peaceful invasion 
of my own country by tlie workers of a friendly nation. I may be 
permitted to regard as a happy augury the circumstance that I hap- 
pened to arrive in Germany, to prosecute my present mission, on 
that same 9th of August. , . . 

" The present is a most opportune moment for the holding of a 
German Exhibition, owing to the increasing sympathy between the 
two countries, as evidenced by the extraordinary popularity enjoyed 
by His Majesty the German Emperor whenever he visits his august 
relatives in England. The fact that His Majesty, the Emperor 
William H., intends, according to current report, to make a stay in 
London in the spring or summer of next year, will enhance the 
prestige of the Exhibition, particularly if the latter should be 
honoured by a visit from His Majesty. 

" As a further substantial proof of the opportuneness of the present 
moment, I may quote the following passage from the last Ee- 
port of the British Consul-General in Frankfort, Mr. Charles Op- 
penheimer, to the English Foreign Office on the working of the 
Merchandise Marks Act : ' A comparison of the statistics of exports 
from Germany to Great Britain shows that, despite the Trade 
Marks Act and other regulations, the exports from Germany to 
Great Britain have by no means fallen off. It appears that a large 
number of articles were shipped, in larger quantities than in former 
years, to and via Great Britain. Last year's experience shows that 
the Trade Marks Act, which is now extended to nearly all the 
British colonies, far from prejudicing the German export trade, has, 
on the contrary, drawn the attention of foreign purchasers to its 
capabilities, which before the enforcement of that Act were not suffi- 
ciently appreciated. It appears that goods marked " Manufactured 
in Germany" are in fair demand, and that direct relations be- 
tween German merchants and foreign purchasers have been 
extended.' . . . 

"I shall devote all my energies to the securing of a bril- 
liant success for the German Exhibition in London, and I do 
so all the more heartily inasmuch as I had the privilege of being 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 305 

educated in Germany, and have ever retained the warmest sym- 
pathy for that country." 

Leaving the ideas expressed in this Circular to 
produce their natural effect, Mr. Whitley, German co- 
after some other preliminary work in in^Jondon 
Germany, returned to London, and a few and Benin, 
days before the close of the French Exhibition he 
read a paper on his new project before the members 
of the German Athenaeum, in which he set forth, 
with great clearness and cogency, the aims and 
motives which had animated him in the painting 
of all his Life-Pictures.* The immediate result of 
this address was the constitution in London of a 
German Honorary Advisory Council, presided over 
by Herr Oscar von Ernsthausen, and comprising 
amongst its members such representative men as 
Professors Max Miiller and Herkomer, Dr. Cruese- 
mann, Herr Otto Goldschmidt, Herr G. Zwilgmeyer, 
and other gentlemen, whose names will be found in 
the Supplement (p. 512). 

The German who lives abroad, especially in England, 
where the very air he breathes savours of personal 
liberty and individual effort, is much more amenable 
to the suggestions of private enterprise than his 
stay-at-home countrymen, who find it difficult to 
shake themselves loose from the leading-strings of 
their Government ; but on returning to Berlin, in 

* Part of this address will be found quoted in the Introductory 
Chapter. 

20 



306 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

November (after the close of the French Exhibition), 
Mr, Whitley found that the formation of this 
Advisory Council of Germans in London, as well 
as of a Eeception Committee which he had 
composed of some of the most distinguished men 
in England, had produced a surprisingly favour- 
able effect on the minds of those who are ever 
slow to lead but are willing to follow, preferring 
"come on" to "go on," as a word of command. 
Profiting, therefore, by this prevailing mood, Mr. 
Whitley (on 26th of November) delivered a lecture, 
in German, to a very large and influential assem- 
blage of artists, manufacturers, merchants, and 
others in the Architektenhaus, at Berlin, under 
the chairmanship of Herr B. W. Yogts, President of 
the Berlin Mercantile and Industrial Association, 
when the project was discussed in all its bearings, and 
a committee appointed to consider and report upon 
it. 

As the result of this report, which was eminently 
favourable, the nucleus was formed of what Mr. 
Whitley afterwards developed into the Honorary 
Committee in Germany, one of the strongest and 
most representative committees ever constituted in 
that country.* The Presidency was appropriately 
assigned to, and graciously accepted by, His Serene 
Highness Prince Bliicher von Wahlstatt, great-grand- 
Bon of the famous Field-Marshal who shared with our 

* See Supplement, p. 512. 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 307 

own Wellington the glory of the field of Waterloo. 
The project having now assumed practical shape, 
offices were opened at the Architektenhaus and at 
the Kaiserhof in Berlinj and a most efficient staff 
were engaged to assist in carrying out the pre- 
paratory work of the Exhibition, a class of work 
which calls for no small amount of tact, close 
attention to the minutest details, unflagging in- 
dustry, and indomitable will. 

It required, indeed, the possession of all these 
qualities to enable Mr. Whitley and his initial 
staff to triumph over the manifold obstacles Difficulties. - 
which beset their path, and which might have been 
classified under the double heading of bureaucracy 
and backbiting. It was a comparatively easy thing to 
rise superior to personal opposition of the overt kind, 
but Mr. Whitley found it more than difficult to cope 
with one or two calumniators who aimed their darts 
at him and his undertaking from the vantage-ground 
of the inspired Press. 

The idea of a National Exhibition which was to be 
the mere outcome of private enterprise, instead of 
State-directed effort, was scoffed at and held up to 
ridicule. How like a German semi-official organ to 
mock at individual initiative and personal endeavour ! 
As if, indeed, the British Empire itself, and even the 
German Empire also to some extent, had not been 
built up by exertions of this kind. 

Influenced by motives which were as inscrutable 
as they were ungenerous, the English Govern- 



a08 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

ment, too, had gone out of its way to let it be 
Official known in Berlin, as well as in London, 
friofflc?a1 tliat Mr. Whitley's beneficent project did 
Opposition. j^qI^ j^ ^]^Q least enjoy its countenance or 
support ; and this ostentatious attitude of more 
than mere passive indifference, in quarters where 
Mr. Whitley was entitled at least to hope for 
benevolent neutrality, was quick to exercise a con- 
tagious kind of effect on the German powers that 
be. In his numerous speeches and edicts the 
Emperor had dwelt so much on his desire to 
improve the lot of the German artisan and working 
man by opening up new foreign markets for their 
labour,* that every one expected His Majesty 
would at least extend his protection and patronage 
to the scheme of an Exhibition of German arts and 
industries in London, or that he would at any rate 
imitate the example of the King of Italy in trying 
to acquaint himself with all the aspects of this 

* Speaking in the Eeichstag (December 10, 1891) on the New Trade 
Treaties between Germany and Austria, and Italy, &c., General Caprivi, 
Imperial Chancellor, said it could not be denied that between that date 
(1878) and the present time the home industries had received a great 
impetus, but at the same time difficulties had arisen owing to over- 
production, there being no fresh markets for the surplus trade. He had 
come to the conclusion that if the present condition of affairs were 
allowed to continue it would mean starvation for the employer as well as 
the employed. What had to be done was to devise means to enable 
Germany to preserve her agriculture and develop her industries. 
Although the country might be able to cut itself off from intercourse 
with other nations, it would not be in a position to provide for its 
own needs permanently. The present Government accepted the prin« 
ciple of assimilating the interests of Germany with those of other 
States." 



THE aEBMAN EXHIBITION, 309 

scheme from the lips of its EngHsh organiser himself. 
Mr. Whitley, therefore, felt a surprise, which was 
otherwise general, on being officially informed, 
through the British Embassy in Berlin, that the 
Emperor could not grant him an audience in view of 
the fact that "the German Exhibition which it is 
proposed to hold in London is not promoted by Her 
Majesty's Government." Such an intimation was not 
only, we repeat, a surprise to Mr. Whitley himself, 
but also to all those who had hitherto imagined that 
His Majesty looked upon his own will as of more 
account than the capricious wish of others, and that 
he always allowed his attitude to any matter to be 
exclusively shaped by a fair consideration of its 
intrinsic merits. 

Such an attitude on the part of the Emperor and 
his Government was all the more inexplicable, as 
Mr. Whitley's explanatory lecture on his scheme 
(delivered in the Architektenhaus, Berlin, on the 
26th of November)* had been attended, among other 
notables, by several special delegates from the various 
Ministries, who were apparently captivated by the 
array of advantages which German art and industry 
might derive from participation in the proposed 
Exhibition. At that time, however, the hostile 
influences which had always hitherto cast their 
chilling shadow over Mr. Whitley's path of Exhibi- 
tion enterprise had not yet dogged his footsteps to 

''• See p. 306, ante. 



310 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Berlin. But they were quick to overtake him there 
again, soon after the rumour of his first success in 
the German capital reached London, embittering and 
obstructing, as before, the execution of his task; and 
the desire of the German Government to indulge the 
animosities of Mr. Whitley's powerful foes in Eng- 
land was only equalled by the obsequiousness with 
which the officials of that Government, most of whom 
were privately enamoured of the Exhibition idea, now 
turned round and sought to vilipend and intrigue 
against the project which they had formerly applauded 
and promised to support. But there is a German 
proverb which says : " Viel Feind, viel Ehr\'' i.e., 
" the more enemies, the more honour; " and the fact 
that Mr. Whitley succeeded in either baffling or 
beating down all active opposition to his plans in 
Berlin, that frowning fortress of frigid officialism, 
must always be reckoned as one of his most meri- 
torious achievements. 

Despising or brushing aside the intrigues of 
court-artists, as well as the treacheries of 

Propagan- 

dismand Kuiist-Juden in Berlin, Mr. Whitley, 

Pro srrGS s 

during the ensuing winter, prosecuted his 
mission in Germany with unsparing energy. Some 
thirty of the principal cities were visited by him,* 
and everywhere he found the independent artists and 

* Among otlaer places, Mr. Whitley visited Hamburg, Bremen, Cologne, 
Crefeld, Elberfeld, Diisseldorf, Mainz, Strasburg, Mulhouse, Frankfort, 
Karlsruhe, Stuttgart, Nuremberg, Sonneberg, Leipzig, Dresden, Magde- 
burg, and Munich, 




H.R.H. THE I^UKE OF SAXE COBURG GOTHA. 



THE GBBMAN EXHIBITION. 311 

manufacturers ready to respond to his appeal, though, 
the " inexphcable coohiess " on the part of the 
ofl&cials, to which we have referred, served to deter 
most of the best intending exhibitors. Despite this 
unfortunate drawback, the inherent excellence of 
the scheme commended it to the acceptance of many, 
and very substantial progress was made towards its 
realisation. By dint of what might be called tre- 
mendous efforts in travelling about inculcating the 
advantages of his scheme, Mr. Whitley's chief diffi- 
culties were gradually overcome. The idea of the 
forthcoming German Exhibition in London had taken 
firm hold of the public mind in Germany. In spite 
of the cool wind blowing at Berlin, the Honorary 
Presidency of the Exhibition had been accepted by 
Duke Ernst of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, brother of the 
late Prince Consort ; and, yielding to these mollifying 
influences, German officialdom little by little began 
to unbend. The State Eailways were at last 
authorised to grant reduced rates to exhibitors for 
the return carriage of exhibits.* Permission was 
obtained for Professor Scherres's celebrated picture, 
'' The Floods in East Prussia," to be lent by the 



■'' Eeduction in the rate of freight is usually made by the State Eailways 
to firms taking part in Art and Industrial Exhibitions of any importance. 
. Unfortunately the granting of this reduction was withheld so long, in the 
case of the German Exhibition in London, that many of the best German 
firms withdrew their applications for space, whilst others decided to take 
no part in the Exhibition, fearing that the coolness of officials, and the 
delay in granting the usual freight facilities was significant of some un- 
known " danger ahead." 



312 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Berlin National Gallery to the Exhibition, and daily 
evidence was forthcoming of the growing favour, of 
the passive kind at least, with which the project 
was regarded in the most influential circles in 
Germany. 

Considering that a special International Art Exhi- 
. ^. , , bition in Berlin was to be held contem- 
Album, poraneously with the German Exhibition 
in London, Mr. Whitley's efforts to make the 
artistic contents of his National Show as fall and 
comprehensive as possible were successful beyond 
his most sanguine hopes. But of these and the in- 
dustrial harvest which he also reaped more anon. A 
German Exhibition without a contribution from 
German men of letters would, however, have formed 
at best an incomplete life-picture of a nationality to 
which literature owes so great a debt. Accordingly, 
Mr. Whitley invited the principal authors and 
poets of Germany to contribute original pieces for 
an album, the proceeds of which should be divided 
between the funds of the Society of German 
Authors and of the Berlin Press Association. He 
thus enlisted the co-operation of seventy repre- 
sentative German writers,* who were only too 



■■' Names of the seventy authors : — Hermann Allmers, Eudolf Baum- 
baeh, Karl Bleibtreu, Viktor Bllithgen, Oskar Blumenthal, Friedr. V. 
Bodenstedt, FeHx Dahn, Georg Ebers, Marie Von Ebner-Eschenbach, 
Ernst Eckstein, A. Fitger, Theodor Fontane, Karl Emil Franzos, Use 
Frapan, Ludwig Fulda, 0. F. Gensichen, Eudolf von Gottschall, Julius 
Grosse, Klaus Groth, Heinrich Hart, Julius Hart, Hermann Heiberg, 
Karl von Heigel, Wilhelna Hertz, Paul Heyse, Wilhelmine von Hillern, 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 313 

willing to contribute thus to the success of a 
scheme which they all heartily approved and ap- 
plauded. " Deutsche Dichter der Gegenwart, Bild 
und Worf' was the title of the handsome illus- 
trated album containing their contributions, as 
edited by Herr Gustav Dahms, printed by Herr 
Julius Sittenfeld, and published by Messrs. Paetel, 
of Berlin. This unique message of sympathy from 
the German to the British literary world was 
certain to be widely appreciated in this country. 

Thanks to the sympathetic support w^hich his- 
Exhibition scheme had received on the ^. , 

Final 

whole from the German Press, as well as Triumph, 
to his own personal endeavoars, Mr. "Whitley was 
able to declare at a Farewell Banquet in the 
Kaiserhof Hotel, Berlin, to which he was treated 
by the Honorary German Committee on the eve of 
his return to London (12th of March) : — 

" It is true I have found that the Germans are rather difficult to 



Hans Hoffmann, Hans von Hopfen, Willielm Jensen, Wilhelm Jordan, 
Sophie Schumann-Junglians, Isolde Kurtz, Adolf L'Arronge, Otto 
von Leisner, Hermann Lingg, Fritz Mauthner, Konrad Ferdinand 
Meyer, Gustav von Moser, August Niemann, Anton von Perfall, 
Ludwig Pfau, Oskar von Eedwitz, Emil Eittershaus, Alexander 
Baron von Eoberts, Julius Eodenberg, Otto Eoquette, P. K. Rosegger, 
Ferdinand von Saar, Ad. Fr. Graf von Schack, Maximilian Schmidti 
Eichard Sclimidt-Cabanis, Prinz Emil Sclionaicli-Cai'olath, Franz von 
Schonthan, Ossip Scliubin, EoLert Scliweichel, Heinricli Seidel, Friedr. 
Spielhagen, Julius Stettenheim, Julius Stinde, Hermann Sudermann, 
Eduard Tempeltey, Johannes Trojan, Eichard Voss, E. Werner, Ernst 
Wicherfc, Adolf Wilbrandt, Ernst von Wildenbruch, Julius Wolff, L, 
Ziemssen, and Theophil ZoUing. 



•314 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

be started on any particular path, but when once they do make up 
their minds to move they prove persevering and efficient." 

Thus, after four raonths' strenuous and continuous 
labour in Germany, during wMcli lie had laid the 
basis of his new Exhibition, Mr. Whitley was able 
to return to his head-quarters at Earl's Court. 
He had finished sowing the good seed of his 
Opening enterprise in Germany by the 12th of 
Ceremony ]\/[arch, and withiu two months of this 

and. ' 

Speeches. Hme (9th of May) he was already in a 
position to begin the reaping of the harvest, by 
calling upon the Lord Mayor of London (Sir 
Joseph Savory) to wield the first sickle. His 
Lordship, who had readily undertaken to perform 
the opening ceremony in full civic state,'* was ac- 
companied by the Lady Mayoress and the Sheriffs, 
and attended by the officers of the Corporation. 



* The opening ceremony, as usual, had been preceded by a luncheon 
to the Press, at which the Marquis of Lome sat on one side of the Chair- 
man (Mr. Whitley), with his Serene Highness Prince Bliicher von Wahl- 

,statt, President of the Honorary Committee in Germany, on the other. 
The healths of the Queen and the German Emperor were proposed in 
happy speeches by Mr. Whitley, and accepted with all the honours in 
English and German fashion. " The Press of all Countries " was toasted, 
and Mr. George Augustus Sala, to the satisfaction of all his brethren, was 
called upon to respond, speaking the sentiments of all when he declared 

jthat Mr. Whitley was entitled to the gratitude of the public for giving the 
metropolis in succession valuable collections of Italian, French, and 
German art. Prince Bliicher also made a good speech in English, and 
the Marquis of Lome was not compelled to call a second time for a hearty 
response to his toast, " The Health of Mr. Whitley." In toasting " The 

.Press of all Countries," Mr. Whitley said : — " I have had the honour of 
giving this toast on three previous occasions within these premises during 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION, ;315 

He was received by Mr. Whitley and the other 
members of the Eeception Committee, and con- 
ducted to his place on an extemporised platform 
erected at the main entrance to the Fine Art 
Gallery. The platform was prettily decorated with 
shrubs and flowers, and above it, by way of canopy, 
was an expansive canvas bearing the presentment 
of the Prussian eagle and German arms. Well 
within the Art Gallery were placed the bands 
of the Crown Prince's 2nd Bavarian Infantry 
Regiment and the Hesse-Darmstadt Regiment No. 
115, together with the members of the United 
German Choral Societies in London under the 
direction of Professor J. H. Bonawitz ; while on 
the platform were Prince Bliicher von Wahlstatt, 
Honorary President of the Committee in Germany ; 
Baron de Bush, representing the Duke of Saxe- 
Coburg-Gotha ; the Marquis of Lome, Lord 
Dorchester, the Danish Minister, the Persian 

the past few years, and as this is doubtless the last time I shall have the 
honour of presiding at a luncheon to the ' Press ' in connection with our 
Exhibitions at Earl's Court, I desire to tender nay heartfelt thanks for the 
most kind and Mendly assistance I have always received from members 
of the Fourth Estate during my somewhat tedious and up-hill task of 
endeavouring to encourage foreign artists and foreign manufacturers to 
sojourn with us for six months in this London of ours — the market-place 
of the world. I have always made a practice of carefully reading once a 
week through the ' cuttings ' which we receive from the newspaper 
agencies (and then file in volumes prepared for the purpose). Advice, 
we are told, is only for those who will take it. Well, gentlemen, we 
have taken it, and we consequently owe much to the ' Press,' for 
we have received many a practical and useful suggestion from 
its apostles ; I therefore drink with all my heart to ' The Press of all 
Countries ! ' " 



316 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Minister, the Servian Minister, Sir J. E. Heron- 
Maxwell, Sir F. and Lady Alston, Sir W. Houston 
Stewart and Lady Stewart, Herr von Hum- 
boldt, Acting Consul for Germany; Baron von 
Bleichroder, English Yice-Consul in Berlin ; Herr 
von Ernsthausen, President of the German Com- 
mittee in London; Herr B. W. Yogts, President of 
the Committee in Germany, and of the Berlin Asso- 
ciation of Merchants and Manufacturers ; Dr. E. 
Cruesemann ; Dr. Martins ; Lieutenant Sholto Doug- 
las, of the German Army ; Professor Papperitz, and 
many others interested in German affairs. The pro- 
ceedings commenced with a prayer by the Lord 
Mayor's Chaplain, after which the chorus from 
" Tannhauser " was given by the Choral Societies 
to the accompaniment of the military bands, the 
performance being loudly applauded by the large 
gathering of people present. 

Mr. Whitley then rose and said : — 



" My Lord Mayor, Your Serene Highness, My Lords, Ladies and 
Gentlemen, — I have the honour to bring to your knowledge some 
particulars concerning the Exhibition which your Lordship will be 
invited to open this afternoon. 

" The Honorary President of the Exhibition is His Eoyal High- 
ness the Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and His Eoyal Highness has 
arranged to distribute the awards to successful exhibitors in this 
building on the 11th of July next. 

"This Exhibition is the fourth which has been held at Earl's 
Court. In 1887, three months before the inauguration of the first 
of the series, this space was a green field and the ground or 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 317 

which the other end of this building stands was simply a cabbage 
garden. 

" What has since been done has been accomplished without 
subsidy or assistance of any kind whatever from any Government 
or any Corporation. We have not even had the benefit of a 
Guarantee Fund, and yet we have had the pleasure of welcoming 
here, and helping, to the best of our ability, 1,229 American 
Exhibitors in 1887; 1,728 Italian Exhibitors in 1888; 1,324 
French Exhibitors last year, and we anticipate the pleasure of 
promoting the interests of about 1,200 German Exhibitors this 
year. 

" The 4,281 exhibitors at the three Exhibitions already held 
were so well satisfied with their six months' sojourn in London, 
that most of them would be very glad if we invited them to pay a 
second visit, for those three Exhibitions were visited by over five 
millions of people. 

" The figures I have quoted show that the importance of these 
National Exhibitions in London is not only recognised by exhibitors 
who have taken part in them, but also by the public. 

" I have, personally, devoted seven years to this work. Although 
an Exhibition can be organised here, now, in about three months, 
the first of the series occupied three years in preparatory labours. 
We all know by experience that the grammar is what seems most 
difficult in a language, and the same rule applies to organising 
Exhibitions. 

"I had to pay three visits to America to induce our American 
cousins to exhibit, but now it is no longer a question — ' will a 
nationality exhibit ? ' but ' to which nationality shall we give 
the preference ? ' 

" The idea of holding Exhibitions of the Arts and Lidustries of 
a single country in this metropolis was at first derided, but now it 
is hailed with enthusiasm by the best judges of their practical results 
— the exhibitors themselves. 

" Although the work has been highly interesting, it has been 
anything but an easy task — unsupported as we were by any Govern- 
ment — ^to induce the artists and manufacturers of four different 



318 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

nations to venture across the water and temporarily establish them-' 
selves upon our shores. 

" Each year we had (so to speak) to learn a new alphabet. That 
of the previous year was of no use to us. For, however influential 
the men whose enthusiasm was one year fired, they were powerless 
to help us during the following season. 

"I had, in each succeeding Exhibition, to begin da capo. In 
each country I found about the same quantum of indifference or 
incredulity, and these had not only to be overcome, but trans- 
formed : the former warmed into enthusiasm, the latter fused into 
faith. Only the man who has had a similar experience amongst 
the busiest toilers of four different nations has any idea of the 
exertion it entails. 

" No one, who has not been through such work, can form any 
conception of how one's best intentions and efforts are stultified by 
obsequious officials ambitious of eulogy at head-quarters. As fast as 
one made converts, those over- zealous persons took the trouble to 
win them back by statements to the effect, that our work was merely 
' the outcome of private initiative,' sublimely indifferent to the fact 
that the most powerful nations of the earth have been built up by 
that initiative. 

" As an Englishman it is interesting to me to reflect what England 
would have been to-day but for ' private initiative.' There are men 
in India, America, and Australia who might perhaps be able to 
answer the question. 

' ' I should imagine it must be a delightfully easy task to organise 
an Exhibition when the moral support of a Government sheds its 
warm and expansive rays upon the hesitating exhibitors. If the 
German exhibitors leave this Exhibition next October thoroughly 
satisfied that they accepted our invitation, as will undoubtedly 
be the case, our efforts will not have been in vain. What those 
efforts were may be better estimated by Exhibition experts than 
by the uninitiated, when I inform them that the 'warm and 
expansive rays' just alluded to have been conspicuous by their 
absence. 

'• There is no shame in frankly admitting that the brightness and 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 319 

completeness of the displays we have endeavoured to organise at 
Earl's Court have been prejudicially influenced on that account; for, 
instead of commencing our task under the encouraging influence 
which sympathy from high officials would have procured us, we 
have had to work laboriously upwards from the very bottom — 
strangers in a foreign land. 

" I have already stated that the 4,281 American, Italian, and 
French exhibitors who have been here were more than gratified 
with the results. We intend that the 1,200 German exhibitors 
shall be equally rejoiced before they return home. I hope I may 
venture to add that amongst the five million visitors who have 
thronged these buildings and grounds there are not a few who 
have received pleasurable instruction. The four thousand exhibitors 
and the five million visitors, just referred to, do not share, I venture 
to say, any contempt for that ' private initiative ' which is so 
abhorrent to certain ofiicials. On the contrary, they pronounce the 
outcome of it to be what is familiarly termed ' a good work.' If the 
German Exhibition be also ' a good work,' thenit is worth organising, 
and the task of organisation needs both effort and bank-notes. 
The officials, who have not confined themselves to leaving us 
severely alone, have proffered neither the effort nor the notes. 
Some one else had to find both. We, who have found these two 
requisites, consider it hard that many of the most beautiful flowers 
have been snatched from our bouquet of exhibitors by thos6 officials 
who ought to have known better, and who ought also to have 
remembered that ' noblesse oblige.' I use the general term 'officials,' 
because my colleagues and I are entirely in the dark as to who our 
antagonists have been. 

" We only know, from the stabs they have so deftly given us in 
the dark, that their steel is excellent and much too good to serve 
so ignoble a purpose. Owing to this opposition some of the most 
interesting collective exhibits, which we worked so hard each year 
to obtain, have not been allowed to put in an appearance. 

" During the past five years I have purposely refrained from 
giving expression to our surprise and pain at this conduct on the 
part of ' some person or persons unknown ' — presuming that any 



320 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

lamentations we might indulge in would be simply interpreted as 
equivalent to ' crying over spilt milk ' ; but now that my self- 
appointed task of organising in London a Quartette of National 
Exhibitions is practically accomplished, or at least on the eve of 
completion, I deem it only fair and just to my colleagues and my- 
self (who have given several of the best years of our lives to 
the work) that, in the last address I shall deliver at an opening 
ceremony within these walls, some reference should be made to 
the subject. 

" Pray do not understand me, however, to imply that my colleagues 
and I are by any means crestfallen or disconsolate. ' On the contrary, 
we are in the happiest of moods, believing that the work we have 
accomplished has been a good and a noble one. If we had not thought 
so we should, years ago, have dropped the load, for it has been a 
very heavy burden to carry. 

"As to myself, I quite look forward next year to joining you, 
ladies and gentlemen, in the audience, and to enjoying the luxury of 
a seat in front of the platform, as a spectator, so that the younger 
men I have endeavoured to inspire with enthusiasm for the Exhibi- 
tion work I have had the honour of initiating at Earl's Court may be 
afforded the opportunity of continuing the series, and of breaking a 
lance in these ^?i de siecle tournaments of peace. 

"To have induced over 5,000 of the best workers of four great 
nations to visit London, and over five millions of people to inspect 
the examples of their arts and manufactures (and this total will 
probably be increased to seven millions before the end of this 
Exhibition), will assuredly not be the least gratifying subject of 
retrospection to me, when old age shall have substituted for the 
joys of resolute action the more tranquil pleasures of contempla- 
tion. 

" I have kept my best news for the last. All present will be 
happy to learn that Her Majesty the Queen has been graciously 
pleased to lend us the celebrated painting, by Professor Anton 
von Werner, of the German Imperial Family — a picture of great 
value, and presented to the Queen by the Germans in England as a^ 
Jubilee gift. 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 321 

" The German Emperor lias not only been graciously pleased to 
permit the loan to our Exhibition of one of the most valuable 
paintings in the National Gallery at Berlin, but has likewise made 
it possible for us to hear in London the excellent military bands 
which have just received your applause. 

" His Majesty has also been graciously pleased to promise to visit 
our Exhibition. 

"Let us cast to the winds the timid, half-hearted, and wholly 
erroneous statement of a few pessimists, who would have us believe 
that English hearts and English hands are nowadays less disposed 
to meet, on the battle-fields of peace those German hearts and German 
hands which, in days long past, our countrymen found so staunch 
and true upon fields of blood — on fields where life was heroically 
sacrificed by the gallant sons of both nations in defence of hearth 
and home. 

" Well, my Lord Mayor, we have once again a 'Belle AUiance,' 
not upon the old battle-fields of Europe, but upon the friendly soil 
of England. 

" The name of Bliicher, in the stirring times of old, when allied 
with that of Wellington, was synonymous with victory, for together 
they engraved upon the tablets of history one sublime example of 
heroism — ' Waterloo.' 

" Once more that great historic name is heard, and once more a 
Bliicher comes to the help of the British. You will all remember 
that, when the great Marshal first saw London, he gazed with 
longing eyes upon it, and exclaimed, ' What a city to sack ! ' 

"My Lord, the great-grandson of 'Marshal Vorwarts' is to-day 
the President of the German Committee which has so zealously 
assisted us to organise this Exhibition. His Serene Highness has 
not only been pleased to come over expressly from Germany in order 
to invite your Lordship to open our Exhibition, but he has also 
entered with me into the most solemn compact that neither he nor 
the army of exhibitors he commands will make any attempt to 
seize or sack the city of which your Lordship is the Chief Magis- 
trate. 

"I take it as a happy augury for the success of this peaceful 

21 



322 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

invasion of our shores by German artists, manufacturers, and mer- 
chants, that the attacking force should be commanded by His Serene 
Highness Prince Bliicher von Wahlstatt, whom I have now the 
honour to present to the Lord Mayor of London and to the well- 
wishers of the first German Exhibition of importance held in this 
country." 

After the Choral Societies, supported by the 
German military bands, had given the " Wacht am 
Ehein " in a style which evoked loud applause, His 
Serene Highness Prince Bliicher von Wahlstatt 
said : — 

" My Lord Mayor, — As President of the Honorary Committee 
of the German Exhibition in London, I undertake the most wel- 
come task of thanking the Lord Mayor of this unrivalled city for the 
kindness and countenance which he shows to this Exhibition by 
coming in person to open it. We all hope and believe that a com- 
plete success will ultimately crown the undertaking, which, by the 
interest and unremitting energy and labour of Mr. John E. Whitley 
and the members of the Executive Council, has been brought thus 
far. I sincerely hope that this first German Exhibition may bring 
about the result of a still more friendly and cordial intercourse 
between the two great nations who have so much in common, 
drawn from their Saxon ancestry. As the only direct descendant, 
in my generation, of the great warrior, I can only say that 
my great-grandfather's letters from London at the time bear 
testimony to the grateful feeling he bore towards England for his 
enthusiastic reception, and to the great hospitality he enjoyed 
during his stay here. Only a year later the battlefield of Waterloo 
showed that the word and gratitude of a Bliicher could be depended 
on. I hope the Lord Mayor will believe me if I affirm that none of 
the descendants of Field-Marshal Bliicher von Wahlstatt have the 
slightest intention of carrying into effect the joke of their ancestoK 



THE GERMAN EXHIBITION. 323 

as to sacking London. I have now great pleasure in calling upon 
the Lord Mayor to open the Exhibition." 



In replying the Lord Mayor said : — 

" It has given me the greatest pleasure to respond to the request 
which was made to me that I should be present this afternoon to 
inaugurate the German Exhibition of 1891, and show by my 
presence here the interest and sympathy of the City of London 
with this undertaking. As your Highness has so well said, the ties 
which unite the two great Empires of England and Germany are 
manifold. Descended to a great extent from one common Saxon an- 
cestry, they have been close allies for more than a century, and stood 
side by side on many a well-fought battlefield. But there is a still 
closer bond of union between the two countries — in the ties which 
connect their Eoyal families. If Germany gave to England that 
great Prince, who through all future ages will be known as ' Albert 
the Good,' England has given to Germany the mother of its 
present Emperor. May I take the opportunity of saying what 
great pleasure the promised visit of his Imperial Majesty will give 
to the citizens of London, and how desirous they are to give his 
Majesty the most enthusiastic and loyal welcome in their power. 
But if Germany and England have common ties, they have equally 
common aims, and they both look to emigration as one of the great 
means of their prosperity ; and the amicable way in which they are 
united in the colonisation of Africa is a matter of sincere con- 
gratulation. This Exhibition gives practical proof not only of 
the achievements of Germany, but also of her colonies, and 
will have the double result of demonstrating their happy and 
prosperous condition, and of stimulating and encouraging England 
to emulate their success. Let me, in conclusion, assure you of the 
kindly feeling and hearty good wishes of the English people, and 
of the pleasure it gives me personally to declare this Exhibition 
now open." 



324 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

The English and German National Anthems were 
then ffiven with splendid effect by the 

Banquet to ^ t i • t 

German United German Choral Societies and 
Bands under the baton of Professor Bona- 
witz. In descending from the platform the Lady 
Mayoress was escorted by Prince Bliicher and the 
Marquis of Lome, and the distinguished company 
were conducted over the Exhibition by Mr. Whitley 
and other members of the Executive Council. In 
the evening the Welcome Club formed the scene of 
one of the heartiest and pleasantest festivities which 
ever enlivened it — in the form of a banquet that was 
given by the Executive Council to the members of 
the German Committees who had come over for the 
opening ceremony. In proposing their health, Mr. 
Whitley, addressing his guests in German, which he 
speaks as fluently as French and Italian, said : — 

" YouE Serene Highness, My Lords and Gentlemen, — You 
will all, I am sure, regret that the other engagements of the 
Honorary President of this Exhibition, His Eoyal Highness the 
Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, do not permit of His Eoyal Highness 
being present with us at our opening ceremony ; but, gentlemen, 
we have fortunately the promise of the Duke that His Eoyal High- 
ness will not only visit the Exhibition early in July, but that 
he will, on that occasion, present the diplomas to the successful 
exhibitors. 

"Let all our efforts, therefore, continue to be employed towards 
making this Exhibition worthy of Germany's monarch, who has 
graciously promised to visit it — worthy of the interest our Honorary 
President takes in its success, and worthy of the great country we 
are endeavouring to help. 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 325 

"During the seven months which have elapsed since we held our 
meetings in the German Athenroum in London and the Architek- 
tenhaus in Berlin, I have never once slackened the speed of the 
steamship ' Deutsche Ausstellnng .' 

"We have gone on at a spanking rate the whole time, and 
to-day our good ship has come into port — flags flying and bands 
playing. 

"I say now, as I prophesied in my circular of invitation to German 
artists and manufacturers on the 1st of September last, the good 
ship has brought a valuable cargo and one which will prove pro- 
fitable to Germans — interesting and instructive to Englishmen, 
9,nd to those visitors from all parts of the earth who will visit 
London this summer. 

"In an Exhibition of this importance there are many departments 
requiring attention : so that during the last four weeks of organisa- 
tion there is often an appearance of chaos ; but, as you see, my 
colleagues have been able to prove that, in all their works, there 
was unity of purpose and a common goal and ideal, towards the 
attainment of which all have been so arduously working. Out of 
this apparent chaos, therefore (for it was only apparent), order has 
come forth, as it was from the first intended and known that it 
would. I know of no combination of human effort which proves 
more practically than the organisation of an Exhibition how true 
are the words, ' Union is Strength.' 

"Where each of my colleagues has worked so splendidly it would 
be invidious to name any one more than another. On behalf of 
the exhibitors (for they are those who will chiefly benefit by the 
Exhibition), I therefore thank the Honorary Advisory Council in 
London, the Honorary Committee in Germany, and every individual 
member of the executive staff for the loyal and enthusiastic co- 
operation they have rendered in our most agreeable task of en- 
deavouring to bring the best examples of German Art and German 
Industry into this metropolis of a friendly Power. 

" As many gentlemen here present are aware, there have already 
been three previous National Exhibitions held • in these premises, 
and in two of them — the American and the French — we found. 



^26 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

though in a less marked degree, the same coolness on the part 
of the officials of the Government of the nation exhibiting as 
we have found in Germany, to which I made some reference 
in my remarks at the opening ceremony to-day. We will not 
disturb our digestion of the excellent dinner which Mr. Bertram 
has prepared for us this evening by going into this disagree- 
able subject further than to say, that the reason why German 
officials have by their counsel prevented so many excellent 
and first-class German firms from exhibiting is absolutely a 
mystery. Some say the cause is in Germany, others say it is 
in England. 

The censure must rest upon, and the responsibility with, the 
guilty party or parties. Our duty is to make the Exhibition a 
profitable and agreeable world-centre, during six ^months, for the 
exhibitors who have ventured, notwithstanding the unkind action 
of certain officials, to cross the sea, and establish themselves 
temporarily in the capital of England. 

"It is a most auspicious circumstance tbat private initiative 
should have called the Exhibition into being, since neither the 
English nor the German Government could have organised an 
undertaking of this nature. The Exhibition is a j)rivate under- 
taking, backed by no guarantee fund from any quarter, at the 
same time making over to the German Honorary Committees 
all rights with respect to the proper method of embodying the 
national conception. The Exhibition is, on the other hand, a 
national undertaking, inasmuch as only German arts and industries 
are represented in, and derive present and permanent benefit from, 
it. 

"I do not hesitate to affirm that, long before we close this Exhibi- 
tion, even the most hypercritical of our adversaries will fortunately 
be compelled to admit that the work we have accomplished is not 
only a ' good work,' but a most useful one ; for, as you are all 
aware, we do not content ourselves with permitting exhibitors at 
Earl's Court merely to display their wares ; we go much further (and 
most certainly in the right direction), for we allow exhibitors to 
sell their exliibits, believing, as we do, that this is the most practical 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 327 

and effective means of assisting exhibitors at once to extend their 
business relations abroad. 

" Twenty-eight years ago I little thought that I should one day 
have the honour of inviting my German friends to make this pacific 
invasion of my own country. 

"At that time I was an exhibitor — not of brain power, but brawny 
muscle — for I refer to the Turnfest which took place at Leipzig in 
the autumn of 1863, and never shall I forget the enjoyable days I 
spent with my German Turnfreunde, nor the marvellous manner 
in which our youthful appetites enabled us to despatch huge 
quantities of solids and liquids at the house of the kind ' Frau 
Geheirnrdthin,' on whom we were billeted. 

" I have felt guilty up to the present day, however, at having so 
largely contributed to the diminution of her larder. I had one 
consolation, I remember : I won a Lorbeerkranz, and I also for the 
first time made the acquaintance of a delectable beverage with 
which I hope to renew acquaintance in our Exhibition, for I have 
never partaken of it since 1863, of happy memory, I mean PJiein- 
ivein with strawberries in a silver-mounted horn. 

" The pleasant days I spent in Germany whilst at school near 
Hamburg, and the happy days I passed at Leipzig in 1863, left 
such a deep impression upon me that I have done my share of our 
joint work with enthusiasm, and when difficulties or misunder- 
standings have arisen I have tried to dissipate and resolve them 
by remembering that no one can long withstand a man who 
works hard and is determined to be good-natured with all his 
colleagues. These are the only weapons I have used, or intend to use. 

" When one finds in a country so large a proportion of gentle - 
men amongst those whose circumstances compel them to be classed 
amongst the humbler ranks of society, as one finds in every part 
of Germany, there is obviously a reason for it, and in Germany I 
ascribe the reason to the fact that the German system of education 
is worthy of all praise, while the law of compulsory service in the 
army gives to men in the lowest ranks of life a tone which one 
would look for vainly in less military nations. As one indication of 
this I may mention that, while organising this Exhibition, I had 



328 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

occasion to visit between twenty and thirty German cities, and I 
can truthfully say I never met with so many gentlemanly cabmen 
in the whole course of my life as I did during those five months in 
Germany, nor in one single instance did I experience a single 
attempt at extortion. 

" I cannot better conclude these few remarks than by quoting 
those made by an eminent German, who honours me with his 
friendship. I refer to Kammergerichtsrath Ernst Wichert, the 
well-known author, and President of the Berlin Press Association.. 
I find in his remarks so many of my own views and feelings ex- 
pressed in such a concrete and beautiful form that I give them to 
you as Herr Wichert gave them to our friend Herr Eedakteur 
Gustav Dahms, who published them in ' Ueber Land and Meer 
last March. With Herr Wichert I therefore say that' — ' I admit 
the force of the observations advanced by our pessimists, but, never- 
theless, I am and shall continue to be an optimist — that is, I believe 
in an inborn sense of felicity which promotes the preservation of 
life, and procures for us an amount of enjoyment which on the 
whole exceeds the total of unhappiness that falls to our lot. The 
secret of life consists in adapting one's self to one's means. My 
ethics are based on the categoric imperative of Kant : " To act in 
conformity with one's duty is the source of all spiritual v;ell-being." ' 

" Gentlemen, I bid you welcome to England, to London, to our 
little Welcome Club. I drink to your health, long life, and happi- 
ness, and, in English fashion, I couple with my toast the names of 
His Eoyal Highness the Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, His Serene 
Highness Prince Bliicher von Wahlstatt, Herr Oscar von Ernst- 
hausen, and Herr B. W. Vogts, our worthy Presidents." 

The impression produced on the opening day by 

Aspect of a iirst inspection of the Exhibition was well 

^^™°'' recorded by a writer,* who said :—" The 

Grounds, g^act naturo of the German Exhibition at 

Earl's Court had been so little indicated by the 

^- In The Daily News. 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 329 

pnff preliminary that the success of its opening on 
Saturday afternoon was a pleasant surprise to many. 
There was an air of go and earnestness about 
the proceedings from the outset. It had been 
frankly made known that the usual difficulties had 
been encountered in getting over the exhibitors' 
goods, and that some of the accessory attractions 
were not yet out of the stage preparatory. The 
early comers, however, found much more than they 
expected in order even amongst the exhibits, and 
the pictures in the galleries and the stalls of the 
exhibitors who were up to time were at once ad- 
mitted to be the nucleus of an excellent show. The 
flowers, shrubs, and flags of the interior decorations, 
like the arrangement of the groups into which the 
long main building is divided, made a flne general 
effect, and stamped the undertaking with the mark 
of thoroughness." 

The main Exhibition Building, which contained 
both the Fine Art and Industrial exhibits, differed 
considerably in its general disposition from the 
appearance it presented in past years. The visitor 
who entered it from the West Brompton end no 
longer looked down over an unbroken vista of stalls 
extending to the opposite extremity of the building, 
1,140 feet away. The intervening space had now 
been divided into numerous courts, each separated 
from the other by artistic partitions and arches, and 
decorated in a style of its own. The general effect 
of the variety thus introduced into the architectural 



330 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

setting of the exhibits was certainly most pleasing. 
The decorative arrangements both here and in the 
gardens had been carried out by Herr Seidl, the 
King of Bavaria's well-known art-decorator, with 
the assistance of Herr Martin Diilfer, and a numerous 
staff of German and English scene-painters. 

Of the industrial exhibits it is not too much to say 
that they fairly represented many of the 

tion of leading activities of Germany, and consti- 
tuted a most interesting and instructive 
field of study both for the general sight-seer and for 
the British manufacturer and merchant. Their in- 
stallation had been carried out under the able 
direction of Herr F. Jaffe, Government Architect 
in Berlin, and they had been classified as follows : — 

I. Textiles and Clothing : Woollen and cotton, linen, hemp, and 
jute goods ; silk goods ; gold and silver embroidery ; netted goods ; 
lace ; feathers ; artificial flowers made of cloth, paper, and leather ; 
hosiery ; clothing ; furs ; gloves ; boots and shoes ; tapestry ; and 
wigs. 

II. Eatables, Wines, Tobacco : Flour and cakes ; sugar; sweets; 
chocolate, tea, and coffee ; preserves ; extracts ; preserved fish and 
meats ; wine, beer, and other fermented drinks ; vinegar ; mineral 
waters ; tobacco, raw and manufactured. 

III. Gold and silver goods; iron and steel goods; bronze and 
other metals ; weapons ; silver-plated goods ; artistic iron work ; 
and machinery. 

IV. Chemical industries : Chemical and pharmaceutical prepara- 
tions ; lubricants ; soaps ; perfumery ; blacking ; colour ; lacquer ; 
mineral oil, and artificial manure. 

V. Educational and didactic technical and industrial publica- 
tions ; and drawings. 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 331 

VI. Paper and Graphic Art : Papers ; card-board ; coloured 
paper ; cards ; writing, drawing, and painting utensils ; book- 
binding ; papier-mache articles ; copperplate, chromography, litho- 
graphy, photography; autotypes, engravings, woodcuts. 

VII. Furniture ; upholstery; turned, chiselled, and carved wood ; 
cork goods ; basket work ; kitchen and household utensils, &c. 

VIII. Fancy goods and toys of paper, wood, ivory, bamboo, bone, 
mother-o!f-pearl, celluloid, horn, metal, glass, caoutchouc, and 
leather ; and turned goods. Also umbrellas, sticks, and brushes. 

IX. Stone, earthenware, glassware, leather, and gutta-percha. 

X. Shipbuilding ; naval, fishery, and hunting exhibits. 

XI. Musical instruments.* 

A reference to the List of Awards in the Supple- 
ment, p. 520, will show how various and industrial 
representative were the exhibits in the Exhibits. 
eleven industrial groups or departments. It is, 
therefore, not necessary for us to present the reader 
with a detailed and dry enumeration of these 
exhibits ; but the general impression which they 
produced was well summed up by a writer of singu- 
lar impartiality, thus : — t 

" Turning to the industries mentioned in the groups named, we 
shall not find Germany so well represented as in the department of 
arts. Hostile influences proved, unfortunately, so strong as to 
prevent many leading manufacturers from participating in this 
exhibition, and the representation of German industries is accord- 
ingly far from being perfect and comprehensive. On the whole, 
however, a fair picture of industrial Germanj^ is given, and, if com- 

* Section XII., devoted to the Fine Arts, will be dealt with later on. 
f " Germany in London : an Account of the Exhibition of 1891," by 
J. B. Keller. 



Saa NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

paratively small in number, the exhibits throughout bear honour- 
able testimony to the high degree of perfection to which German 
crafts and industries have risen during the last twenty years. The 
most remarkable, and really surprising, progress has been made in 
the matter of taste, and Germany has, to all appearance, freed her- 
self in this regard from the domineering influence of other countries. 
We find Germany going her own way, and this, it may be «aid with 
confidence, neither to her nor to the world's disadvantage. Who- 
ever looks at groups VII. and VIII., containing the art industries, 
will be impressed at once by the tastefulness, the masterly treat- 
ment, the thorough understanding of schools and style, and the 
artistic finish which distinguish nearly one and all of these exhibits. 
At the same time we meet there with a welcome revival of German 
mediaeval art, recalling to mind the times when Nuremberg was the 
centre of the intellectual life of the Fatherland. 

" To our judgment the greatest improvement is to be observed 
where sculpture is called into requisition to imprint its ennobling 
stamp on the work of the artisan, and this is most distinctly shown 
in the really beautiful and representative exhibition of German art 
furniture, to which Berlin is the largest and most prominent con- 
tributor. With a very few exceptions, the workmanship is excellent, 
both in regard to design and execution. Where no certain styles 
are reproduced, great originality is displayed, and the beneficial 
influence of the German schools of art for artisans evinces itself in 
every direction. Deserving of special mention are some beautiful 
cabinets, which we do not hesitate to designate as real master- 
pieces of the modern joiner's art. The finishing touches in the 
furnishing of our houses are entrusted to the decorative arts, and 
these are extremely well represented. Eemarkable exhibits are 
those in repousse leather and hammered bronze, all worked by 
hand, of the highest artistic finish. Two screens in embossed 
leather, and some hammered bronze vases ought to be inspected 
by all those who wish to realise to what perfection these in- 
dustries have been developed in Germany. It is pleasant to note 
that wrought iron is regaining its position in the decorative arts, 
and a real masterpiece, a ' revival,' in the best sense of the word, of 



THE GERMAN EXHIBITION. 333 

a long and unjustly neglected art, is the unique show-case made for 
the Empress Frederick, with lamps and lustres, likewise inwrought 
iron. Excellent work in wrought iron comes, too, from Munich, 
its artistic design and execution being deserving of equal praise. 
Cast iron and steel are to a still larger degree utilised for decora- 
tive purposes, and the copies of antique armour, decorative articles, 
and small artistic furniture in metal, are deserving of special 
mention. . Very conspicuous is the great improvement in German 
bronzes, and it may be said without disparagement to French in- 
dustry, that Paris no longer holds the uncontested position which 
it commanded in this respect in former years. This remark is 
amply borne out by the high artistic standard and the tastefulness 
of design and decoration of nearly all the exhibits in this category. 
These remarks as to bronze also hold good for the nobler metals. 
In softer materials the carver's art shows to great advantage. In 
wood we may admire the deftness of the Bavarian-Highland carvers 
at the interesting stand from Oberamniergau. In meerschaum and 
amber some beautiful articles sent from Dantzig and Konigs- 
berg form a really unique collection of specimens which would 
alone render the German Exhibition worth seeing. To what 
artistic uses this raw material lends itself, is proved by these 
exhibits ; and the specimens of amber in its natural state, with 
numerous embedded insects and plants, partly belonging to extinct 
species, make this collection the finest which has ever been shown. 
It may be mentioned that the worth of the collection runs high into 
five figures. But, what shall we say if we turn to another precious 
raw material — ivory ? We find there the greatest collection in 
existence, filling a whole room and forming an exhibition by itself. 
This most interesting collection, representing quite a fortune, is 
exhibited by Mr. Heinrich Alfred Meyer, of Hamburg. 

"If we turn now to the innumerable kinds of fancy goods, we 
shall easily comprehend how it is that we grow from day to day 
more and more accustomed to the rather obnoxious phrase, ' Made 
in Germany.' Looking at the exhibits of this group, we feel dis- 
posed to repeat the remarks made with regard to bronzes, and there 
can hardly exist any doubt that German fancy goods, by their 



334 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

artistic finish, tastefulness, solidity of workmanship and cheapness, 
are on the high road to conquer the markets of the world. This 
applies especially to metal and leather fancy goods. German 
jewellery also shows to great advantage, and the influence of the 
public schools of art can also be easily traced in this department, if 
a comparison is made between the articles turned out by the German 
manufacturers of gold and silver ornaments at the present time, 
and those brought to the market some ten or twenty years ago. 
Of far greater importance, however, to the German export trade are 
toys, and there is hardly a child in the whole civilised world that 
is not amused and also instructed by German toys. The educa- 
tional movement especially is a feature of the German toy indus- 
tries, and Froebel's Eindergartenspiele designate quite an era in 
this direction. Unfortunately, the German manufacturers of this 
kind of toys did not avail themselves to the full extent of the 
opportunity offered them by the German Exhibition to bring their 
noted ingenuity before the British public, and educational toys 
accordingly are not represented as they ought to and could have 
been. Nevertheless, a general idea of the importance of this branch 
will be gained by that which has been brought to view. Another 
very breakable article, the resisting power of which has not yet 
been strengthened to any perceptible degree, namely, glass, is also 
very well represented in the German Exhibition. In turning to 
the exhibits of the glass industry we find that the German manu- 
facturers of Austria-Hungary have contributed very extensively to 
this part of the Exhibition, and Bohemian glass especially plays a 
prominent role. To the taste of many, the decoration in gold on 
the larger part of these glass wares may seem overdone ; but, on 
the whole, the effect is very pretty, and amongst the great variety 
of differently shaped and coloured objects everybody is certain to 
find something new and pleasing. Occasionally we meet there 
even with some articles of decidedly high artistic merit. Thus we 
find some really beautiful paintings on glass and china, which are 
deservedly much admired. Silesia shows herself as the home of 
the German glass industry, and really beautiful glass-wares of the 
greatest variety will be found at the stand of the glass-works 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 335 

Josephineuhiitte of Count Schaffgotsch, the ruby glass deserving 
special mention. Still better represented than glass is china ; we 
do not mean the china for common household use, of which a very 
indifferent show is made, if we except some few exhibits ; but we 
mean china as an object of art, in which department the German 
Exhibition proves very attractive. In figures especially the 
modelling is for the most part excellent, and the decoration 
extremely tasteful and refined. The paintings on china, in par- 
ticular on some vases and plates, are really noteworthy. Very 
interesting is the pavilion, where artificial flowers of china are 
made by some native working girls. The flowers, especially roses, 
are most natural and beautiful. 

*' In earthenware, too, we find some capital exhibits, such as the, 
two grand chimney-pieces in the Magdeburg collective exhibition, but 
more especially in the highly artistic reproduction of old German art 
vases, jugs, tankards, &c. Special mention must be made, however, 
of the capital paintings on china, reproducing in a very meritorious 
manner the pictures of classical masters. We return then to wall 
decorations, and this leads us to the admirable pictures in inlaid 
wood ; then paintings on wood ; and imitation Gobelins, which 
lend themselves exceedingly well for decorative purposes. Thus, 
by the invention of photography and other modern modes of 
reproduction, art is popularised, and, no longer confined to 
embellishing the homes of the rich, is brought within the 
reach of all. The costliest pictures may be obtained to-day for 
a mere trifle, in the most faithful reproductions, and the advance 
made in this respect during the last few years, especially in 
Germany, is simply astounding. But the most remarkable ad- 
vance in the art of reproduction is, to all appearance, the photo- 
gravure, and to what perfection this invention has been brought 
is clearly shown by some unrivalled exhibits from Berlin." (One 
of the most interesting specimens of this art in the Exhibition was 
a photogravure of the historic * Jubilee Scene in Westminster 
Abbey,' as painted by Mr. Lockhart for the Queen, Having received 
permission from Her Majesty to reproduce this painting for his 
own benefit, Mr. Lockhart could find no one in England capable 



336 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

of doing so to his satisfaction by the photogravure process, and 
consequently had to take his painting over to Berhn for the pur- 
pose.) "Of special interest to all students and lovers of art are 
the exhibits of the Reichsdruckerei (Imperial Printing Office) in Ber- 
lin, really most important works being (1) reproductions of the most 
celebrated prints since the time of Gutenberg to the beginning of 
the present century ; and (2) most faithful reproductions of copper- 
plate and wood-engravings of old masters. 

"We turn now to Group I., the Textile Industries, which, even 
if they do not give a comprehensive picture of this important branch 
of the productive power of Germany, are, nevertheless, very instruc- 
tive. The representations of the highly developed German woollen, 
cotton, ribbon, and silk industries is, we may say at once, very 
imperfect; but hosiery is well represented, especially in the fashion- 
able department of ' sanitary ' underclothing, where Germany has 
taken the lead. Embroidery has many exhibitors, and if a great 
number of exhibits does not call for any special remark, we find, 
nevertheless, work of the highest artistic merit. It is regrettable 
that the German manufacturers of cloth are wholly unrepre- 
sented, as this branch of the textile industries has attained special 
importance, and is further developing in Germany in a very marked 
degree. Of the importance, too, of the German clothing industry, 
the Exhibition gives hardly any idea, but it supplies one of the 
most conspicuous objects in the central hall, the two models 
mounted on horseback, and showing new styles in riding habits. 
A feature of the second group are the artificial flowers, an industry 
which has attained great importance. The imitation of nature has 
been brought to such perfection, as to require very close inspec- 
tion to discover whether we are admiring real or artificial flowers. 
To what different uses paper lends itself is shown if we turn 
from the dainty paper flowers once more to Group VI. There yfe 
find paper transformed into very light handles for all kinds of 
cutlery, to spools and bobbins, the finest lace, and to all kinds of 
boxes of every imaginable shape ; now we find paper worked to 
cardboard, to fireproof and waterproof tiles and bricks ; then again, 
to the finest and firmest tissue, or compressed and oxidised in 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 337 

imitation of old armour, shields, and various other decorative 
articles. Indiarubber encroaches fast upon the province of leather, 
but it will never, quite supersede it. The display of German leather 
and leather goods is, on the whole, a satisfactory one, and contains 
many capital exhibits. In the same group we find indiarubber goods, 
and the increasing and manifold use of this material is very similar 
to that of paper. Now we see it, hard as stone, used for technical 
purposes, then again, soft and pliable, lending itself to the manu- 
facture of innumerable objects. 

" Thus we stroll into Group III., where we find some other 
objects worthy of special mention ; among them a patent pavement 
of iron and asphalt, which, besides great durability, gives a sure 
footing to horses. Machinery and inventions are rather poorly 
represented, but it must not be forgotten that the National Exhibi- 
tions at Earl's Court are not intended for the large iron and steel 
industries, where a firm like Krupp could fill the hall, but princi- 
pally for art industries. Accordingly, we cannot and shall not 
expect to find in Group III. a representative exhibition of the 
German iron and steel industry, of mining and engineering, but we 
shall nevertheless gain a general idea what Germany is able to do 
in these directions. Scientific and electric apparatus are well 
represented. Of iron and steel the exhibits are not numerous, but 
cutlery is well represented, and Solingen, the German Sheffield, 
is conspicuous by the great variety and excellent workmanship of 
its exhibits. Other German towns, however, are competing 
very successfully with Solingen, as may be seen from the exhibits 
from Altona and other places. The most remarkable exhibits 
in this section are, however, the grand models of large pas- 
senger steamers and ironclads, proving a surprising advance in 
the art of German ship-building. The admirable models of the 
' Vulcan ' establishment in Stettin, the North German Lloyd, and 
the Hamburg-American Packet Company, deserve to be named 
as amongst the finest objects shown in the German Exhibition. 
Amongst the minerals exhibited, one of the most interesting 
and important is the ' Kieselguhr,' an infusorial earth, found in 
■the Liineburger Haide, in Hanover. In its raw state the Kiesel- 

22 



338 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

guhr is of wliite, grey, and greenish colour, and contains many 
impressions of a defunct flora and fauna. 

" From the dry earth we shall turn to the liquids, as represented 
in Group II. Innumerable bottles of lager-beer, spirits, wines, 
especially all kinds of Hock, Moselle, and German ' champagne ' 
fill the stands and show-cases of a great number of leading firms, 
and we shall not undertake to decide which brewery, which dis- 
tillery, or which wine-grower deserves to get the first award. Of 
alimentary produce in this group the place of honour in a German 
Exhibition, of course, belongs to the German sausage — not the vile 
article that is manufactured and sold in London under this name, 
but the genuine German Wurst—oi which from year to year 
increasing quantities are imported into this country. Having regard 
to the great importance of this German industry, we are surprised 
that the German sausage manufacturers should have missed the 
exceptional chance offered them by the present Exhibition to prove 
to the English public what an atrocious libel is committed by 
the indigenous product on the real German sausage, and to give 
the English an opportunity of convincing themselves of the excel- 
lence of the article manufactured and so widely consumed in the 
Fatherland. An insight into the mysteries of sausage-making as 
practised in Germany is offered at a pavilion in the Central Garden, 
where some very ingenious machinery is at work in the manufacture 
of this toothsome delicacy, showing how cleanly and neatly the whole 
process, from cutting up and mixing the meat and other ingredients 
to the finished sausage, is performed. Another German specialty in 
eatables are the Marzipans, a sweet bread of very agreeable flavour ; 
while a growing industry in Germany is also the preservation of 
fruits and vegetables, and the manufacture of pickles and jams, 
Brunswick is the natural centre of this industry, and really excel- 
lent specimens of preserved asparagus, beans, peas, mushrooms, 
in jars and tins, as well as jams, marmalades, and pickles, are ex- 
hibited. 

"In Group IV. some of the leading perfumers of Germany 
and Austria make a good show. It goes without saying that the 
Farinas, from Cologne, are much in evidence, and betray this 




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THE GBBMAN EXHIBITION. 339 

by the sweet fragrance observable at a long distance before we 
reach their far-famed exhibits. With these products we touch 
the fringe of the vast chemical industries of Germany, which, 
unfortunately, again are not so adequately represented. But some 
exhibits give a fair idea of the capabilities of Germany in this branch 
of industry. Strolling through an Exhibition very much resembles 
travelling by a fast railway train ; every moment opens new vistas 
to us, and nobody need be surprised, therefore, if he finds him- 
self transplanted from moss-litter into a group representing the 
instruments which have helped Germany to gain eternal glory, and 
to conquer the world without the loss of a single life, assuaging 
misery instead of inflicting it, and enhancing, instead of destroying 
life. These instruments are those devoted to the service of divine 
music, and such a musical country as Germany can naturally boast 
of a high degree of perfection in the manufacture of instruments, 
designed for the cultivation of the most prominent national taste 
and talent. A grand show is made of pianos — an almost essential 
piece of ' household furniture ' in the modern dwellmg, the source 
of constant pleasure, and, unfortunately, also sometimes of untold 
agonies. Over twenty firms of piano manufacturers are repre- 
sented, and it would be difficult to decide to whom the palm should 
be awarded." 

Such a general characterisation of the contents of 
the Industrial Section of the Exhibition „ ,. 

Hunting 

would he very incomplete without reference Trophies. 
to the splendid collections of Hunting Arms, Para- 
phernalia, and Trophies lent by Prince Frederick 
Leopold of Prussia, the Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 
(Honorary President of the Exhibition), the Prince 
of Waldeck and Pyrmont (father of the Dowager 
Duchess of Albany), Amtsrath von Dietze-Barby 
(who was an intimate friend and Jagd-Bruder of 
Prince Bismarck in his country-squire days). Count 



340 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

von Lerchenfeld-Kofering, Bavarian Member of the 
Federal Council, and other well-known German 
sportsmen. These magnificent collections, which 
had been tastefully arranged by Captain von Heuser, 
formed a worthy pendant to the American Trophies 
in the first of Mr. Whitley's Exhibitions. The present 
Exhibition, however, was richer in the implements of 
WeichnannsJcunst, or Woodcraft, including, as it did, all 
the most interesting weapons of venatorial warfare, 
ancient and modern, preserved by the Duke of Saxe- 
Coburg in his castles at Coburg-Grotha, Callenberg, 
Eeinhardtsbrunn, and Walterhausen. These Tro- 
phies likewise included a magnificent collection 
of antlers, remarkable for their size and often 
abnormal growth. Of great interest also were the 
horns of elks, roebucks, wapitis, and chamois, the 
boars' heads, with their mighty tusks, as well as 
some paintings depicting hunts in the olden times. 
The exhibits sent by Prince Frederick Leopold of 
Prussia consisted chiefly of a splendid collection of 
the antlers of Eed Deer shot by his late father, 
Prince Frederick Charles, the "Eed Prince," who 
was not only a great soldier, but also a " mighty 
hunter before the Lord." 

From these Trophy Eooms the visitor passed into 

Reception the gorgcous Ecception Chamber of the 

^°a^a?y Exhibition, representing a tent erected for 

Tableau. King Ptolcmy Philadelphus in Alexandria, 

about 270 b.c. This imposing piece of archaeological 

reproduction had been executed by Herr F. Jaffe, 




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THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 341 

architect of the German Ministry of Pubhc Works, 
in strict accordance with the descriptions left by 
ancient writers. Snch, then, is a general account 
of the Industrial Sections. The Exhibition pre- 
sented, for the rest, a very striking and imposing- 
appearance to the visitor as he entered from 
West Brompton, with its colossal '' Germania " 
fronted by huge equestrian statues of the Emperor 
Frederick and his father's mighty paladins, Bismarck 
and Moltke — a sculptured picture of modern " Ger- 
many in Miniature " full of the most thrilling his- 
torical associations. 

But it was the Fine i^rt Section, to which this 
statuary picture was the frontispiece, as it Fine Art 
were, that formed perhaps the most attrac- ^^how~ 
tive portion of the Exhibition. As well organised, 
for the Fine Art as for the Industrial Sections, the 
selection of exhibitors had been made, at Mr. Whit- 
ley's request, by German Committees, as being the 
most competent judges of the representative character 
of the proposed display. The presidency of the 
German Fine Art Committee was assigned to Pro- 
fessor Carl Becker, President of the Eoyal Academy 
of Fine Arts — the Sir Frederic Leighton, so to speak, 
of Berlin. The organisation and direction of the 
Fine Art Section was entrusted to Herr Hof- 
Kunsthandler Fritz Gurlitt, of Berlin. Yeoman 
service was, however, rendered in furthering this 
object by Professor Papperitz, Chevalier de Eeichel, 
and Major Biirklein, of Munich, and Professor 



342 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Emil Hiinten, of Diisseldorf. The result of these 
joint labours was a collection of German works 
of art such as had never before been seen out 
of Germany. It would be impossible to name a 
German painter of the first rank who was not repre- 
sented by a contribution. Professor Carl Becker, Fritz 
August von Kaulbach, Director of the Eoyal Academy 
of Arts in Munich, Dr. Adolph Menzel of Berlin, 
Professors von Lenbach, Franz von Defregger, and 
Fritz von Uhde, of Munich, 0. Scherres, of Berlin, 
and many other men of equal standing in the artistic 
Fine Art world, scut somo of their best works. But 
Exhibits, ^j^g^^ enhanced the interest of the Fine 
Art Section was that German art was not only well 
represented as a whole, but that the various schools 
of painting were each adequately represented, and 
separately grouped, so that a unique opportunity was 
afforded of appreciating the special features marking 
the development of art in the various States of the 
Fatherland. And here we think we cannot do better 
than quote the following historical and critical reflec- 
tions from the German writer already cited : — * 

" German Art is indeed worthily represented in tlie Exhibition. 
Scarcely one contemporary master is unrepresented, and, at any 
rate, the best are all included. It has been said on good authority 
that the concurrent Exhibition in Berlin is not to be compared with 
this art display, whether as regards number or quality. The object 
which the German Art world had in view in preparing for this 
Exhibition was centred in the endeavour to demonstrate clearly 

- J. B. Keller. 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 343 

what they could produce for criticism in England, where German 
pictures had never before been seen in such comprehensive selec- 
tion ; and, thanks to the brotherly co-operation of the German 
artists, this has at last been accomplished with the fullest and most 
decided success. 

" Three principal centres were created for the forwarding and 
other arrangements, and committees were formed in Berlin, 
Diisseldorf, and Munich, these bodies acting at the same time as 
hanging committees. These three leading centres had each to 
send in a specified number of works of art — Berlin and Munich, 
each 250; Diisseldorf, 100; and the remaining towns, Frankfort, 
Dresden, Weimar, Carlsruhe, and Stuttgart, 200. Professor Carl 
Becker, President of the Eoyal Academy of Arts, headed the Berlin. 
Committee ; Professor Papperitz, the Munich ; Professor Hiinten, 
the Diisseldorf ; and Professor Klimsch, the Frankfort. The cata- 
logue of the Art Section (Group XII.) includes 555 oil paintings, 
65 water colours and drawings, 20 engravings and etchings, and 80 
statuary exhibits. Further, photographs and reproductions are well 
represented. 

" With the exception of the Bavarian department, which has 
received excellent attention from Professor Papperitz, Major Biirk- 
lein, and Chevalier de Eeichel, the hanging arrangements were 
superintended by Mr. Fritz Gurlitt, of Berlin, art dealer to the 
German Emperor, whose work was accomplished very rapidly and 
with admirable skill. The impression produced as a whole is 
simply splendid. 

" The German revival of art may be considered as dating from 
Cornelius, Overbeck, Veit, and Schadow, who, in 1812, were commis- 
sioned by Bartholdy, the Prussian Consul-General in Eome, to 
decorate his Palazzo in the Via Sistina with frescoes. The dramatic 
power and exquisite harmony of the composition of these works 
marked them out as masterpieces, and they excited the greatest 
interest in Eome, the impression they produced being all the 
greater inasmuch as fresco-painting had been an obsolete art since 
the time of Eaphael Mengs. These frescoes have, within recent 
times, been transferred from the walls of the Casa Zuccheri to the 



SU NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

National Grallery in Berlin ; but their influence told on the develop- 
ment of German art long before this national recognition of their 
merit. And in the various art centres of Germany, such as Berlin, 
Munich, and Diisseldorf, the bonds of the old conventionalism were 
broken, and a new school of painting found ardent disciples who 
drew inspiration from the pre-Eaphaelite painters, though their 
subjects were substantially German, and their paintings reflected 
German life and German ideas. In Munich, under the influence 
of Cornelius, Wilhelm von Kaulbach produced his well-known 
canvases, at the same time that in Diisseldorf and Carlsruhe 
Lessing, Bendemann and others were employed in giving pictorial 
embodiment to the highly-strung intellectual life of Germany. 

" The Munich school of painting derived its origin from Cornelius. 
To this first period of its development belong the names of the 
battle-painter Hess, the portrait-painter Stieler, the genre-painter 
Eiedl, and the landscape-painter Carl Kottmann, The Cornelian 
was followed by the Kaulbach period, in which ^ the names of 
Schwind, Kaulbach, and Schraudolf deserve special mention. 
Piloty's school followed on more realistic lines. His chef d'ceuvre, 
' Seni before Wallenstein's corpse,' hangs in the new Pinakothek 
in Munich. Distinguished contemporaries of this artist were the 
landscape-painters Albert, Eichard, and Max Zimmermann, 
Christian Morgenstern, Zwengauer senior, Julius Lange, and 
Millner. 

"Among the pupils of Piloty may be mentioned many of the 

best living German painters, such as Lenbach, Max Diez, Mackart, 

, Defregger, Eudolph Seitz, Flliggen, Hermann Kaulbach, Alexander 

Wagner, Claudius Schraudolf junior, Mathias Schmied, Liezen- 

maier, Gabl, &c. 

" Diez's scliool also developed artists of the highest merit, such as 
Ernst Zimmermann, vo a Lofi'tz, Kiihl, Holmberg,Weiser,Weishaupt, 
Spring, Lawerenz, Heinrich Weber, and Breling. 

"To these names maybe added those of several distinguished 
Munich artists who belong to no school, such as Fritz August 
von Kaulbach, Braith, Schonleber, Baisch, Piglheim, and Pap- 
peritz. 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 345 

"Among the Munich artists the modern reaHstic tendency is 
most strongly represented by Uhde, Stuck, Echtler, and Lieber- 
mann. 

♦' Whilst the Munich school was worthily developing under the 
influence of Cornelius, a realistic stand was made in Berlin by 
Adolph Menzel, who attacked the romantic school in his drawings. 
One of the paintings by this artist on view here (View of Prince 
Albrecht of Prussia's Park, Berlin, 1851) illustrates the earnest 
endeavour of German Art to ' hold the mirror up to nature.' 

'• The great progress made at this time by the Fine Arts in 
France and in Belgium reacted on the development of German art 
— ^and the rupture with the old conventionalism became more com- 
plete, the new realism asserting itself strongly in Germany. 

** Whilst in Munich and Diisseldorf schools were formed under 
the dominant influence of the above-mentioned masters, a number 
of artists came to the front in Berlin who owed no allegiance to 
any school of art. In Diisseldorf landscape -painting was developed 
under the formative influence of Andreas Achenbach, and of his 
younger brother. Prof. Oswald Achenbach. In Munich the school 
of Wilhelm von Kaulbach produced Piloty. Seldom has any 
master succeeded like the last-named artist in imparting to his pupils 
the most accurate tecJmiqne, whilst leaving them free to follow the 
.bent of their own genius. The names of many who sat at his feet 
have become household words in Germany, such as Makart, Gabriel 
Max., Defregger, Fritz August von Kaulbach, Leibl, &c. 

" Less direct, but not less efl'ectual, was the influence exercised 
on modern German art by Millet and Israel, under whose inspira- 
tion Liebermann in Berlin painted scenes from the life of 'the 
masses,' whilst Fritz von Uhde in Munich cast the halo of the 
Christian religion over the life of the humble German burgher. 

"A noteworthy characteristic of German art is its decentralisa- 
tion. The political unity so happily achieved by Germany has not 
focussed into one all-absorbing centre the artistic life of its sub- 
jects. The Academy of Berlin, under the direction of Professor 
Anton von Werner, that of Munich, under Fritz August von 
Kaulbach, and those of Diisseldorf, Carlsrulie, Dresden,, Weimar,, 



346 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

Frankfort, Stuttgart, and Konigsberg, have each and all pi«,served 
their distinct individuality. 

** In this Exhibition an attempt has been made to present as 
complete a picture as possible of modern German art, and the 
success of this attempt has been facilitated by the fact that this is 
the first opportunity that has ever presented itself to German 
artists of exhibiting their works in this great Metropolis." 

As a List of Awards in the Fine Art Department 
Opinions of ^f the Exhibition will be found in our 
the Press. Supplement (p. 533), we need not indulge 
in further enumeration here ; but lest it should 
be thought that the testimony of a German critic 
on the merits of his own countrymen is not alto- 
gether to be trusted, we will supplement the above 
quotation by a few specimens of public opinion that 
was evoked in England by a sight of the art trophies 
which Mr. Whitley had brought home with him 
from his campaign in Germany. 

The Times : " As in former years, the Art Department occupies 
the galleries to the left and right of the great vestibule. There 
can be no doubt that here we have the most extensive and repre- 
sentative Exhibition of German art that has ever been held outside 
of Germany. . . . Even at a season when so many other Art 
Exhibitions invite attention, that at Earl's Court will well repay 
a visit." — Illustrated S2oorting and Dramatic Neivs : "... The 
art collection is a very good one, and there are many admir- 
able works among them which we might with reason wish to 
keep. From beginning to end, almost without exception, the 
display of pictures is a triumph of draughtsmanship. The subjects 
are not always imaginative, the character is sometimes unin- 
teresting, and still the drawing is superb." — Daily Grajyhic : "A 
wonderfully representative collection of the work of German 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 347 

Qxi\si& ."-^Manchester Examiner : " The collection of pictures is 
both large and representative of what is best in modern German 
art, and the first and foremost of German painters." — Morning 
Advertiser: " Amongst the artists who are represented are Professor 
Carl Becker, August von Kaulbach, Professor Anton von Werner, 
and Dr. Adolph Menzel, of Berlin ; Professors Lenbach and 
Fritz von Uhde, of Munich ; C. Scherres, Franz von Defregger, 
and many others of high standing in the art world. German art 
is not only well represented as a whole, but the various schools of 
painting are each adequately represented and separately grouped, 
so that a unique opportunity is afforded of appreciating the special 
features that mark the development of art in the various parts of 
the Fatherland." — Daily Telegrajoh : "... The art section is 
large, and the pictures are of a far better class than any shown at 
the previous exhibitions, except, perhaps, the ' Italian ' year." — 
Standard: "... The show of pictures now gathered at Earl's 
Court, although, like most exhibitions of bulk, it is not free from 
the commonplace, is, upon the whole, admirable. It is compre- 
hensive and thoroughly representative — it puts before us some of 
the best achievements of painting in the Berlin, the Munich, and 
the Diisseldorf Schools of to-day." — St. James's Gazette: " . . . 
Now, whilst the galleries of the German Exhibition at Earl's Court 
have evidently been filled upon some such basis, there is still a 
large leavening of the best work which the Teutons can produce. 
. . . Foremost among these are the four historical portraits of Ger- 
many's greatest men, by Franz Lenbach, who has often been 
styled ' The Teuton Millais.' . . . The method of painting em- 
ployed by the Court artist should attract every one to see these 
most notable canvases. . . . Looking at the whole show from the 
art point of view, it is decidedly more interesting than any of its 
forerunners ; and for the pictorial department much credit is due 
to the committee, whose chief is Professor Becker, the distinguished 
president of the Berlin Academy, and whose three works are 
amongst the most notable ones shown." — The Queen : " There 
can hardly be a question but that the modern art of Germany is 
strongly represented in the paintings, sculpture, and other works 



348 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

now collected at the German Exhibition at Earl's Court. . . . 
Specimens of the handiwork of the two Kaulbachs of Munich, of 
Menzel, Defregger, Knaus, Lenbach, Meyerheim, Papperitz, 
Eichter, Anton von Werner, Becker, and other masters of like 
fame, are certainly quite siifficient to make an exhibition memo- 
rable." — Punch : " First Citizen : And what did you see at the 
German Exhibition ? Second Citizen : A magnificent collection 
of German pictures. . . ." — Sunday Times: "As it is, the display 
of pictures of the German school is really a splendid one."^ 
Morning Post: "... The art galleries alone are worthy not only 
of the rapid survey with which the casual visitor to an exhibition 
of this kind usually contents himself, but of lengthened and careful 
inspection. One of the most interesting of the larger pictures is 
undoubtedly that of ' The German Imperial Family,' lent by her 
Majesty the Queen. . . . German sculpture is also worthily repre- 
sented by Herr Fuchs, Professors Simering, Strassen, Eberlein, 
Kiimann, Unger, and others." — Dramatic Review: "The oil paint- 
ings at the German Exhibition are equal to the Eoyal Academy, 
It is questionable if some of them are not higher works of art. 
They alone are certainly worth a visit." — Daily Chronicle : " The 
most perfect display of German art ever seen in this country. . . , 
There has been nothing like the present really representative 
collection on view in the German Exhibition at West Brompton. 
When we mention that the exhibition comprises examples^some 
of them amazingly fine ones — of Menzel, of the Berlin Academy, 
Knauss, Kaulbach of Munich, Becker, Achenbach, Schauss, 
Werner, and many others of equal reputation, we shall have said 
sufficient to show that the collection is one of no ordinary value." 

To these opinions of the Enghsh press may be 
added the following extracts from two of the leading 
organs in Germany. Commenting on the opening 
of the Exhibition, the Cologne Gazette {Kolnische 
Zeitunq) wrote :. — 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 349 

"Already even the Exhibition presents what its organiser, Mr. 
Whitley, promised it , would — a collective view of German art, 
industry, and life, and reveals to the insular Briton of average 
type, whose conception of Germany is limited to immense armies 
and cheap and nasty wares, the fact that we also have a fair share 
of artistic sense and solidity. But nations and peoples are always 
getting fresh opportunities of discovering each other ; for how else 
can it be explained that a Sunday paper of repute in London 
should have expressed its surprise at the picturesque aspect in the 
Exhibition which is otherwise wanting in German things, no less 
than at the great value of the works of art, as hitherto Germany 
has scarcely been accorded even second rank in the world of art. As 
soon as the visitor enters the Exhibition his suspicious surprise 
changes to unqualified admiration when confronted with all these 
masterpieces of contemporary art." 

The Post of Berlin likewise remarked : — 

" If anything is calculated to counteract the moral and physical 
degeneration of mankind, it is beyond doubt the contemplation of 
true art, which ennobles the mind and warms the heart. In this 
respect the Department of Painting and Sculpture at the German 
Exhibition in London is a blessing for the English nation." 

While Teutonic industry and art were thus so 
amply represented inside the Exhibition outside 
Building, the outside grounds had been "^Germany^' 
well studded by Mr. Whitley with strik- in Miniature, 
ingly realistic illustrations of German history and 
German habits. The grounds themselves had this 
year again assumed a most inviting aspect. The 
trees, flower-beds, and well-preserved lawns combined 
to render a promenade through them a delightful 
one during the day, while at night the beauty of the 
scene was enhanced in a most charming way by the 



350 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

electric light aided by thousands of coloured lamps 
skilfully arranged ; and it was a great pleasure to 
wander through this scene, or watch it from the 
verdant terrace of the " Welcome Club " (which 
this year again resumed its social functions with more 
success than ever),* while the ear was charmed by 
the strains of some of the finest military bands of 
Germany f discoursing music in the midst of sur- 
roundings exclusively German. 

* During 1887, 1888, and 1890 the number of members each year 
averaged about 500, who, according to the rules of the Club, had to be 
re-elected in each year. In 1891, the Founder of the Club, Mr. Whitley, 
was himself elected Chairman ; Sir John Heron- Maxwell, Bart., Vice- 
Chairman ; Mr. William Owen, Hon. Sec. ; and • Mr. A. Knowles, Secre- 
tary. This was by far the most brilliant and successful season the Club 
had enjoyed, there being nearly 1,200 members elected, including some 
of the most prominent personages in the ranks of royalty, fashion, litera- 
ture, the learned professions, the public services, and commerce. Amongst 
others may be noted the Duke of Teck, Prince Edward of Saxe- Weimar, 
Prince Alexander of Teck, the Marquis of Lome, Lord Rothschild, Count 
Hatzfeldt, Prince Pless, Sir Geo. C. M, Birdwood, Sir Geo. Barclay Bruce, 
Sir Augustus Harris, Sir Samuel Wilson, M.P., Sir Julian Goldsmid, 
Bart., M.P., General Sir H. P. de Bathe, Bart., H. L. W. Lawson, Esq., 
M.P., Alfred de Eothschild, Esq., Leopold de Eothschild, Esq., Dr. W. 
H. Eussell, L. Alma Tadema, Esq., E.A., Henry Irving, Esq., &c. 

f Among others, the bands of the Hesse-Darmstadt Infantry Eegiment, 
No. 115 (Kapellmeister, W. G. Hilge), from Darmstadt; the Second 
Bavarian Infantry Eegiment, " Kronprinz " (Kapellmeister, T. Peuppus), 
from Munich ; the Saxon Infantry Eegiment, No, 105 (Kapellmeister, 
C. Merkel) , from Strassburg ; the Hussar Eegiment von Zieten, No. 3 
(Duke of Connaught's), (Kapellmeister, F. Kostmann), from Eathe- 
now ; and the Fhst Prussian Dragoon Guards (Queen of England's), 
(Kapellmeister, C. Voigt), from Berlin. The Duke of Eatibor also sent 
his own private (boys') band, of which the performances were much ad- 
mired ; as were also those of the Hungarian Boys' Band. At the request 
of the Queen, the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Connaught, Mr. Leopold 
de Eothschild, and the Lord Mayor, Mr. Whitley gladly gave instructions 
for the various mihtary bands above mentioned to perform at Windsor 
Castle, Buckingham Palace, Marlborough House, Mr. L. de Eothschild's 
town residence, and the Mansion House. 




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THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 351 

The Switchback Kailway now shot the traveller 
through a lovely stretch of scenery on the banks 
of the Ehme, and past the historic castle and 
city of Heidelberg, in the picturesque valley of 
the Neckar, of which a fine panoramic view was 
presented to the visitor ; while close by he could 
enter a Wein-Stuhe, formed by a fac-simile of the 
famous Heidelberg Tun, and refresh himself with 
the delicious wines of the Ehine and the Moselle.* 
But of more historic interest was the exact fac- 
simile of a farmhouse in Schleswig-Holstein, whence 
England derived her Anglo-Saxon stock. This 
most interesting reUc of a remote past (an exact 
copy of a farmhouse built in 1660, and still standing 
intact at Ostenfeld) was erected under the super- 
intendence of Dr. Jahn, of Berlin, and Herr Stein, 
of Stettin, being a faithful reproduction of the farm- 
houses as they are to be found in remote parts of 
Frisia, the *' cradle of old England." Native work- 
men were the builders, and even the materials for 
the erection of the structure were brought over 
from those lowlands of North Germany which were 
the home of Hengist and Horsa and their Angles. 
The house was filled with earthenware pottery, 
household utensils and furniture, and altogether 
formed a most interesting ethnological study, f 

* Though this large tun cannot challenge comparison with several of 
the porter vats in London, it is probably the largest wine-cask in the 
world, being thirty-six feet in length, twenty-six feet in diameter, and 
capable of holding eight hundred hogsheads. 

f Addressing those who were invited to the ceremony of opening this 



852 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

From this Schleswig-Holstein farmhouse the visitor- 
could further gratify his taste for historical research 
by passing out into the Gallery of the German 
Emperors, and contemplate the waxwork busts (care- 
fully modelled from statues and portraits in the 
historic " Eoemer " of Frankfort) of the long line of 
Sovereigns — fifty-five in number — who wielded the 
sceptre over the Holy Eoman Empire from Charle- 
magne to Francis II., as well as their successors 
since the re-unification of Germany. 

From this "Gallery of Emperors" the visitor 
could cross to the " Kaiser Panorama," and familiar- 
ise himself with some of the most notable scenes, 
monuments, and buildings in Germany ; or direct 
his steps to the Lecture Eoom and listen to a 
discourse, illustrated by splendid limelight views, 
on the Passion Play at Oberammergau ; * or 
witness the skill displayed by Herr Lasker, whom 
Mr. Whitley had engaged in Berlin, with a view 

Schleswig-Holstein farmhouse, Mr. Whitley said :— "I had the pleasure- 
of making the acquaintance in Berlin last November of Dr. Jahn, a friend 
of Professor Virchow, and curator of a museum in that city, of which the 
Professor is president. Dr. Jahn informed me that some beautiful speci- 
mens of authentic Schleswig-Holstein costumes and wood-carvings, &c., 
had been presented to his museum by several wealthy families in Schles- 
wig-Holstein, and that if I wished it, bethought these interesting exhibits 
might be had for our German Exhibition in London, before being perma- 
nently housed in the Berlin Museum. On my expressing dehght at the 
opportunity thus afforded me of having the exhibits in London, Dr. Jahn 
had the cases containing them warehoused for the winter in Hamburg, ■ 
and here they are ! " 

'■^~ Among those who lectured here (his subject being the Alaska ques- 
tion) was Professor Geffcken, who was imprisoned and prosecuted by 
Prince Bismarck for publishing the Emperor Frederick's Diary of the' 
French War. 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 353 

to making Chess one of the mstructive features 
at the Exhibition.* Or the visitor could enter 
the Theatre, which had exchanged its likeness to 
the Louvre for similitude to the Electoral Palace of 
Schleissheim, near Munich ; or inspect the Bohe- 
mian Porcelain Pavilion and the Eiidesheim Grotto, 
and then divide a couple of hours between the Edison 
Phonograph Eoom, the Eheinstein Eifle Eange, and 
the Aviary ; or feast his eyes on a very fine panora- 
mic view of Sans Souci, Frederick the Great's 
Cottage-Palace of " No-Bother," with its terraces and 
statues; or take his seat in the " Hofgarten " of 
Munich and listen to the performance of the 
Arlberger Troupe of Tyrolese Singers, or wander 
through the " Walhalla " and stop to gaze upon 
some charming Munich scenery with a background 
of Bavarian mountains. Then, after diverting himself 
for half an hour in the circular KegelbaJm, or bowlr 
ing alley — an unfailing feature of all German beer- 
gardens — he could dine sumptuously in the " Kai- 
serhof Eestaurant," or regale himself with German 
beer and sausages in the Kaiserhallen or the " Pots- 
dam Eestaurant " ; and then, after honouring in 
turn each of these attractions, f he could wind up 

* This young charapion of the scientific game well repaid the compli- 
ment by winning the First Prize at the Annual Congress of the British 
Chess Association, in March, 1892. 

f The following is extracted from the " Daily Programme " of the 
Exhibition, July 11th: — 11.30 a.m. to 11.30 p.m.: Splendid Collection 
of Paintings and Works of Art by the most celebrated artists of the Berlin, 
Munich, Diisseldorf, and other German Schools. — The Painting of the 
German Imperial Family, by Von Werner, lent by H.M. the Queen. 
(In Vestibule Hall.) — Drawing by H.I.M. the German Emperor. (In Ves- 

23 



354 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

the evening with a visit to the grand "Germania" 
Show, which was to this Exhibition what the '' Wild 
West," " Eome under the Caesars," and the " Wild 

tibule Hall.) — Water-colour Painting by H.I.M. the Empress Frederick. 
(In Vestibule Hall.)^Inclustrial Exhibits from Thirty German Cities. 
(Main Building.) — Sporting Trophies lent by H.E.H. the Duke of Saxe- 
Coburg-Gotha ; H.E.H. Prince Frederick Leopold of Prussia ; H.S.H. the 
Prince of Waldeck, &c. — Eealistic Scenery of Heidelberg Castle, the 
Ehine, Munich, Potsdam-Nurnberg, &c. (In the Grounds.) — The Schleswig- 
Holstein Farmhouse ["The Cradle of Old England"]. (Western Gar- 
dens.) — The Heidelberg Tun. (Western Gardens.) — The Bohemian 
Porcelain Pavilion. (Central Gardens.) — The Edison Phonograph. (Main 
Building.) — The Lecture Hall. (Main Building.) — The Kaiser Pano- 
rama. (Western Gardens.) — The Eheinstein Shooting Gallery. (West- 
ern Gardens.) — 2.0 to 4.30 p.m. : In the Western Gardens, the 
Band of the 1st Prussian Dragoon Guards (Queen of England's 
Eegiment). — 3.0 to 4.0 : In the Western Gardens, the Hungarian Boys' 
Band. — 3.30 : In the Hofgarten (Central Gardens), the Etschthaler 
Troupe of Tyrolese Singers. — 4.0 : In the Arena, Grand Gymnastic Dis- 
play, arranged by the German Gymnastic Society of London (300 per- 
formers). — 4.0 : In the Phonograph Eoom, Demonstrations of the Phono- 
graph. — 4.30 to 7.0 : In the Western Gardens, the Band of the Prussian 
*' Zieten " Hussars (H.E.H. the Duke of Connaught's Regiment). — 5.0 : 
In the Lecture Hall (Main Building), " The Oberammergau Passion 
Play," described with Scenes. — 5.0 : In the Hofgarten (Central Gardens), 
the Etschthaler Troupe of Tyrolese Singers. — 5.0 to 6.0 : In the Schles- 
wig-Holstein Farmhouse, the Arlberger Troupe of Tyrolese Singers. — 
6.0 to 7.0 : In the Western Gardens, the Hungarian Boys' Band. — 6.15 : 
In the Munich Theatre (Central Gardens), Grand Concert given by the 
Saengerchor des Lehrervereins of Frankfort (120 singers) and the United 
German Choral Societies of London (250 members). — 7.0 : In the Phono- 
graph Eoom, Demonstrations of the Phonograph. — 7.0 : In the Hofgarten 
(Central Gardens), the Etschthaler Troupe of Tyrolese Singers. — 7.0 to 
8.0 : In the Schleswig-Holstein Farmhouse, the Arlberger Troupe of Tyro- 
lese Singers. — 7.0 to 9.0 : In the Western Gardens, the Band of the 1st 
Prussian Dragoon Guards (Queen of England's Eegiment).^7.30 : In the 
Lecture Hall (Main Building), Mr. P. J. Kirvpan in " German Legends." — 
8.0 : In the Hofgarten (Central Gardens), the Etschthaler Troupe of 
Tyrolese Singers. — 8.30 : In the Arena, "Germania" (German Military 
Life). The Grand Spectacle. The Hungarian Boys' Band. — 9.30: In 
Munich Theatre (Central Gardens), " Ein Taugenichts" (A "Scape- 
grace ")• — 9.0 to 11.15 : In the Western Gardens, the Band of the Prus- 
sian " Zieten " Hussars (H.E.H. the Duke of Connaught's Eegiment). 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION, 355 

East" had been to its predecessors; and formed a 
vivid Exhibition of what, after all, is the leading 
industry of Germany — her militarism. 

What would such an Exhibition have been with- 
out an illustration of the military element, 

1-1 • T T • "Germania.'' 

which may be said to be the predominant 
characteristic of modern Germany ? It certainly 
could not have been called complete. When speak- 
ing or thinking of Germany we have the image 
before us of a mighty armed Power; and that 
salient fact was not forgotten by Mr. Whitley. He 
therefore resolved to utilise the arena for the illus- 
tration of the military life of Germany, both ancient 
and modern, by means of life-pictures taken from four 
typical epochs of the national history. Accordingly 
in " Germania " we witnessed an historical represen- 
tation of four important periods in the military 
development of the Empire. The first picture 
illustrated the period between the Barbaric Age and 
the advent of Charlemagne, with the life, religious 
rites, customs, and modes of warfare of the ancient 
Teutons ; the second presented us with the Age of 
Chivalry, when warlike issues were decided by per- 
sonal valour in hand-to-hand encounters ; the third 
dealt with incidents of the Thirty Years' War, the 
Age of the Lanzknechts, or pikemen ; while the 
fourth was devoted to modern Germany, the national 
life permeated with the military spirit, and rejoicing 
in its well-established vigour. 

Of these four Life-Pictures, the most prominent 
features were as follows : — ■ 



356 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

EPOCH I.—TEE BABBABIC AGE TO CEABLEMAGNE, 
STB CENTUBY. 

Eealistic Illustrations of the Eites and Customs of the Ancient Teutons. 

1. Entrance of Wittekincl, Count of the Saxons, with his Tribesmen, their 

Wives and Children. Eeturn of a Hunting Party. Flight of Gene- 
vieve of Brabant from the insults of Count Golos. Fight between 
Golos and Genevieve's Champion, Cunimund, Count of the Gepidea. 

2. Pagan Eites and Sacrifice of a Christian Captive. Entrance of 

Boniface, Apostle of Christianity. The Captive's Eescue by her 
Brother. Destruction of the Pagan Altar, and Death of the Priest. 

3. Arrival of Charlemagne's Warriors. Combat between the Barbarians 

and the Christian Warriors. 

4. Entrance of Charlemagne. Submission and Conversion of the Bar- 

barians. Processional March. 



EPOCH IL~THE AGE OF CHIVALBY, 
UTH CENTUBY. 

The Grand Tournament, magnificent display of Mail-clad Knights and 

Horses. 

1. Burghers prepare the Lists for the Tournament. 

2. Berthold Schwarz explains his invention of gunpowder. Disastrous 

effect upon the Jester. 

3. Entrance of the Emperor Lewis, with his Consort, and Court. 

The Sports — 1. German Maypole Dance by 30 girls. 

2. Quarterstaff Bouts by 8 men. 

3. Wrestling on Horseback by 8 men. 

4. Interlude by the Jesters. 

4. The Grand Tournament. 

5. Decoration of the Champion, and Procession. 

EPOCH TIL— THE AGE OF THE LANZKNECHTS, 
11 TH CENTUBY. 

Battle Scene from the Thirty Years' War. 

1. Tattoo. Entrance of Enlisting Sergeant and Party " Who'll serve His 

Majesty ?" Old German War Song. Hungarian Gipsy Gu-ls dance 
the " Czardas." 

2. Entrance of Wallen stein, Field-Marshal of the Imperial Forces. Cap- 

ture of a Spy who tries to escape, and is recaptured and shot. 

3. Attack on the Castle by the Swedish Troops under King Gustavus 

Adolphus. The Sortie. Death of Gustavus Adolphus, Defeat of the 
Swedes, Blowing up of the Castle, and Destruction of the Camp. 



THE GERMAN EXHIBITION. 357 

EPOCH IV.—MODEBN GEBMANTS GBAND ABMl. 

1. Musical Eide by the Gardes du Corps. 

2. " Alarm Parade " and Inspection of the Prussian and Bavarian Infan- 

try and Cavalry. 

3. Grand March Past of the German Troops. 

4. General Chorus " Die Wacht am Ehein." 

GOD SAVE THE QUEEN. 

The number of those who took part in these his- 
torical tableaux was nearly six hundred, without 
reckoning the horses, &c. The size of the stage 
was such as to accommodate a host, being 340 feet 
long by 123 feet wide. The scenery, costumes, 
and armour, with the electric and lime-lights supple- 
mented by pyrotechnic effects and excellent music, 
combined to render this spectacle one of the most 
attractive ever submitted to the public ; and we 
shall never forget the appearance presented by the 
Arena at Earl's Court on the last night of the 
'' Germania " performance, crammed as it was to 
overflowing with nearly thirty thousand eager 
and delighted spectators.* Such, then, in all its 
various aspects, was what Mr. Whitley was entitled 
to call — " Germany in London ; the most complete 

* As to the hygienic and moral effects of such popular entertain- 
ments on the public mind, it may be as well to quote the following 
testimony from so high an authority as the Lancet : — 

" Before the Exhibition at Earl's Court is closed for this year a 
few words will not be out of place concerning the nature of the 
entertainments the managers have provided for the public. Our 
reason for dealing with this question is based on the conviction 
that the Exhibitions held in the grounds of Earl's Court have 
helped to preserve the health of Londoners. It is right and 
wholesome that extensive facilities for enjoyment should be pro- 



35g NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

and valuable display of German works of art ever 
exhibited in England; the first Exhibition of ex- 
clusively Grerman industries yet seen in London ; 
with exhibitors from thirty German cities." 

"When the visitor to Earl's Court, in the early 

Miracles of summor of 1891, compared what he now 

^aiive*^ saw with the scenes over which he still 

Heads. lingered there, in the late autumn of the 

preceding year — contrasted the presentation of 

vided ; but, unfortunately, enjoyment in large towns is frequently 
attended with injury to health. The theatres, for instance, are 
too often over-crowded, over-heated, and ill- ventilated. 

" At Earl's Court we have had during the last few years what is 
equivalent to a theatre, where we have witnessed the performances 
of 'Buffalo Bill,' of a * Eoman Triumph,' of the 'Far East,' and 
this year of ' Germania.' These entertainments have a double 
advantage. First, though under shelter, the audience sits in the 
open air, and therefore does not breathe a vitiated atmosphere. 
Secondly, the performances are of a character calculated to engender 
a love of healthy and hardy exercise. Both these circumstances 
can but elicit the approbation of those who are concerned in main- 
taining the health of the people. Then the fact that each year the 
Exhibition gives us some insight into the characteristics of a 
different nation, not only provides a lesson in geography to the 
masses, but stimulates the desire to travel ; and of all the methods 
of enjoyment which may be resorted to in holiday time, that of 
travelling is among the most healthy and exhilarating. Further, 
these Exhibitions have taught the population of London to take 
their pleasure out of doors, to listen to music in the open air, to 
partake of light refreshments in open gardens, in preference to 
badly ventilated restaurants. Again, the fact that so many people 
mingle together at these Exhibitions tends to improve the taste and 
the manners of the lower and rougher section of the population, 
it brings them away from surroundings that are too frequently 
degrading and mischievous, and thus contributes to elevate the 
mind and strengthen the body." 



THE GEBMAN exhibition. 359 

France, which came to an end on the 1st of 
November, with the national portrayal of Germany 
from as many points of view, as above described, 
which was unveiled before the middle of the follow- 
ing May — he must have come to the conclusion 
that the author of all these Exhibitions enjoyed a 
miraculous faculty of organising, which enabled 
him to transform his Life-Pictures with the ease 
and rapidity with which the manager of a magic- 
lantern changes his pictures by the simple insertion 
of a new slide. It is so much more natural to 
believe in the miraculous than in untiring energy, 
high purpose, inflexible will, and a capacity for 
taking trouble in minute details ; so much more 
easy to believe in miracles than in massive heads. 
As Professor Tyndall wrote to Mr. Whitley after 
the German Exhibition was an approved success* : — 
'' It requires a massive head, such as your photograph 
represents, to bring to a successful issue the vast 
undertakings which you have organised of late years." 
This was the sober prose of a severe scientist. But 
the same feelings of wonder and admiration German 
found different expression in the verses of workers 
a German poet (Paul Hildebrandt), who, ^o^j^-frt'^cfn 
after coming over to London and inspect- "Exhibition. 
ing the results of Mr. Whitley's four months' organis- 
ing work in his Fatherland, thus addressed him in 

'-i' On the occasion of Professor Tyndall forwarding to Mr. Whitley 
an unsohcited and generous contribution to the Festival Fuud for the 
German Charities in London. 



360 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

reference to the maledictions, contradictions, and 
other manifold obstructions which he had over- 
come : — 

" Drum lass sie schmollen, lass sie groUen, 
Du freigeborenes Schopferherz ; 
Sie Schmieden mit dem bosen WoUen 
Nur fester deines Denkmal's Erz. 

Und wird man einst in fernen Tagen 

Die Friichte deines Werkes seh'n, 
Wird man, dass Du den Kampf geschlagen, 

Zu deinem Lobe eingesteh'n. 

Dir, John E. Whitley, edler Meister, 

Der hielt den schwersten Stiirmen Stand, 

Dem Widersturm der bosen Geister, 
Dir dank' Ich flir mein Vaterland." 

From another still more illustrious G-erman author, 
George Ebers, Mr. Whitley received the following : — 

" I have followed your activity with sincere admiration and true 
pleasure, and congratulate you from the bottom of my heart on 
the success of your German Exhibition in London. It was with a 
feeling of something like shame that I saw, from the speech you 
delivered at the opening ceremony, what difficulties had been thrown 
in your way in my Fatherland by the official, or rather, as I should 
prefer to call it, the Philistine world. But, in spite of that, you 
have come out of it victorious all round, which may serve to show 
you that the great majority of thinking and labouring Germans 
understood and sided with you." 

Another well - known author and lawyer, Ernst 
Wichert, President of the Berlin Press Association, 
wrote to Mr. Whitley : — 



THE GERMAN EXHIBITION. 361 

"You are a Titan. I am all surprise and admiration at what 
you have brought to so successful an issue. I was quite right 
when I once wrote : — 

" ' Everything is just what I make of it ; 

Give me the man and you have given me the matter.' 

" I am proud to think that I have won the friendship of such a 
man as you. I am so glad to hear on all sides of your success, and 
I trust it will even surpass your expectations. I hope that our 
Dichter- Album will meet with your approval, and that the German 
poets may prove a credit to you. . . . Kest on your laurels now as 
far as this is possible." 

About the same time, too, as Mr. Whitley was 
thus apostrophised by German poets and authors, 
he was presented (June 17th) with the following 
illuminated address by a deputation of German 
working men : — 

"We, the undersigned, on behalf of ourselves and of German 
working men resident in London, desire officially to inform you, 
the Organiser of the German Exhibition, that, at a meeting of 
German working men, it was resolved that a Festival of German 
workers should be held at the German Exhibition. 

" Notwithstanding the hostile interposition of Socialists and of 
some influences in high quarters, which have been directed to 
alienating the personal interest of the German Emperor, we feel 
assured that His Majesty will visit the Exhibition, which abounds 
in representative exhibits of the Arts and Industries of the Father- 
land. 

" We take this opportunity to thank you for the indomitable 
courage and energy which you have displayed in organising the 
Exhibition, and we congratulate you on the success which has so 
far attended your labours and almost overwhelming cares. 



362 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

"We specially thank you for your kind and sympathetic letter, 
dated June 6, 1891, and we beg to reciprocate the friendly, nay, 
brotherly sentiments that were therein expressed." 

To this Mr. Whitley replied : — 

" Gentlemen, — It affords me much pleasure to receive you here 
to-day, and I beg to thank you for your kind expressions of 
sympathy. 

" I have been informed that there are several Socialists amongst 
the German workmen in London. 

" England is the land of liberty, and is generous enough to accord 
freedom of speech. 

"Personally, I respect the sincere opinions of all men, but only 
when they are within the law of the land in which they are 
expressed or made known. 

" As I informed you in the letter which I addressed to your 
Committee, I shall be glad to do everything in my power in order 
that the German workmen in London may feel quite ' at home ' 
when visiting this corner of the German Fatherland. 

"I beg that you will convey to your colleagues the following 
invitations from my Executive Council : — 

"1. That your Committee appoint a representative to call upon 
me. I shall then have pleasure, on behalf of the Executive Council, 
in presenting space in the Exhibition, where articles (manufactured 
by German workmen in London) may be exhibited and offered for 



" 2. I also invite you to constitute a small Committee of three, 
who shall be responsible for the selection of three thousand of the 
German workmen in London, 

" I then propose to forward to each, for himself and a lady or 
child, a card of invitation to the Exhibition. 

" By this means six thousand persons are invited to the Exhi- 
bition, and to the Arena section, and we will divide the number 
over six days, namely, one thousand for Friday, July 31st, and one 



THE GERMAN EXHIBITION. 363 

thousand for each succeeding Friday, until the whole of the six 
thousand have visited the Exhibition." 

But this was by no means the only way in which 
the Exhibition was made to subserve the German 
interests of the German Colony in England, cimrities 
as witness the " Grand German Festival," 
which the Executive Council generously resolved 
should be given on the 27th of June, in aid of the 
funds of two most deserving institutions in London, 
the German Hospital and The German Society 
of Benevolence. The vast amount of good done 
by the German Hospital had long been recog- 
nised. It was founded at Dalston in 1845, mainly 
for the relief of Germans; but the medical staff 
gives advice and aid to all comers. The annual 
expenditure is JglO,000 and while ^4,000 is guaran- 
teed by funded property, the balance has to be met 
by voluntary contributions. The Duke of Cambridge 
is President of the hospital. The other charity. The 
German Society of Benevolence, was founded to aid 
Germans who do not find the streets of London so 
paved with gold as they expect. It has about 108 
pensioners in receipt of fixed sums, and it grants 
temporary relief to thousands of others. One good 
work done by this Society is the sending home of 
foreign paupers. Its funds consist of the interest 
on about ^6,000 and voluntary contributions. His 
Excellency the German Ambassador is President. 

The Festival, which was given under the imme- 
diate patronage of Koyalty and of a large number, of 



364 NATIOJSTAL EXHIBITIONS IN LOlSfDON. 

distinguished persons,* including Count Hatzfeldt, 
German Ambassador, was one of the most attractive 
features of the season, otherwise rich in similar 
functions. Its character and course were thus de- 
scribed at the time : — 

" Deutschland was very mucli in evidence yesterday at Earl's 
Court. The Germans are a practical people, and they have grasped 

* This Festival was under the imraediate patronage of the Duke and 
Duchess of Connaught, the Prince and Princess Christian of Schle- 
swig-Holstein, Prince and Princess Henry of Battenberg, the Grand 
Duke of Hesse, K.G., the Duchess of Albany, the Duke of Cambridge, 
E.G., the Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck, and the Duke of 
Teck, the Duke of Sase-Coburg-Gotha, Prince and Princess Victor of 
Hohenlohe, Prince Bliicher von Wahlstatt, the German Ambassador, the 
Austro-Hungarian Ambassador, the Netherlands Minister, the Marquis of 
Lome, K.T., Count Metternich, Prince Pless, the Lord Mayor, the Earl 
of Aberdeen, P.C., the Viscount Emlyn, the Lord WUloughby de Eresby, 
P.C., the Lord Sudeley, P.C., the Lord Hillingdon, Baron von Schroeder, 
Baron von Deichmann, Oscar Ernst von Ernsthausen, Esq., Baron de 
Bunsen, Baron von Erlanger, Baron de Eeuter, Sir Julian Goldsmid, 
Bart., M.P., Sir Henry Peek, Bart., Sir James Paget, Bart., Alderman 
Sir Eeg. Hanson, Bart., M.P., Major-General Sir Henry Ewart, K.C.B., 
Sir Lepel Griffin, K.C.S.L, Sir Lyon Playfair, M.P., K.C.B., Sir Edward 
Reed, M.P., K.C.B., Alderman Sir Polydore de Keyser, the Imperial 
German Consul-General, the Imperial Austro-Hungarian Consul-Generab 
Baron von Humboldt, the Eev. Dr. Hermann Adler, M.A., W. Tyssen 
Amherst, Esq., M.P., E. Ashmead Bartlett, Esq., M.P., Professor Otto 
Goldschmidt, Carl Haag, Esq., E.W.S., Professor Hubert Herkomer, E.A., 
Mr. Alderman Stuart Knill, Professor Ernst Pauer, James Stern, Esq., 
Hermann Weber, Esq., M.D., E.E.C.P., John E. Wbitley, Esq., H. 
Giilich, Esq. (Delegate of the German Hospital), J. Hasslacher, Esq. 
(Delegate of the German Society of Benevolence), the Marchioness of 
Queensberry, the Countess Deym, the Viscountess Emlyn, the Lady 
Willoughby de Eresby, the Baroness Burdett-Coutts, the Lady Mayoress, 
Baroness von Schroeder, Baroness von Deichmann, Mrs. Oscar Ernst 
von Ernsthausen, Baroness de Brienan, Baroness de Bunsen, Baroness 
von Erlanger, Baroness de Eeuter, the Hon. Lady Ewart, the Hon. Mrs. 
Mure, the Hon. Mrs. Brand, Lady Polydore de Keyser, Mrs. Stuart Knill, 
Mrs. Alexander Siemens, and Mrs. John E. Whitley. 



THE QEBMAN EXHIBITION. 365 

the English idea of combining pleasure with brotherly benevolence. 
Yesterday's proceeds of the turnstiles and entertainments at the 
German Exhibition were set apart for charitable uses, and will be 
divided between the German Hospital and The German Society 
of Benevolence. To enhance the financial outcome of this benevo- 
lent scheme the price of admission was increased to two-and-sixpence, 
and season ticket-holders were barred out. Scarcely apparent, how- 
ever, were these restrictions, for all day and evening the courts and 
the grounds and the entertainments were thronged with people. 
But there was one very distinctive feature in yesterday's gatheiing : 
the Vaterland — or such of it as we have imported for our mutual 
benefit — was there in force. ' DeutsMand, Deutschland, ilber alles,'' 
was everywhere. To the foreigner, by which, of course, one means 
the Englishman, it was a day of gutturals and lager beer. What, 
doubtless, contributed to this result, in some degree, was the fact 
that a German festival had been specially arranged. The splendid 
band of the Zieten Hussars (the Duke of Connaught's regiment), with 
its picturesque uniform, was brought over for the occasion, and the 
inspiriting strains of the national music brought exultant ' hochs ' 
from a thousand loyal throats. Among the other special attrac- 
tions was a great feast of song in the Munich Theatre in the Central 
Gardens. The programme was entirely German, and embraced some 
of the finest compositions of the famous masters that the Teutonic 
race has produced. It was a brave beginning when the German 
' Liederkranz ' (a male chorus) joined in Hofmann's jubilant bridal 
song, ' Harald's Brautfabrt'; and among the other items in the 
vocal part of the programme were Schumann's ,' Der Hidalgo,' 
Thomas's 'lo son Titania ' (recitative and aria), and a selection of 
Brahms' charming gipsy song. The vocalists were Mrs. Henschel, 
Mme. Army Sherwin, Miss Marguerite Hall, Herr von Zur Muhlen, 
and Mr. Henschel ; and their work was admirably supplemented by 
Herr Max Leister, Mr. Willy Hess, and Herr Carl Fuchs, who 
played selections from Bach, Liszt, and Saint- Saens on the piano- 
forte, violin, and violoncello respectively. The event of second 
importance was a children's concert in the evening in the music 
pavilion, when a choir of 250 German children sang national 



366 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

songs and anthems, one of which included this remarkable divine- 
right verse : — 

' Upon his throne, revered and great, 
Our HohenzoUern reigns in state ; 
As far as German banners stream 
The people hail him Lord Supreme ; 
Our Wilhelm, who undaunted sees 
Whate'er is best and best decrees ! 
Then hail our Kaiser, let the round 
Ring to our realm's remotest bound ! ' 

The children were drawn from St. George's and St. Bonifacius' 
Schools, the German School at Islington, and the German 
Orphanage, 'Kaiser Wilhelm Stiftung'; and they were under 
the training and leadership of Herr Kreuz. Among the remaining 
attractions added to the programme yesterday were ' a seance 
of prestidigitation ' by Professor Hermann, some thought-reading 
experiments by the Chevalier Stuart Cumberland, and a German 
musical play without words, entitled * Der Taugenichts ' (The 
Scapegrace). The entertainment closed with a grand military 
tattoo, in which the combined military bands took part." 

The financial results of this festival proved 
beneficial to the two institutions on behalf of which 
it had been devised, and Mr. Whitley, who (to use 
his own words) "never felt work to be truly such a 
labour of love as that in which I had the deep 
satisfaction of co-operating with such high-minded, 
zealous, and warm-hearted types of manhood as the 
chief ofiice-bearers of the charities in question," 
was duly honoured for his beneficence.* 

=■' At a meeting of the Committee of the German Hospital, held at 20, 
New Broad Street, E.G., on Thursday, July 9, 1891, Edward Jacob, Esq. 
in the chair, it was resolved unanimously : — " That the sincerest and 



THE GERMAN EXHIBITION. 367 

But beneficence, if possible, ought always to be 
mutual, and the desire of Mr. Whitley to German 
help two German charities in London ^uBicand. 

-■- German 

was generously reciprocated by two other Muscie. 
Teutonic Institutions of great repute, the German 
Gymnastic Society {Deutsche Turnverein) of London, 
and the Frankfurter Sanger clior des Lehrervereins, 
or Choral Union of the Frankfort Teachers' 
Society, of which about 120 members, out of a total 
of 180, had come to England at their own expense,* 

warmest thanks of the Committee are due, and are hereby respectfully 
offered, to the Executive Council of the German Exhibition, and their 
Director-General, John E. Whitley, Esq., for their kindness in having 
organised, on the 27th of June last, a Fete-day for the benefit of the 
German Hospital and the German Society of Benevolence, in equal 
shares, and having thereby considerably contributed to the funds of these 
charities." Subsequently, on January 29, 1892, Mr. Whitley received 
from.Herr Giilich the following communication : " I have much pleasure 
in acquainting you that at the Annual General Court of Governors of the 
German Hospital held this day at the Cannon Street Hotel, Baron von 
Schroder in the chair, and at the request of the Committee, a resolution 
was proposed, seconded, and carried unanimously, in accordance with 
which, and in recognition of the services you have rendered to this 
Institution, you were elected an Honorary Life Member, entitling 
you to the privilege of voting." On the other hand, Mr. Whitley 
received the following from Herr Dellschaft, Hon. Secretary of the 
German Society of Benevolence: — "I have much pleasure in com- 
municating to you that at yesterday's Committee Meeting you were 
unanimously elected an Honorary Life Member of the above Society, 
in consideration of your so liberally granting half of the proceeds 
of last Saturday's (27th of June) Fete-day at the German Exhibition 
towards the funds of the German Society of Benevolence. The Com- 
mittee beg to thank you heartily for your untiring and valuable assistance 
in making the day such a great success, as well as for the genial manner 
in which you were ever ready to devote your valuable time to the neces- 
sary preliminary discussions." 

* "During the past season," wrote The Musical Standard, "London 
has been honoured by a visit from a representative German choir, that of 
the Teachers' Society of Frankfort, Unfortunately these excellent singers 



368 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

in the hope — a vain one, as it turned out — that the 
simultaneous visit of the Emperor would benefit 
their performances. Eepresenting two of the things 
that are cultivated with great enthusiasm by certain 
classes in the Fatherland — music and muscles — the 
exercitations of these two famous bodies, gymnasts 
and singers, constituted a feature in Mr. Whitley's 
Life-Picture of Germany which helped much to 
make it characteristic and complete — a feature 
which was thus described at the time : — 

" The German Exhibition proved more than usually attractive 
on Saturday, owing to the introduction of two special items into 
the programme, in the shape of a gymnastic display in the after- 
noon, and a grand concert in the evening. Ten amateur clubs, 
including the German Gymnastic Society of London, participated 
in the gymnastic display, while the Koyal Normal College for the 
Blind was also represented. General squad practice and mass 
exercise having been gone through, exercises with the quarterstaff, 
Indian and double clubs, and displays on the parallel and hori- 
zontal bars were given by the different clubs. An extremely 
interesting performance was that of the male and female members 
of the Koyal Normal College for the Blind, who went through their 
musical drill with long and short wands and dumb-bells in a 
manner that elicited repeated applause. The concert given by the 
choir of the Frankfort Teachers' Society, prior to their return to 

were ill-advised in coming to the metropolis during the week that the 
German Emperor was in this capital. It seems that they took local 
advice in the matter, and were told that the presence of the Kaiser would 
benefit them. Unfortunately we in London have not the capacity for 
more than one big thing at a time, and as, during that particular week, 
the newspapers with one accord practically boycotted all musical perfor- 
mances, except those in which the Kaiser was concerned, the Frankfort 
Choir received little or no notice." 



THE QEBMAN EXHIBITION. 369 

Frankfort, was attended by a good audience, among whom was the 
Marquis of Lome, and proved entirely successful. In addition to 
the 120 members of the Society there were 250 singers of the 
United German Choral Societies of London, and the rendering of 
the chorus from ' Tannhauser ' by the combined choirs was most 
impressive. The Frankfort Society sang Mendelssohn's * An die 
Kiinstler' with expression and precision, while the band of the 
105th Eoyal Saxon Infantry Regiment gave a very satisfactory 
performance of Professor Bonawitz's overture to ' Ostrolenka,' under 
the conductorship of the composer." 

The Executive Council of the Exhibition after- 
wards entertained at dinner the directors of the two 
Societies, and on this occasion Mr. Whitley, who 
presided, made one or two speeches which deserve 
to be placed on record. In first toasting the Queen 
and the German Emperor, he said : — 

'* Gentlemen, — The past week has been one of great rejoicing, 
not only in this little corner of the German Fatherland in London, 
known as the German Exhibition, but over the whole of Germany 
and Great Britain. The cause of this great rejoicing is the official 
presence in London of the first German Emperor who has visited 
these shores since United Germany has once more become one of 
the greatest and most powerful of nations. 

" I venture to prophesy that the visit of their Imperial Majesties 
to this metropolis marks the commencement of a new epoch in the 
friendly relations of the two countries. 

" I well remember how, four years ago, their Royal Highnesses 
the Prince and Princess Wilhelm honoured a portion of the 
American Exliibition, which I organised in 1887 in these pre- 
mises, with a visit ; and I also remember that there were no fewer 
than four Kings and many Eoyal Princes and Princesses with us 
that day. It was indeed the first ' function ' in the festivities 

24 



370 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

which were organised to celebrate the Jubilee of Her Majesty the 
Queen of England. 

" I was asked by a few friends, after the Eoyal party had left, 
whom I considered to be the most marked and interesting in- 
dividuality amongst the Eoyal visitors. There was no hesitation 
in my reply, which was to the effect that by far the most bright, 
manly, and interesting personage was the Prince, who to-day, as 
German Emperor, rules over the destinies of the Fatherland. 

" One of the grandest conquests ever achieved was that of the 
little Island of Heligoland, grand because it did not cost one drop 
of blood, but was the outcome of peaceful negotiations. The 
Queen of England and the German Emperor brought about that 
mutually satisfactory arrangement in so harmonious a manner, that 
we may almost designate it as ' a labour of love ! ' 

" Gentlemen from Germany — if the cession and concession of 
that interesting morsel of Her Majesty's dominions to His Majesty 
the German Emperor still left any dou bt as to the feelings of my 
countrymen towards your Sovereign, then even His Majesty's keenest 
critics must admit that the reception given to him by Englishmen 
of all classes during the past week is more than sufficient to dispel 
any such doubt. 

" His Majesty is the guest of our own beloved and gracious 
Queen, and you will not only pardon, but join enthusiasti- 
cally with me in, the toast I am' about to propose, for that toast 
shall not separate, even in name, the two greatest monarchs of 
the age. I therefore ask you to drink a bumper to ' the Queen of 
England and the German Emperor.' " 

In toasting the two Societies of Singers and 
Gymnasts, Mr. Whitley said : — 

" Gentlemen, — Among the many influences which have tended 
to make Germany the great nation she has become, there are two 
which none of you will dispute as being amongst the most power- 
fully influential for good — I refer to German music and German 
muscles. 




'-> -^ 



o^ 










iii@^-v#«;: 



THE GERMAN EXHIBITION, 371 

" This statement concerning Germans is a peculiarly accurate 
one. 

" The greatest Musicians the world has ever known were 
Germans ! 

" The greatest Warriors the world has ever iDossessed were 
Germans ! 

" We have with us to-night, as honoured guests, distinguished 
representatives of German music and German muscles, and it is 
hard to say which have most astounded us this afternoon by their 
skill, the members of the Sangerchor des Lehrervereins from 
Frankfort, or the members of the Deutsche Turnverein in London. 
Both have generously and voluntarily offered to contribute towards 
the success of this Exhibition, and both have admirably succeeded. 
We owe them our hearty thanks, and these we now tender with all 
our heart. I ask you to drink to President Bautz and the other 
members of the Sangerchor des Frankfurter Lehrervereins, and 
to President Schmitz, Dr. Cruesemann, and other members of the 
Deutsche Turnverein in London." 

In toasting the Marquis of Lome, who had been 
present during the day, but who was prevented by 
other engagements from attending this dinner, Mr. 
Whitley said : — 

" Gentlemen, — There is a nobleman who has from the first 
been one of the best friends to the series of National Exhibitions 
which I have had the honour of organising in these premises. 
On every occasion when the Marquis of Lome has been invited 
to grace by his presence a function or a festival given at either of 
the four Exhibitions held, or to give me the advantage of his 
valuable counsel, he has not only never failed to do so, but has 
aided me willingly, generously, and charmingly. 

" I consider him to be the most perfect type of Englishman I 
know. There is nothing he could ever ask me to do that I would 
not do. His Lordship has not only put off other engagements in 



372 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON, 

order to be with you German friends, to-day, but in many ways his 
Lordship has rendered valuable services in connection with this 
Exhibition, and I call upon you to drink the health of Her Majesty's 
son-in-law, the Marquis of Lome." 

While the Exhibition was thus ministering to the 
instruction and plqasure of hundreds 

from of thousands of dehghted visitors of all 
Exhibitors. ^.^j^]jg* (^^^^ (j^^j.ij^g ^i^Q 133 ^ays it re- 
mained open it attracted no fewer than 1,377,908, 
with a daily average of 10,360) f ; it had also been 

* Among those who visited this Exhibition were : — The Duke and 
Duchess of Connaught, Duchess of Edinburgh, Princess Beatrice and 
Prince Henry of Battenberg, Marquis and Marchioness of Lome, 
Princess Christian, Duke and Duchess of Teck, Princess Victoria 
of Teck, Grand Duke of Hesse, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg - 
Strelitz, Prince Edward of Sase-Weimar, Prince and Princess ol 
Sase - Meiningen, Prince and Princess Leiningen, Prince Pless, 
Prince Danarong of Siam, the German, French, Chinese, Brazihan, 
Russian, Belgian, Portuguese, Turkish, and Siamese Ambassadors and 
Ministers, Duchess of Manchester, Duchess of Cleveland, Duke of 
Grafton, Duchess of Leeds, Marquis of Northampton, Marquis and 
Marchioness De Misa, Marchioness of Hertford, Dowager-Marchioness 
of Londonderry, Dowager-Marchioness of Cuningham, Earl and Countess 
Fitz William, Earl and Countess Manvers, Earl and Countess of Carisford, 
Earl of Inniskillen, Earl and Countess of Haddington, Earl and Countess 
of Egmont, Countess of Shaftesbury, Earl and Countess of Arran, Earl 
of Zetland, Countess of Dufferin, Earl of Galloway, Countess of Strafford, 
Viscount Cross, Viscountess Down, Lord and Lady Grantley, Lady Jane 
Taylor, Lord and Lady Colchester, Lord and Lady Gort, Lady Lubbock, 
Lady Peel, Lord Wharncliffe, Lady Rose, Lord Fitzgerald, Lady TroUope, 
Lady McCormac, Lady Forbes, Lady Spencer, Lord and Lady St. Levin, 
Lady Mary Somerset, Lord Penrhyn, Lord Stanhope, Lady Lymington, 
Lady Colin Campbell, Lady Frances Drake, Lady Templetower, Lord and 
Lady Lothian, Lord March, Lord and Lady Harewood, Lady Lewis, Lord 
Charles Montagu, Lord Dudley, Lord Alington, Lady Hamilton, Lord 
and Lady Ebury, Lord Bramwell, Lord William Neville, Lady Hearn, 
Lady Horatia Erskine, Lady Harris, &c., &c. 

f On the closing day the Exhibition was visited by close upon 30,000 



THE GERMAN EXHIBITION. 373 

most favourable to the interests of the exhibitors 
themselves, especially after the jmdes had issued 
their awards,* which they did on the 1st of August. 
Soon afterwards Mr. Whitley was gratified by 
receipt of the following letter : — 

" Society of Beelin Meechants and Manufactueees. 

" Beelin, Lindensteasse, 38, 

" August 9, 1891. 

" My Deae Sie, — It is tvitli exceptional satisfac- 
tion that I herewith express to you, on behalf of the 
German Honorary Committee of the German Exhibi- 
tion, London, 1891, according to their resolution of 
the 5th inst., our special thanks for all you have done 
with such great perseverance up to the present to 
further the interests of German exhibitors. 

" We thank you sincerely for your self-denying 
activity, and herewith express the hope that up to its 
close the Exhibition may produce fruits that ivill ripen 
into that success you so deserve to anticipate. 

" In this opinion I have the honour to remain, 
" Yours faithfully, 

"B. W. YOGTS, 

"President of the Hon. Committee." 



people! During its course the total sale of catalogues, programmes, and 
other piiblications connected -with it amounted to about 230,000 copies, 
which were in themselves an enormous advertisement of German Arts 
and Industries. 

* See Supplement, p. 520, 



3,74 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

At the same time Mr. Whitley was thus addressed 
by the exhibitors : — 

'' Geeman ExmBiTioN, London, 

" August 9, 1891. 

"■ SiE, — The German Exhibition having now pre- 
sented for more than three months to the eyes of 
Englishmen, and of a large international public, a 
picture of our country's achievements in Arts and 
Industries, we feel it incumbent upon us to convey 
to you the expression of our heartfelt than'ks. 

" We desire to thank you for the bold initiative 
that you have devoted to the advancement of our 
national Arts and Industries ; for the marvellous 
organisation by means of ivhich you have imparted 
form and colour to the undertaking ; for your un- 
ceasing activity, and your self-sacrificing devotion 
to the interests of exhibitors ; and, finally, for the 
kindliness and geniality with which you have always 
placed yourself at the service of German Thought and 
German Industry. 

" The prosperous period tue have spent under your 
enlightened and resourceful leadership ivill ever be 
to us a beautiful and grateful memory, and we shall 
not only carry away ivith us considerable material 
benefit, but likewise a great and ideal moral gratifica- 
tion, the consciousness, namely, that in the midst of 
this, the greatest industrial State in the world, in a 
privileged position, and before the eyes of a great 
nation, we have upheld the honour of German in- 




EXHIBITORS' TESTIMONIAL TO MR. WHITLEY. 

(German Exhibition ) 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 375 

tellectual labour and inventive genius, and this not- 
ivithstanding many formidable obstacles that even 
you were unable to overcome. 

" Whatever narrow-viinded and envious persons 
may say, they cannot deny the fact, that this Exhibi- 
tion is the most noteworthy artistic and industrial 
manifestation that has ever been made in London 
by Germans. 

" The Fatherland owes you a large meed of grati- 
tude for the bright example that you have set to men 
of narrower views. 

" We have much pleasure in addressing this testi- 
monial to you on the first anniversary of the day on 
which you arrived' in Germany to prosecute the 
organisation of the Exhibition. 

" We are, Sir, 

' ' Tours faithfully. ' ' 
[Here follow the signatures of the Exhibitors.] 

To this address Mr. Whitley replied : — 

''August 12, 1891, 

" To TnE ExHiBiTOES, Geeman Exhibition, London. 

" GrENTLEMEN, — Words fail me to convey, in an 
adequate manner, a fitting expression of hoiu grate- 
fully I appreciate the generous sentiments contained 
in your communication of the 9th inst., and of my 
thanks for the too indulgent and charming manner 
in which you have conveyed your thanks to me. 



376 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

Having regard to the persistent official opposition we 
have "met luith, my own efforts would not have sufficed 
to attain the success achieved, had I not been 
honoured with your own enthusiastic co-operation, 
and that of the Committees constituted in Germany 
and in London. 

" I trust, and firmly believe, that our joint efforts 
will result in great 2^6'}'")'}^cinent benefit to German Arts 
and German Industries, and I congratulate you 
sincerely upon the Jurors' awards, which testify, 
more practically than any encomiums of m^y own, 
to the excellence and value of your share in the good 
worlc which engages the interest and activity of us all. 
" I am. Gentlemen, 

^' Yours faithfully, 

" John E. Whitley." 

These were flattering enough comphments to Mr. 
Whitley from his German fellow-workers; and if 
further testimony to the success of the Exhibition 
had been desired, it would have been found in the 
following petition which the exhibitors handed to the 
Director-General on the 1st of October : — * 

" We, the undersigned exhibitors and representatives, beg most 
respectfully to submit to your kind consideration our urgent petition 

■'• Among other compliments which were paid Mr. Whitley towards the 
close of this Exhibition, it deserves to be recorded that Mr. Lewis Atkin- 
son called upon him at Earl's Court with a letter of introduction from the 
German Consul (Herr Webner) for Griqualand West, begging him to use 
his influence with the exhibitors at the German Exhibition to transfer 
their exhibits to the Kimberley (South African) Exhibition of 1892. 



THE GERMAN EXHIBITION. 377 

to postpone the closing of this Exhibition to a later date in this 
month. 

" We feel confident that, unless unavoidably prevented, you may 
be able to reconsider your decision to close on the 10th inst. 

" However, believe us that, even if your decision cannot be altered, 
we shall always gratefully remember your unvaried urbanity, con- 
sideration, and kindness, as well as the energy and ability with 
which you have presided over and conducted, under very great 
difficulties, the present Exhibition to its close." 



It was a source of great satisfaction to Mr. 
Whitley, as he expressed it in his reply, ^^^^^ ^^ , 
"that he had received from the exhibitors Exhibition, 
themselves this additional evidence of the benefits 
which had accrued to them from the Exhibition;" 
but it was only after mature and careful consideration 
that the Executive Council had fixed Saturday, 
the 10th of October, as the closing day, and it 
was found impossible to alter this arrangement. 
Accordingly, on that day, when the Exhibition 
attracted nearly 30,000 visitors, Mr. Whitley's 
fourth and final volume of Life-Pictures was closed 
amid the enthusiastic chanting of " Die Wacht am 
Ehein." The day was thus described by a news- 
paper writer : — 



" Opened on the 9th of May, under the honorary presidentship of 
the Duke of Saxe-Coburg, there came to a close on Saturday 
night the most complete and valuable display of German works of 
art ever exhibited in England, and the first exclusively German 
Exhibition of native industries yet seen in the English metropolis. 



378 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

During these five months something like one million four hundred 
thousand people have visited the buildings at Earl's Court, and, 
judging by the enormous masses who assisted at the satisfactory and 
successful winding up on Saturday, there can be little doubt, had 
the management seen its way to keep open until the end of 
October, their turnstiles would have shown, as a minimum, two 
million sightseers, thereby fairly rivalling the Naval Exhibition 
record. There were continuous downpours of rain in the early 
afternoon, but subsequently the Western Gardens were found suffi- 
ciently free from damp and moisture for outdoor amusements, in- 
cluding performances by the Exhibition Band, the London Cavalry 
band, the Hungarian Boys' Band, and the ' Skala,' Ladies' Orchestra. 
' Germania/ illustrative of German military life, another open-air 
spectacle, an historical representation of epochs in the military pro- 
gress of the German Empire, with dramatic and amusing incidents, 
appeared to be the favourite feature in the programme, all the 
available seats which were under cover being filled both at three 
o'clock and eight o'clock. Concerts were also given in the grand 
orchestra by the German Choral Societies in England, and two 
troupes of Tyrolese Singers (Arlberger and Etschthaler) in the 
Munich Theatre. Then came the finale of the farewell soiree. In 
response to the invitation of Mr. Whitley, ten thousand Germans 
assembled in the gardens, and, associating themselves with the 
combined German Choral Societies of England, gave the famous 
national anthem, ' Die Wacht am Ehein,' causing immense enthu- 
siasm and leading to repeated encores. So ended the German 
Exhibition close upon midnight." 

A fortnight later Mr. Whitley received the following 

Letter from letter from the Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 

^saxe-^ who had been unavoidably prevented from 

coburg. coming over to London, as he had promised 

and intended, to present their diplomas to the most 

successful exhibitors ; — 



TEE GEBMAN EXEIBITION. 379 

(Translation.) 

" CoBUEG, October 23, 1891. 

" Deae Sir, — The German Exhibition in London having now 
reached its close, after so creditable a course, I feel that I 
must again convey to you an expression of my sincere regret at 
having been prevented by circumstances from exercising in person, 
as I should like to have done, the functions attaching to my office 
of Honorary President. 

" I am convinced that certain critical incidents connected with 
the course of the Exhibition, which could scarcely fail to exercise 
a detrimental effect on that full measure of success (Grossartigheit) 
that was so ardently to be wished for, were mainly due to 
misunderstandings which we may lament, but can now no longer 
undo. 

" At any rate, I must again pay you the well-earned tribute of 
praise that is due to your untiring efforts, and to the great energy 
and tenacity of purpose you displayed ; and I trust that you may 
take pleasure in looking back on the German Exhibition in London 
which you organised and carried to a successful issue. 

" Yours very truly, 

"Ernst." 

We do not know positively what was the special 
meaning of the Duke of Saxe-Cobum 

° ^ The Emperor 

when he thus referred to ''certain critical and the 
incidents " which had exercised a detri- 
mental effect on the course of the Exhibition ; but 
we shrewdly suspect that the omission of the German 
Emperor, during his stay in London, to pay a visit 
to the Exhibition of his own country's arts and 
industries was present, among other things, to the 
mind of His Eoyal Highness when he penned the 
above lines to Mr. Whitley. This omission on the 



380 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

part of the Emperor was a great surprise to all ; and 
one distinguished German probably expressed the 
feelings of most of his countrymen, including the 
exhibitors, when, in writing to Mr. Whitley, he cha- 
racterised the omission as " unpardonable." To Mr. 
Whitley, moreover, the surprise was all the greater 
as, when in Berlin, he had ventured to request 
Count Eulenburg, the Emperor's Lord Chamberlain, 
to beg His Majesty to become the Patron of the 
Exhibition. The Lord Chamberlain promised to 
bring this request to the Emperor's notice, and to 
give Mr. Whitley a reply on the following Saturday, 
Dec. 13th. On that day Count Eulenburg reported 
to Mr. Whitley His Majesty's decision, viz., that, not 
wishing to create a precedent, the Emperor could 
not himself become the Patron, adding, however, 
that His Majesty had been graciously pleased to 
suggest that the Empress Frederick be approached, 
with a view to Her Majesty being invited to become 
the Patron. Count Eulenburg further informed 
Mr. Whitley that he was directed to assure him of 
the interest the Emperor himself took in the work, 
and that, in the event of His Majesty going to 
England in the summer, he proposed to honour 
the Exhibition with a visit.* To this pleasing 

* In proposing the health of the Emperor at the Press Luncheon on 
the day the Exhibition was opened, Mr. Whitley said : — " In December 
last I ventured to request Count Eulenburg to kindly bring the subject 
of the German Exhibition in London to the notice of the German 
Emperor, and a few days later I learnt with considerable satisfaction 
from the Count that His Majesty had been graciously pleased to observe 
that he took an interest in the success of our good work, and that, in the 




MEDAL AWARDED TO EXHIBITORS. 
(German Exhibition.) 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 381 

prospect Mr. Whitley had referred at the opening of 
the Exhibition, and the announcement was greeted 
with cheers. But the Emperor came and went 
without satisfying this legitimate expectation; to the 
great disappointment, and even detriment, of all con- 
cerned ; and this feeling of disappointment was all 
the more bitter as, when speaking at the Guildhall 
Banquet offered in his honour. His Majesty had 
given utterance to sentiments which sounded like 
a special predilection on his part for all enterprises 
such as that of which Earl's Court was the peaceful 
and profitable scene.'* 

event of the Emperor visiting London this summer, His Majesty pro- 
posed to honom: the German Exhibition by a visit. Although the 
Emperor commands the most powerful army in the world, no monarch, 
in recent times, has done more than His Majesty to maintam peace, and 
foster the peaceful arts. The Exhibition to be opened to-day is the 
outcome and index of those arts." 

* Speaking at the Guildhall on July 10th, the Emperor said:— "I feel 
encouraged in my task when I see that wise and capable men, such as 
are gathered here, do justice to the earnestness and honesty of my in- 
tentions. . . . My aim is, above all, the maintenance of peace, for peace 
alone can give the confidence which is necessary to the healthy develop- 
ment of science, of art, and of trade." Mr. Whitley's idea of utilising this 
quotation on the bronze medal to be awarded to exhibitors was a happy 
one, as His Majesty's words showed his approval of the very aims and 
objects the organisers of the Exhibition had in view ; and whilst they 
had been seriously handieappd by determined opposition from certain 
quarters, they had, nevertheless, succeeded in bringing together the most 
important display of German Art, Science, and Industry ever seen in 
England. In this connection it is curious to note that on the occasion of 
the first visit ever paid to London in modern times by a German Emperor 
there should, at the same time, be open the first exclusively German 
Exhibition ever held in England. 

For the rest, the Exhibition medal which bore the above inscription 
was a magnificent specimen of the engraver's art. It was of bronze, 
seventy millimetres in diameter, and a little over six in thickness. 
Surrounding the bust of the Emperor was the above qixotation from 



882 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

What, then, had occurred to make the Em- 
peror change his mind ? Was it not inexphcable 
that he should have given the go-by to an Exhibi- 
tion which was so profuse in its display of his own 
military uniforms, which was intended to show 
Englishmen to what proficiency his own subjects 
had attained in the arts of peace, and which, as we 
have seen,* had been instrumental in benefiting the 
funds of two most deserving institutions — the 
German Hospital and the German Society of 
Benevolence in London? He had been graciously 
pleased to permit the bands of some of the finest 
regiments in his service to respond to Mr. Whitley's 
invitation to come over, and had even sanctioned the 
loan of a State contribution to the Art Section ; but, 
when actually in London, he had allowed some 
powerfully persuasive agency to divert him from 
carrying out his purpose of honouring the Exhibition 
with a personal visit, and thus acknowledging the 
meritoriousness of an enterprise which was resulting 
in decided gain to his own German subjects, at the 

His Majesty's speecli at Guildhall, On the obverse side was a fae-simile 
of the main faQade of the Exhibition, and its motto : " Palniam qui meruit 
ferat,'" with the name of John E. Whitley as founder and organiser of 
National Exhibitions in London. Successful exhibitors were also presented 
by the Executive Council with a Diploma of Honour, most artistically 
designed by Professor Emil Doepler, jun., of Berlin, and engraved by 
Riffarth, of that city. Each diploma set forth the specific merits of the 
exhibits, and bore the signatures of the presidents of the various com- 
mittees. Acknowledging receipt of one of these medals, the Duke of Teck 
wrote to Mr. "Whitley : — "Grateful thanks for the raagnificent medal struck 
in commemoration of the German Exhibition. The Emperor is actually- 
life-like, and Mr. Mayer, the artist, is to be greatly congratulated upon 
this fine piece of work." * See p. 363, ante. 



THE GERMAN EXHIBITION. 383 

risk and expense of its English organisers. Even 
the German working men, in their address to Mr. 
Whitley, had said:* — " Notwithstanding the hostile 
interposition of Socialists, and of some influences in 
high quarters, which have been directed to alienating 
the personal interest of the German Emperor, we feel 
sure that His Majesty will visit the Exhibition which 
abounds in representative exhibits of the Arts and 
Industries of the Fatherland. " 

The Emperor cannot have taken umbrage at a 
protest which was addressed to the Com- 

^ . . His • 

mittee of the German Exhibition against Majesty's 

, , . , n -I o ^ ' omission. 

a proposal to open it on a bunday lor his 
especial benefit,! because a similar petition was 
signed with reference to the Naval Exhibition, which 
His Majesty accordingly went to see on a week-day. 
And it was this very fact that rendered his omission 
to go to Earl's Court appear all the more striking and 
strange, particularly as Mr. Whitley had also made all 
the necessary preparations — and they were neither 
few nor inexpensive — for His Majesty's fitting recep- 

* See p. 361, ante. 

f The following was tlie test of this protest, which was extensively 
signed by prominent Englishmen : — " We, the undersigned, having been 
informed that it is contemplated to open the German Exhibition on 
Sunday, the 12th of July, for a visit from His Imperial Majesty the 
Emperor of Germany, desire to express the earnest hope that some other 
day may be selected. The public opinion of this country is emphatically 
against opening Exhibitions, &c., on the Day of Best, On the 29th of last 
March the House of Commons opposed a proposal t© open the National 
Museums on Sundays by 166 votes against 39, and the present leaders 
of the two great Conservative and Liberal parties in the House 
of Commons have always opposed the Sunday opening of national 
institutions." 



384 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

tion.* In the preceding year, when at Osborne, 
Count Eulenburg, on behalf of the Emperor, had 
telegraphed to Mr. Whitley His Majesty's great 
regret at not being able to visit the French Ex- 
hibition at Earl's Court, f and though a similar 
invitation — as a matter of course — was conveyed to 
His Majesty with respect to the German Exhibition, 
his answer was pretty much the same. J There 

=■'- As soon as Mr. Whitley learnt that the Emperor would visit London 
in July, these preparations for a fitting reception were forthwith com- 
menced, and, inter alia, a number of illustrated cards of invitation were 
printed, the intention being to issue them to members of the various 
Committees connected with the Exhibition, a few days before the date the 
Emperor might designate as that of his promised visit to the German 
Exhibition. Eeceiving no advice, however, of the day the Emperor would 
pay the visit, Mr. Whitley had the date of the last day the Emperor was 
announced to be in London written on the invitation cards and only 
issued them the day previously. 

f " His Majesty the Emperor is very grateful for the kind invitation 
to visit the French Exhibition in London, and extremely regrets that, his 
departure being fixed for this evening, he will be prevented from coming 
to London at all." 

I From the German Embassy Mr. Whitley received the following, 
under date July 13th : — " The German Ambassador presents his compli- 
ments to Mr. John E. Whitley, and begs to inform him that His Majesty 
the Emperor and King has been graciously pleased to accept the publi- 
cations relating to the German Exhibition which accompanied Mr. 
Whitley's letter of the 6th inst. By command of the Emperor 
Count Hatzfeldt has great pleasure in conveying to Mr. Whitley His 
Imperial Majesty's thanks for this attention.'' To this may be added the 
following translation of a communication from Count Hatzfeldt to Herr 
von Ernsthausen, President of the Honorary Advisory Council in 
London : — " I beg to reply to the inquiry made to me, that I have con- 
veyed the request of the Committee of the German Exhibition, con- 
cerning the invitation of H.I.M, the Emperor to visit the Exhibition, to 
H.I.M.'s notice. As the programme fixed for the sojourn of H.I.M. in 
England occupied, however, the whole of the available time of His 
Imperial Majesty, I am sorry to say that H.I.M. was prevented from 
complying with the request of the Committee of the German Exhibi- 
tion." 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 385 

was, therefore, a mystery in all this which few could 
fathom.* 

If the German Emperor, in determining not to 
honour so praiseworthy an enterprise as 
the Exhibition with even a flying visit. Artist on the 

. „ -, , -I • t Exhibition. 

was more mnuenced by a desKe to prove 
complaisant to others than to follow his own gene- 
rous inclinations, he can scarcely have failed to feel 
regret at having done so, on returning home and 
glancing over the comments of the Press on his 
strange omission, comments which, in some cases, 
were couched in clear enough terms of disappoint- 
ment and wonder. A striking exception to this 
general tone was afforded by the courtly artist. Pro- 
fessor Anton von Werner, Director of the Eoyal 
Academy of Arts in Berlin, who, speaking at a 
meeting of the Society of Berlin Artists early in 
November, indulged in a most gratuitous attempt to 
discredit the results which had been - attained at 
Earl's Court. 

When this unjust and uncalled-for criticism was 
published in the German papers Mr. Whitley was 
asked to reply thereto ; but this he indignantly 
declined to do. " It seems to me," he said, " that 
my efforts on behalf of Germany have made it obliga^ 

* Althougli the Emperor himself did not go to the Exhibition, it 
was visited by the chief members of his suite, including General von 
Hahnke, chief of the Military Cabinet ; Dr. von Leuthold, H.M.'s body 
physician ; Herr von Lucanus, his private secretary, and Baron Mar- 
schall von Bieberstein, who expressed themselves in terms of the 
warmest praise about all they saw. 



386 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

tory on my German friends to do whatever they may 
deem necessary in connection with von Werner's 
utterances. It would be interesting to learn whether 
von Werner ever made the same sacrifices for Grermany 
that I have done. I even venture to prophesy that he 
himself will some day acknowledge his error. Mean- 
while I can wait. II tempo e galantuomo. With 
our Poet-Laureate I agree that : — 

" ' Men of long- enduring hopes, 

And careless what this hour may bring, 
Can pardon little would-be Popes, 

And Brummels when they try to sting.' " 

Nor were the friends of Mr. Whitley slack in theperform- 

ance of their obvious duty towards him, for a meeting 

of the Honorary Committee in Germany was at once 

convened, when a report was prepared for 

A German S" 

vouciierfor commuuication to the Press, conclusively 
^^" setting forth the inaccuracy of Professor 
von Werner's statements, and concluding : — 

" In view of the large numbers who visited the Exhibition — close 
upon 1,400,000 persons — it must be pronounced a very considerable 
success. Had the Exhibition not been the important manifestation 
it was, it would certainly not have attracted so many visitors, especi- 
ally those belonging to the higher classes and the ranks of royalty.* 
... In view, therefore, of this, and of the fact that the whole 
English, and the greater part of the German Press, wrote apprecia- 
tively of the Exhibition, especially of its Fine Art Section, it may 
be asserted in all truth that the work undertaken by the under- 
signed (Honorary Committee in Germany) and the Honorary 
German Advisory Council in London, in conjunction with Mr. 
* See p. 372, ante. 



THE GERMAN EXHIBITION. 387 

Whitley, has served to awaken and to increase in England popular 
interest for German art and German art-industries, no less than to 
strengthen the feeling of patriotic solidarity uniting all Germans in 
London, and that it has, at the same time, afforded the English 
public effective insight into German life and history by means of 
the great spectacular representations thereof that were given. 

" In consideration, therefore, of the foregoing, we cannot help 
expressing our regret at the fact that a German, after the close of 
the Exhibition, should have endeavoured in the most unjustifiable 
manner to decry a work which ought to have enlisted and retained 
his sympathies. 

" Without exception we are, one and all, penetrated with a sense 
of deep gratification at the honourable, worthy, and generous man- 
ner in which Mr. Whitley, the organiser of the German Exhibition - 
in London, has promoted and directed it from its opening to its 
close ; and it is a satisfaction for us to place this on public record in 
opposition to the attacks of Herr von Werner." * 

We take it that the above was a sufficient reply to 
the German detractors of the Exhibition, and they 
were insignificant in number, as it was also a bitter 
reproof to the few in England itself who had both 
ungenerously and unjustly sought to hamper Mr. 
"Whitley's praiseworthy enterprises. But while he 

* It may be here remarked that the German public had already also 
been treated to a very full account of the Exhibition in the shape of a 
fine Prachhuerh, or illustrated work, in large folio, entitled, " Die Deutsche 
Ausstellung in London, 1891 " (Ad : Mertens, Brussels), by Lieutenant 
Cornely, who had been prominently connected with several German 
Exhibitions, and was, therefore, well qualified to do justice as a chronicler 
to the one at Earl's Court. Lieutenant Cornely's work is splendidly 
illustrated, among other things by some of the pictures which formed so 
attractive a feature of the Exhibition, and is altogether an elaborate and 
conscientious work such as Germans dehght to compile. 

Mr. Whitley received a letter from Sir Henry Ponsonby, addressed to 
him by command of the Queen, thanking him for a copy of this hand- 
some Souvenir-Album of the German Exhibition. 



388 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

had to do his noble and beneficent work in the 
face of much opposition, both open and covert, he 
could also boast of a multitade of willing and faith- 
ful allies ; and foremost amongst those were the 
nmnerous and devoted members of his Exhibition 
Staff, who had served him all through his period of 
National Life-Pictures with an energy and fidelity 
drawn from their admiration of his own inspiring 
character. Nor would this chronicle of his labours 
be either just or complete without some reference to 
the services rendered him by his coadjutors, several 
of whom will doubtless render valuable assistance 
to those who elect to continue the useful work ini- 
tiated by Mr. Whitley at Earl's Court, from which 
he himself retired with the completion of the fourth 
of his Quartette of Exhibitions, as indicated in his 
remarks at its opening.* 

The four colleagues who were at Mr. "Whitley's 
side throughout the whole of the work connected 
with the four Exhibitions were : — 

Mr. Vincent A. Applin, of whom Mr. Whitley, in 
the paper he read at the German Athenseum in 
October, 1890, said : — " One man has stood by me 
from first to last during the organisation of the 
Exhibitions at Earl's Court — a true friend and a 
valued colleague- — without whose help I could never 
have gone through what I have. I refer to Mr. 
Yincent A. Applin, the Secretary of my Associ^i^ipig^^ 

* See p, 320, ante. 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 380 

The friendship of such a man is worth more than 
all the gold of all the Indies." 

Mr. John Priestman — a member of the Executive 
Council over which Mr. Whitley presided. Mr. 
Priestman' s sterling qualities as an administrator 
rendered his advice at all times very acceptable. 

Mr. W. P. Colliver, chief of the Staff of Correspon- 
dents, who proved himself loyal, zealous, and cour- 
teous, very often under trying circumstances, and 
whose position was anything but a sinecure, for, 
during the six years he acted as Mr. Whitley's, 
chief secretary, he had at least 60,000 letters to 
attend to. 

Mr. Alfred Johnson, acting on behalf of Messrs. 
Turquand, Youngs, Weise, Bishop, and Clarke, most 
ably administered the department of receipts and 
expenditure. 

During the organisation and direction of the 
American Exhibition Mr. Whitley's principal helpers 
were : — 

Lord Eonald Gower, to whom a large measure of 
praise is due for the eclat which attended the 
Exhibition ; Mr. Burnet Landreth, of Philadelphia, 
Mr. Whitley's most active coadjutor in the United 
States ; Colonel H.' S. Eussell, of Boston, Mass., 
the President of the Exhibition; Mr. E. A. Buck 
and Mr. W. B. Guthrie, of New York, who rendered 
invaluable assistance during the preliminary stages 
of organisation ; Mr. John Sartain, chief of the Fine 
Art Section ; Mr. Eufus M. Smith, Mr. J. G. Speed, 



390 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

and Mr. Alfred Pickard, who devoted himself heart 
and soul to the work. 

Amongst the gentlemen upon whom fell much of 
the labour connected with the Italian Exhibition, 
and whose zeal was almost unlimited, were : — 

Signor Euggero Bonghi, of Eome, one of Italy's 
greatest patriots and savants; Signori Bonacina, Arbib, 
Allatini, Melis, Acton, Gancia, Narizzano, Pavia, Sal- 
viati, and Serena, of the Italian Chamber of Com- 
merce in London, about whose co-operation it is not 
too much to say that it very largely contributed to 
the brilliant success achieved; as also Messrs. Eoberto 
M. Stuart, Guglielmo Grant, P. Palestrino, F. Jaco- 
vacci, De Sanctis, T. Boston Bruce, T. Carew Martin, 
T. W. Cutler, L. Duchene, A. Baccani, G. Ambrosi, 
Grassi, W. Goldring, E. A. E. Woodrow, and G. E. 
Eutter. Very acceptable also to Mr. Whitley was 
the official assistance, at all times so courteously 
tendered him by Commen. Catalani, the Italian 
Charge d'Affaires ; Baron Heath, Consul- General, and 
Cav. Buzzegoli, Yice-Consul of Italy in London; 
Commen. E. de Cesare ; and Commen. Monzilli, 
Director of the Ministry of Commerce in Eome. 

Mr. Whitley's most active co-operators during the 
organisation of the Erench Exhibition were : — 

MM. Gustavo and Eoger Sandoz, M. Eugene 
Henry, the twelve Presidents of the various Groups 
(pp. 503-506) ; Mr. L. Duchene, Baron Delort de 
Gleon, M. Bartholdi, Dr. Yintras, M. J. Guillemot, 
Mr. Arthur Carey, MM. Layus, Lamaille, Lyon, 



THE GERMAN EXHIBITION. 391 

Aublet, Follot, Benoit, Folliot, Toche, Ercole, Leslie 
Sims, Easetti, Jambon and Desclaux. Consul-General 
Caubefc's assistance was also always courteously ex- 
tended to exhibitors. 

The difficulties of organising the German Exhibi- 
tion were successfully overcome by Mr. "Whitley, 
thanks to the zealous co-operation of Prince Bllicher 
von Wahlstatt, and Messrs. von Ernsthausen, B. W. 
Yogts, Dr. E. Cruesemann, L. Duchene, E. Wichert, 
Gustav Dahms, E. Jaffe, Professor Karl Becker, 
Fritz Gurlitt, H. Hirschwald, Consul Schlesinger, 
Hugo Damm, Arthur Carey, T. Boston Bruce, H. 
Hillger, A. W. Isenthal, E. Seidl, Martin Diilfer, 
Chevalier de Eeichel, W. Owen, Paul Stoeck, P. 
Hildebrandt, Leslie Sims, and T. Eeuss. Many 
members of the various Committees, too, often left 
their own occupations to "lend a hand" cheerfully, 
and of these, Professor Max Mliller, of Oxford ; 
Professor Papperitz and Major Biirklein, of Munich ; 
Professor Hiinten, of Diisseldorf ; Mr. G. -Zwilgmeyer, 
Mr. Otto Goldschmidt, and Professor J. H. Bonawitz, 
of London, the Honorary Director of the musical 
arrangements, and the popular Mr. Charles Sevin, 
may be specially mentioned. 

From all these and other willing workers Mr. 
Whitley received assistance, without which his 
triumphs would have been impossible ; bat there 
was still another ally who always remained true to 
him, and that was the British public, for whose 
instruction and recreation he had set himself to 



392 



NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 



cater on such a colossal scale. Close upon seven 
millions of persons inspected his Quartette of Life- 
Pictures,* and it is not too much to say that 
to this immense number of his fellow-countrymen 
he proved a benefactor of the highest kind by 



* The fo] 
Days. 


lowing figures will make this clear : — 
Exhibition and Year. 


Visitors. 


151 


American Exhibition, 

1887. 
[Daily Average, 14,770.] 


2,230,173 


148 


Italian Exliihition, 

1888. 

[Daily Average, 11,780.] 


1,743,445 


143 


French Exliihition, 

1890. 

[Daily Average, 9,300.] 


1,329,701 


-I oo 

loo 


German Exhibition, 

1891. 

[Daily Average, 10,360.] 


1,377,908 


575 




6,681,227 



At the American Exhibition in 1887, there were : 

1,078 Exhibitors in the Industrial Sections, and 
151 Exhibitors in the Fine Art Section, exhibiting 
418 Works of Art. 
At the Italian Exhibition in 1888, there were : 

1,083 Exhibitors in the Industrial Sections, and 

645 Exhibitors in the Fine Art Section, exhibiting 
1,512 Works of Art. 
At tee French Exhibition in 1890, there were : 

857 Exhibitors in the Industrial Sections, and 
467 Exhibitors in the Fine Art Section, exhibiting 
1,024 Works of Art. 
At the German Exhibition in 1891, there were : 

607 Exhibitors in the Industrial Sections, and 
496 Exhibitors in the Fine Art Section, exhibiting 
756 Works of Art. 



THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION.. 393 

ministering at once to their mental, moral, and 
physical welfare. And, in closing the fourth 
and final volume of his Exhibition Labours he 
might well have felt intensely proud in the con- 
sciousness of having been, in truth, one of the 
world's best and bravest pioneers, — of having been 
the first to tread a path which was as fertile in 
honour as it was full of thorns. 



SUMMAEY. 

"The brilliant and artistic displays of which Mr. 
Whitley was the indefatigable promoter," to quote 
the words of the Daily Telegraph, had been to him 
a period of galley-slave labour, and of struggling 
with obstacles that would have daunted any ordinary 
man. His seven years' Exhibition work had, indeed, 
been to him a " Seven Years' War" — war with the 
inherent difficulties of his task, as well as with the 
artificial impediments that were thrown in his path 
by some who ought to have been at least passive and 
impartial witnesses of his work, even if they refused 
him their practical support. At the best of times 
the labour of organising such displays must be 
arduous in the extreme, but, in the face of what in 
many cases seemed downright opposition, it can 
readily be understood that the task was one cal- 
culated to dishearten any but a nature imbued 
with high courage, and one truly conscious of the 
importance and utility of the work. Let any man 



SUMMABY. 395 

visit the great centres of four different countries, 
as did Mr. Whitley, and induce many of the 
most distinguished and representative men of 
each nation to beheve in him to the extent 
of accepting his invitation, unsupported by any 
Governmental or official guarantees, to exhibit ex- 
amples of their Arts and Industries in a foreign 
metropolis, and he will find the work rather more 
arduous and complicated than the inexperienced 
imagine, even if he enjoy the moral support of the 
powers that be. But if, instead of this " official 
sympathy," he has active opposition clogging his 
every effort, he will need, indeed, to be stout of 
heart. 

We need not indulge in any recapitulation of 
Mr. Whitley's aims and their results, which have 
been sufficiently set forth in the preceding pages. 
His ideal was a high one, and in spite of great 
personal sacrifices he clung to its achievement till 
the end. He has devoted seven years of his life 
exclusively and enthusiastically to his useful and 
self-imposed task, for the benefit of the thousands of 
exhibitors who profited and are still profiting by his 
work, as well as of the millions of visitors who came 
to view it. The closing of his last volume in the 
Quartette of his National Pictures left him a poorer 
man than when he began the preparations for his 
first tome. But the possibility of this result did not 
deter him from carrying out to the full his original 
purpose, which was well expressed when he said that — 



^96 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 

" I really cannot conceive of any more useful outlet 
for human effort tlian this bringing together of the 
artists, manufacturers, and other representative men 
of the principal nations of the world." And surely 
that man must be an idealist and a philanthropist of 
the best type who continues to exercise such generous 
self-denial in his endeavour to benefit others. 

And here it may be observed that the necessary 
funds required for the erection of the buildings at 
Earl's Court, and for the organisation and direction 
of the Exhibitions, were provided without recourse 
to any Government, Corporation, or Guarantee Fund 
whatever. Mr. Whitley was the first to set the 
example, and was, from first to last, one of those 
who ran the heaviest pecuniary risk and bore the 
greatest sacrifices. Not only did Mr. "Whitley elect 
to bear the lion's share of the work himself, and to 
devote the whole of his time to a task, the- beneficial 
results of which necessarily accrued to others, yet, 
as though this were not a sufficiently heavy load to 
carry, he bore, for several years, the additional 
burden of guaranteeing a considerable portion of the 
funds provided for the organisation and direction of 
the Exhibitions, exclusive of the heavy amount 
which he himself contributed and sacrificed thereto. 
But the personal offering of time, toil and means, 
voluntarily made by Mr. Whitley during the seven 
years he devoted to his Exhibition work, was, as 
he cheerily tells his friends, amply repaid by the 
series of victories achieved by the exhibitors in the 



SUMMARY. 397 

four campaigns, whose net result to themselves is 
indicated by the four letters addressed by them to 
Mr. Whitley ; * whilst the net result to him was 
the heavy sacrifice referred to, and the satisfaction 
he experiences at having made it in so good and 
noble a cause. 

It is doubtful whether any one ever devoted greater 
sustained efforts to a more useful task, rich as it was 
in practical results to exhibitors from four of the 
most interesting and important nationalities in the 
world — America, Italy, France, and Germany — while 
at the same time Mr. Whitley may fairly claim to 
have provided for his own countrymen, during several 
successive years, instruction and pleasure of the 
soundest and most elevating kind, as well as to have 
done much to promote the spread of commerce and 
the brotherhood of nations. These are surely results 
which might well incline any man who feels that his 
efforts in a good cause have been hampered where 
they might have been helped, to say with the 
American poet : — 

" My doctern is to lay aside 
Contentions, and be satisfied : 
Jest do your best, and praise or blame, 
That follers that, counts jest the same. 
I've alius noticed grate success 
Is mixed with troubles, more or less, 
And it's the man who does the best 
That gits more kicks than all the rest."' 

* See pp. 109, 203, 284, and 374. 



398 NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON 

But a foretaste of the justice, which time never 
fails to render all men, was accorded Mr. Whitley 
soon after he had finished his Quartette of National 
Pictures, when a number of his friends and admirers 
presented him with the following address : — 

" On your retirement frovi afield of worh in which 
you have been such a high-minded and indomitable 
labourer, we desire to express to you our recognition 
of the gjxat public services you have rendered as the 
Organiser and Director-General of the Four National 
Exhibitions in London which have done so much to 
familiarise the British Public ivith the Arts and 
Industries, the History and Social Habits, of America, 
Italy, France, and Germany, as well as to pro- 
mote closer relations between England and those 
countries. 

" These public services have been all the more 
Tueritorious as they were not rendered by you ivithout 
great personal sacrifices. These sacrifices, however, 
did not deter you from adhering, till its fulfilment, to 
your unique and self-imposed tasJc. Its performance 
was rich in the record of personal difficulties overcome, 



SUMMARY. 399 

and pacific victories acJiieved — victories ivliich entitle 
you to the gratitude of all who desire to see the con- 
flicts of tvar give place to the competition of commerce 
and to the contests of peace, and, ivho regard inter- 
national intercourse as the best means of obviating 
international mistonder standing. 

" Yottr own countrymen, in particular, have every 
reason to feel thanhful to you for the instruction and 
recreation which you placed within their reach at 
EarVs Court ; and we are sure we but express the 
sense of all -who profited by your efforts when we 
heartily congratulate you on the salutary results of 
your seven years^ admirable worJc, and wish you well 
for the rest of your life, the best part of which you 
have devoted to such high and beneficent aims.^' 

[Signed by the Executive Committee, on behalf 
of the Testimonial Subscribers, as well as 
of the undermentioned General Committee 
formed to promote this address.] 

The General Committee which was formed to 
promote this testimonial address consisted of : — 



400 



NATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN LONDON. 



HIS HIGHNESS THE DUKE OF TECK, G.C.B. 



V. A. Applin, Esq. (London). 

Sign or Comm. E. Arbib (London), 

J. G. Barnes, Esq. (London). 

John Barran, Esq., M.P. (London). 

General Sir H. P. de Bathe, Bart. 
(London). 

Herr Karl Blind (London). 

H.S.H. Prince Blticher von Wahl- 
statt (Berlin). 

Signor Comm. Ruggero Bonghi 
(Rome). 

Herr Wilhelm F. Brand (London). 

J. Browne-Martin, Esq. (London). 

T. Boston Bruce, Esq. (London). 

Signor U. Cantagalli (Florence). 

Arthur Carey, Esq. (London). 

Prince Henry of Carolath Schoe- 
naicli (Frankfurt). 

Monsieur L. Caubet (London). 

W. F. CoUiver, Esq. (London). 

Herr Gustav Dahms (Berlin). 

The Earl De la Warr and Buck- 
hurst (London). 

Monsieur A. Decle (Paris). 

Leon Duchene, Esq. (London). 

Professor H. Eschke (Berlin). 

Cav. R. Froehlich (Manchester). 

Signor G. Focardi (Florence). 

Signor R. Gancia (London). 

Colonel J. T. Griffin (London). 

Herr H. GiiUch (London). 

Sir Victor Houlton, G.C.M.G. (Lon- 
don). 

"Wilham Hudson, Esq. (London). 

J. C. Humphreys, Esq. (London). 

Professor Emil Hunten(Dusseldorf). 

Henry Irving, Esq. (London). 

Herr F. Jaffe (Berlin). 

Monsieur J. Jarlauld (Paris). 



J. S. Jeans, Esq. (London). 

Sir Henry Layard, G.C.B., D.C.L. 
(Venice). 

Monsieur L. Layus (Paris). 

Sir J. D. Linton, P.R.I. (London). 

Charles Lowe, Esq. (London). 

T. Carew Martin, Esq. (London). 

Sir Johu R. Heron-Maxwell, Bart. 
(London). 

Colonel Paget P. Mosley (London). 

Professor F. Mas Muller (Oxford), 

Signor Cav. John Ortelh (London). 

Signor Cav. Aw°' Paolo Palestrino 
(Turin). 

Sir Noel Paton (Edinburgh). 

John Pound, Esq. (London). 

Dr. William Howard Russell (Lon- 
don). 

George Augustus Sala, Esq. (Lon- 
don). 

Monsieur Gustave Roger Sandoz 
(Paris). 

S. S. Seal, Esq. (London). 

H. Seton-Karr, Esq., M.P. (London). 

Captain Sir Eyre M. Shaw, C.B. 
(London). 

Gilead Smith, Esq. (London). 

M. H. Spiehnann, Esq. (London). 

Signor Cav. Roberto M. Stuart 
(Perugia). 

Monsieur Tarbouriech-Nadal (Paris) 

Monsieur J. Thibouville - Lamy 
(Paris). 

Prof. John Tyndall (Haslemere). 

Monsieur A. Vintras, M. D. (London) . 

Herr B. W. Vogts (Berlin). 

Herr E. Wichert (Berlin). 

Sir Samuel Wilson, M.P. (London). 

Edmund Yates, Esq. (London). 



Finis. 



(lEHMAN EXlliniTION 

LONDON May-Octob> jr. 1891. 
tarls Court, West Brompton & West Kensington. 

PLAN OF MAIN B Ij | L D I N C , 

Gardens X,c 







■% 




S A {yj 

ri w 



V- 



1 1 



,yt> 




iJ 



SUPPLEMENT. 



' ' THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 

LONDON, 1887. 

PRESIDENT. 
HENEY S. EUSSELL. 

DIRECTOR-GENEBAL 

AND 

CHAIRMAN OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 
JOHN E. WHITLEY. 

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS. 

Director in the United States - - - BUENET LANDEETH. 

Secretary - VINCENT A. APPLIN. 

Chief of General Staff . . . . FEEDc. C. PENFIELD. 

Chief OF Installation - - - - EUFUS M. SMITH. 

Chief of Fine Arts Department - - - JOHN SAETAIN. 

Architect and Surveyor . . . - JOHN GIBSON. 

Engineer .- - ALFEED PICKAED. 

Assistant Engineer A. B. PICKAED. 

Chief of Horticultural Department - - WM. GOLDEING. 

Accountant - - ALFEED JOHNSON. 

Treasurer J. F. TANNEE, 

Chief Correspondent - -' - - ' - W. F. COLLIVEE. 

Chief of Ticket Department - - - WM. J. EOWE. 

Press Eepresentative TOWNSEND PEECY. 

Medical Director Dr. J. B. W. BIDLACK. 

Chief OF Janitors - - - - - L. H. SKINNEE. 

Superintendent of Entrances - - - GEOEGE GEAINGEE. 

Consulting Engineer ----- FLOEENCE O'DEISCOLL. 

AMERICAN ADVISORY COUNCIL. 

GEOEGE M. PULLMAN, Chicago. 
NOEVIN GEEEN, New York. W. J. COLEMAN, San Francisco. 

ALBEET BIEESTADT, New York. W. H. THOMSON, St. Louis. 

•JOHN LUCAS, Philadelphia. WM. EDWAEDS, Cleveland. 

THOMAS COCHEAN, Philadelphia. • L. M. DAYTON, Cincinnati. 
N. K. FAIEBANK, Chicago. JOHN E. GEEEN, Louisville. 

-JOHN B. CAESON, Chicago. • EOBEET W. FUENAS, Nebraska. 

26 



402 THE AMEBICAN EXHIBITION. 

COUNCIL OF WELCOME. 

VICE-PEBSIDENTS OF THE COUNCIL OF WELCOME. 

HIS EMINENCE HENEY EDWAED, CAEDINAL MANNING. 

HIS GEACE THE DUKE OF EOXBUEGHE. 

HIS GEACE THE DUKE OP MANCHESTEE, K.P. 

HIS GEACE THE DUKE OF NOETHUMBEELAND. 

HIS GEACE THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON. 

HIS GEACE THE DUKE OF SUTHEELAND, K.G. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE COUNCIL OP WELCOME, 

Lord EONALD GOWEE, Stafford House, St. James's, 

Sir JOHN E. HEEON-MAXWELL, Bart., Carlton Club, 

Sir JOHN E. MILLAIS, Bart., 2, Palace Gate, Kensington. 

Sir SYDNEY WATEELOW, Bart., 26, Great Winchester Street, E.C» 

Sir DAVID SALOMONS, Bart., 41, Lowndes Square, S.W. 

Sir H. p. de BATHE, Bart., Hollandsfield, Chichester. 

J. H. PULESTON, Esq., M.P., 2, Bank Buildings, Princes Street, E.G. 

Sir J. J. COGHILL, Bart., 8, Penyweru Eoad, South Kensington. 

Sib CHAELES CLIFFOED, Baet., Hattherton Hall, Cannock, Staff. 

E. NOETH BUXTON, Esq., Knighton, Buckhurst Hill. 

HENEY lEVING, Esq., Lyceum Theatre. 

Col. PAGET MOSLEY, Carlton Club. 

Dr. MOEELL MACKENZIE, 19, Harley Street, Cavendish Square, W. 

GILEAD SMITH, Esq., St. George's Club, Hanover Square. 

Major S. FLOOD PAGE, Albert Mansions, Victoria Street. 

Sir JOSEPH FAYEEE, 53, Wimpole Street, W. 

WILKIE COLLINS, Esq., 90, Gloucester Place, Portman Square. 

CHAELES WYNDHAM, Esq., Criterion Theatre, Piccadilly. 

HENEY SETON-KAEE, Esq., M.P., Queen's Gate. 

HON, SECRETARY. 

J, STEPHEN JEANS, Esq., 2, Victoria Mansions, Westminster. 

MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL OF WELCOME, 

The Most Hon. the Marquess of Tweeddale. 
The Most Hon. the Marquess of Lothian, K.T. 
The Most Hon. the Marquess of Waterford, K.P, 
The Most Hon. the Marquess of Drogheda, K.P. 
The Most Hon. the Marquess of Exeter. 
The Most Hon. the Marquess of Ormonde. 
The Most Hon. the Marquess of Stafford, M.P. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Sandwich. 
The Eight Hon the Earl of Albemarle. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Seafield. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Glasgow, 



SUPPLEMENT. 403 

COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)— 
The Eight Hon. the Eaii De La Warr and Buckhurst. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Clarendon. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Malmesbury, G.C.B. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Egmont. 
The Eight Hon, the Earl of Clanwilliam, K.C.M.G., C.B. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Longford, G.C.B. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Dysart. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Onslow. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Eomney» 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Eosse, D.C.L., F.B.S. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Lichfield. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl Eussell. 

The Eight Hon. the Earl of Dufferin, K.P., G.C.B., G.C.M.G. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Eavensworth. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Wharncliffe. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Lathom. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Iddesleigh, B.C., G.C.B, . 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Bective, M.P. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Colin Campbell. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Eandolph S. Churchill, M.P. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Ronald Gower, F.S.A. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Henry G. Lennox. 

The Eight Hon. the Lord John Manners, B.C., G.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., M.P. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Eobert Montagu. 
The Eight Hon. the Viscount Valentia. 
The Eight Hon. the Eev. Yiscount Molesworth. 
The Right Hon. the Viscount Powerscourt, K.P. 
The Right Hon. the Viscount Monck, G.C.M.G. 
Gen. the Eight Hon. the Viscount Templetown, K.C.B. 
The Eight Hon. the Viscount Combermere. 
The Eight Hon. the Viscount Ebrington, MJ'. 
The Eight Hon, the Lord Elcho. 
The Eight Hon. the Viscount St. Cyres, C.B., M.P. 
Capt. the Eight Hon, the Lord Charles Beresford, E,N., C.B,, M,P, 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Marcus Beresford. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Sackville A. Cecil. 
The Eight Eev. the Lord Bishop of Eipon, D.D. 
The Eight Eev. the Lord Bishop of Worcester, D,D, 
The Eight Hon, the Lord Windsor. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Herries. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Elphinstone. 
The Eight Hon, the Lord Ehbank, 
The Eight Hon, the Lord Middleton, 
The Eight Hon, the Lord Walsingham. 
The Eight Hon, the Lord Dorchester, 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Lyttleton. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Eossmore, 



404 THE AMBBICAN EXHIBITION. 

COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)— 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Headley. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Eendleshatn. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Churchill. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Garvagh. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Oranmore. 
Lieut.-Gen. the Eight Hon. Lord Chelmsford, G.C.B. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Lawrence. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Aberdare, G.C.B. 
The Eight Hon; the Lord Coleridge. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Wimborne. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Mount-Temple. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Brabourne. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Bramwell. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Tennyson, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Esher. 
The Eight Hon. the Lord Wantage, V.C, K.C.B. 
His Highness the Maharajah Duleep Singh, G.C.S.I. 
His Highness Eajah Sourindro Mohun Tagore, CLE., F.E.S.L., M.E.A.S. 
The Eight Hon. Sir Massey Lopes, Bart., B.C., F.S.S., M.A., D.L., J.P. 
The Eight Hon. Sir Arthur John Otway, Bart., B.C. 
The Eight Hon. John Bright, B.C., M.P. 

The Eight Hon. Sir Eichard Assheton Cross, B.C., G.C.B., M.P. 
The Eight Hon. Spencer H. Walpole, B.C., Q.C. 
The Eight Hon. Sir Charles S. C. Bowen, B.C. 
The Eight Hon. Sir Henry S. Keating, B.C. 
Adm. the Hon. Sir Henry Keppel, G.C.B. 

His Excellency the Hon. Adams George Archibald, B.C., C.M.G., Q.C. 
The Hon. Evelyn Ashley. 
The Hon. John C. Dundas. 
The Hon. and Eight Eev. A. G. Douglas. 
The Hon. John W. FitzwiUiam, M.B. 
The Hon. Charles A. Gore. 
The Hon. F. Leveson-Gower, M.B. 
The Hon. George Charles Brodrick, M.A. 
Col. the Hon. W. H. B. Carington. 
The Hon. W. F. B. Massey Mainwaring. 
The Hon. H. C. Maxwell- Stuart. 
The Hon. Ashley G. I. Bonsonby. 
The Eight Hon. WiUiam M'Onie. 
The Eight Hon. W. T. Marriott, B.C., Q.C, M.B, 
The Eight Hon. John Staples, F.S.A., Lord Mayor of London, 1885-6. 
The Eight Hon. Andrew Martin. 
The Hon. Mr. Justice Wills. 
The Hon. Lewis S. Wingfield. 
Sir H. B. Bacon, Bart. 
Sir Philip Grey Egerton, Bart. 
Lieut. -Col. Sir Francis Burdett, Bart., J.P. 



SUPPLEMENT. 405 



COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)- 
Sir William Vincent, Bart. 
Sir Peyton E. Skip with, Bart. 
Sir Nathaniel A. Staples, Bart. 
Sir Henry Bourchier T. Wrey, Bart. 
Capt. Sir William Wiseman, Bart., E.N., J.P. 
Sir Charles M. Wolseley, Bart. 
Sir Andrew Agnew, Bart. 
Sir James T. Stewart-Eichardson, Bart. 
Lieut. -Col. Sir Fitzroy D. Maclean of Morvaren, Bart. 
Sir Lionel M. Swinnerton Pilkington, Bart. 
Sir Arthur Chichester, Bart. 
Sir Gerald D. Fitz-Garald, Bart., J.P. 
Eev. Sir Vyell D. Vyvyan, Bart. 
Sir Henry H. Edwardes, Bart. 
Sir Spencer M. Maryon Wilson, Bart. 
Sir Alfred W. Trevelyan, Bart. 
Capt. Sir Henry A. Clavering, Bart., E.N. 
Sir John Stanley Errington, Bart. 
Sir Thomas J. Dancer, Bart. 
Sir Arthur Graham Hay, Bart. 
Capt. Sir Lambton Loraine, Bart, E.N. 
Sir Hugh Hume Campbell of Marchmont, Bart. 
Sir Eobert Menzies, Bart., J.P., D.L. 
Sir Charles E. F. Stirhng of Glorat, Bart., D.L., J.P. 
Sir William F. A. Eliott, Bart. 
Sir James Campbell, Bart. 

Lieut.-Col. Sir Norman W. D. Pringle, Bart., J.P., F.E.G.S. 
Sir James L. Seton, Bart. 
Sir Eobert Drummond Moncrieffe, Bart. 
Sir John E. Blois, Bart. 
Sir Thomas A. Colt, Bart., M.D. 
Sir Eobert Anstruther, Bart. 
Sir Drummond M. Dunbar, Bart. 
Sir James D. Mackenzie of Scatwell, Bart. 
Sir Augustus F. G. D. Webster, Bart. 
Sir James Naesmyth of Posso, Bart. 
Sir Atwell King-Lake, Bart. 
Sir George Warrender, Bart., J.P., D.L. 
Sir Edward Perrott, Bart. 
Sir Frederick G. Milner, Bart. 
Sir Clement Wolseley, Bart. 
Sir Eeginald W. Proctor-Beauchamp, Bart. 
Sir Alfred Sherlock Gouch, Bart. 
Sir Francis C. Knowles, Bart., M.A., F.E.S. 
Sir Harry Paul Burrard, Bart. 
Sir Henry B. P. St. John Mildmay, Bart. 
Sir John Jocelyn Coghill, Bart. 



406 THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION, 

COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)— 
Sir Eobert Briseo, Bart. 
Lieut.-Col. Sir William V. Guise, Bart. 
Sir Edward Hunter Blair, Bart. 
Sir Alexander Maley, Bart., K.C.B. 
Sir George F. Duekett, Bart. 
Sir Archdale E. Palmer, Bart. 
Sir Jolin C. Willoughby, Bart. 
Sir John W. G. Hartopp, Bart. 
Sir G. E. Sherston Baker, Bart. 
Sir William W. E. Onslow, Bart. 
Sir Eichard G. Glyn, Bart. 

Gen. Sir Henry Percival De Bathe, Bart., J.P., D.L. 
Sir John Marcus Stewart of Athenry, Bart. 
Sir Wroth A. Lethbridge, Bart. 
Sir H. Hervey Bruce, Bart. 
Sir William O'Malley, Bart. 
Sir James Sibbald D. Scott, Bart. 
Sir Harford J. Jones-Brydges, Bart., M.A. 
Sir Vincent Corbet, Bart. 
Sir Lumley Graham, Bart. 

Sir Frederick A. Gore Ouseley, Bart., M.A., Mus. Doc. 
Sir Hy. St. John Halford, Bart. 
Sir Lovelace T. Stamer, Bart. 
Sir 0. S. Paul Hunter, Bart., M.A., J.P. 
Admiral Sir G. N. Broke-Mid dleton, Bart., C.B. 
Sir Brydges P. Henniker, Bart. 
Sir Edward Grey, Bart. 
Sir Howard Elphinstone, Bart., F.G.S. 
Major Sir Eose L. Price of Trengwainton, Bart. 
Sir John E, Eardley-Wilmot, Bart. 
Sir Francis G. A. Drake, Bart. 
Sir Thomas Erskine, Bart. 
Sir Ashley P. Cooper, Bart. 
Sir James H. W. Drummond, Bart., J.P., D.L. 
Sir William E. Anson, Bart. 
Sir Charles E. M'Grigor, Bart. 
Sir William Chaytor, Bart. 
Sir Lydston Newman, Bart. 
Sir John F. Clark, Bart. 
Sir Henry P. Seale, Bart., J.P., D.L. 
Col. E. C. Spencfer Clifford, Bart. 
Si" Arthur T. F. Clay, Bart. 
Sir Julian Goldsmid, Bart., M.A., M.P. 
Sir Thomas Gladstone, Bart. 
Sir James M. McGarel-Hogg, Bart., K.C.B., M.P. 
Sir Ughtred James Kay-Shuttleworth, Bart., J.P., M.P. 
Sir Arthur D. Hayter, Bart., M.A., J.P, 



SUPPLEMENT. 407 



COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)— 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., LL.D. 
Sir Daniel Cooper, Bart., K.C.M.G. 
Sir Thomas C. Western, Bart. 
Sir James E. Pergusson, Bart. 
Sir Charles Henry Tempest, Bart. 
Sir John St. Aubyn, Bart., M.P. 
Sir Frederick Pollock, Bart., M.A, 
Sir Daniel Gooch, Bart. 
Sir J. J. Trevor Lawrence, Bart., M.P. 
Sir Charles H. Mills, Bart. 
Sir Francis W. Brady, Bart., Q.C. 
Gen. Sir Francis Seymom-, Bart., K.C.B. 
Sir Thomas Graham Briggs, Bart. 
Sir Sydney H. Waterlow, Bart. 
Sir William Miller, Bart. 
Sir John Walrond Walrond, Bart. 
Sir Gerald W. H. Codrington, Bart. 
Sir Charles L. Cust, Bart. 

Sir Eichard Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., LL.D., D.C.L. 
Sir James Falshaw, Bart., C.E., J.P. 
Sir Frederick A. Milbank, Bart., M.P. 
Alderman Sir John Whittaker Ellis, Bart., M.P. 
Sir Andrew Clark, Bart., M.D., LL.D. 
Sir J. Lowthian Bell, Bart., F.E.S. 
Sir J. E. Millais, Bart., E.A, 
Alderman Sir E. N. Fowler, Bart., M.P. 
Baron Henry de Worms, M.P. 
Baron Von Bissing. 
Sir James J. AUport, J.P. 
Sir James Anderson. 
Sir William P. Andi-ew, CLE. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., D.C.L. , LL.D., F.E.S. 
Major Sir Evelyn Baring, K.C.S.I., CLE. 
Sir Henry Barkly, K.C.B. , G.C.M.G. 
Sir J. W. Bazalgette, CB. 
Sir George Birdwood, M.D., C.S.I. 
Col. Sir Francis Bolton, C.E. 
Sir Algernon Borthwick. 
His Honour Sir Johannes Brand, G.C.M.G. 
Sir Thomas Brassey, J.P., K.C.B., M.P. 
Sir Charles Tilston Bright, C.E., F.E.A.S., P.E.G.S. 
Col. Sir Owen Tudor Burne, K.C.S.I., CLE. 
Alderman Sir Eobert W. Carden. 
Sir George H. Chambers. 
Sir Charles Clifford. Cannock. 
Sir William Collins. Glasgow. 
Sir John Coode. 



408 THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 

COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)— 
Alderman Sir Thomas Dakin. 
Sir Joseph Devereux. 
Sir Eichard Dickeson. 
Col. Sir Edmund F. Du Cane, K.C.B. 
Sir Andrew Pairbairn, M.P. 

Surg.-Gen. Sir Joseph Fayrer, K.C.S.L, M.D., LL.D., F.E.S. 
Sir Samuel Ferguson, Q.C., LL.D. Dublin. 
Col. Sir Charles Henry Firth, J. P., D.L. Heckmondwike. 
Sir T. Douglas Forsyth, C.B., K.C.S.L 
Sir Thomas G. Frost, J.P. Chester. 
Sir James Gell. Castleton. 
Sir John Hawkshaw, C.E., F.E.S. 
Sir Joseph Heron. Manchester. 
Sir Edward Hertslet, C.B., F.E.G.S. 
Sir Stuart Saunders Hogg. 

Sir Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.L, C.B., M.D., D.C.L., LL.D. 
Sir Edmund Hornby. 

Adm. Sir Edward A. Inglefield, C.B., F.E.S. 
Surg.-Gen. Sir Eobert W. Jackson, C.B. Dublin. 
Sir John J. Jenkins, M.P. 
Sir William Johnston. Edinburgh. 
Sir Thomas A. Jones. Dublin. 
Alderman Sir Henry E. Knight. 
Sir Edward Lee, F.S.A. 
Sir Frederic Leighton, LL.D., D.C.L. 
Sir John Lentaigne, C.B. Dublin. 
Sir Charles Lilley. Brisbane. 
Sir James D. Linton. 
Alderman Sir Wm. McArthur, K.C.M.G. 
Adm. Sir F. Leopold M'Clintock. 
Sir William Mac Cormac, P.E.C.S. 
Sir John-lies Mantell, J.P., F.E.G.S. Manchester. 
Sir James Marshall. 
Sir Walter H. Medhurst. 
Sir Oliver Nugent. Antigua. 
Sir Herbert Stanley Oakeley, LL.D., Mus. Doc. 
Sir George Maurice O'Eorke. Wellington. 
Sir Frederick Perkins. 
Sir John B. Phear. Exmouth. 
Sir George Phillips, F.E.G.S. 

Sir James AUauson Picton, F.S.A. , F.E.H.S. Liverpool 
Maj.-Gen. Sir F. Eichard Pollock, K.C.S.L 
Sir John Preston, J.P. Belfast. 
Maj.-Gen. Sir Henry C. Eawlinson, K.C.B., F.E.S. 
Sir Eobert Eawlinson, C.E., C.B. 
Sir Edward J. Eeed, K.C.B., F.E.S., M.P. 
Sir Edward Eeid. Londonderry. 



SUPPLEMENT. 409 

COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)— 
Sir John Watt Eeid, K.C.B. 

Adm. Sir George H. Eichards, C.B., F.E.S. ■ ■ 

Sir Francis E. Sandford, K.C.B. 
Col. Sir Herbert Bruce Sandford, E.A. 
Sir Wm. Chas. Sargeaunt, K.C.M.G. 
Sir Albert A. D. Sassoon, C.S.I. 
Sir Edwin Saunders, F.E.C.S., F.G.S. 
Sir C. F. Shand, LL.D. 
Sir Charles W. Sikes. Huddersfield. 
Sir Peter Spokes. 

Sir Edward WiUiam Stafford, K.C.M.G. 
Sir William Stawell. 
Sir John Steell. Edinburgh. 
Sir Eobert P. Stewart, Mus. Doc. 
Sir Arthur Sullivan, Mus. Doc. 
Sir David Tennant. 

Sir Henry Thompson, F.E.C.S., M.B., F.E.S. 
Sir William Thomson, F.E.S., LL.D., D.C.L. Glasgow. 
Gen. Sir Henry E. L. Thuillier, C.S.I., E.A. 
Sir Samuel Wilson, K.C.M.G. 
Sir Charles Elvers Wilson, K.C.M.G., C.B. 
Sir Henry Drummond Wolff, K.C.B., G.C.M.G. 
Sir WilHam Wright. Sigglesthorne, Hull. 
Sir WiUiam Hy. Wyatt, D.L., J.P. 
Sir Allen W. Young, C.B. 

Maj.-Gen. John E. Anderson, E.A., C.B. Edinburgh. 
Lieut. -Gen. F. W. Traill Burroughs, C.B. Eousay. 
W. B. Carpenter, Esq., C.B., M.D., LL.D., F.E.S., F.G.S. , F.L.S. 
Capt. Douglas Galton, E.E., C.B., D.C.L., F.E.S., M.Inat.M.E. 
Surg.-Gen. Charles A. Gordon, M.D., C.B. 
Algernon B. Mitford, Esq., C.B. 
George D. Eamsay, Esq., C.B. 
Lieut. -Gen. J. Clark Eattray of Craighall, C.B. 
Alexander Eedgrave, Esq., C.B. 
Capt. Eyre Massey Shaw, C.B. 
Edwin Arnold, Esq., M.A., C.S.I., F.E.G.S. 
Maj.-Gen. F. C. Cotton, E.E.., C.S.I. 
Eobert Anstruther Dalyell, Esq., C.S.L, F.S.S. 
George Baden Powell, Esq., C.M.G., M.A., F.E.A.S., F.S.S. , M.P. 
Dep. -Surgeon-General Norman Chevers, M.D., CLE. 
Maj.-Gen. Frederick Alexander. 
Maj.-Gen. Alastair M'lan Macdonald. Dalhousie. 
Col. G. Arbuthnot, E.A., J.P. 
Col. Fred. Beaumont, E.E. 
Col. C. B. Brackenbury, E.A. Waltham Abbey. 
Col. Hughes-Hallett, E.A., M.P. 
Col. W. W. Knollys, F.E.G.S. 



410 



THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 



COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)— 
Col. Henry Mapleson. 
Col. H. Van Straubenzee. 
Lieut. -Col. Heneage Charles Bagot- Chester. 
Lieut. -Col. James Hare. Winchburgh. 
Lieut. -Col. William Haywood, M. Inst.C.E. 
Lieut. -Col. Charles Bingham Paris. Liverpool. 
Lieut.-Col. P. A. V. Thurburn. 
Maj. E. W. Adderley. 
Maj. B. T. G. Anderson, J.P, 
Maj. A. G. Dickson, M.P. 
Maj. Alex. H. Boss, M.P. 
Capt. William de W. Abney, B.E., P.E.S. 
Capt. Granville Alexander, D.L., J.P. 
Capt. G. C. Armstrong. 
Capt. Geo. E. Price, E.N., M.P. 
Capt, Thomas TuUy. 

The President of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain. 
The Chief Eanger of the Ancient Order of Foresters. 
The President of the Anglo-Jewish Association. 
The President of the Antiquarian Society of Scotland. 
The President of the Architectural Association. 
The President of the Chemical Society. 
The President of the Clinical Society of London. 
The President of the Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club. 
The President of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion. 
The President of the Incorporated Society of British Artists. 
The President of the Institution of Civil Engineers. 

The Deputy Grand Master of the Supreme Council of Freemasons of England, 
Wales, and British Colonies, 



The Pres 
The Pres 
The Pres 
The Pres: 
The Pres: 
The Pres 
The Pres: 
The Pres 
The Pres: 
The Pres 
The Pres 
The Pres 
The Pres 
The Pres 
The Pres 
The Pres 
The Pres: 
The Pres: 



dent of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 

dent of the London Institute. 

dent of the Microscopical Society of London. 

dent of the National Health Society. 

dent of the Newspaper Press Fund. 

dent of the Odontological Society. 

dent of the Philological Society. 

dent of the Quekett Microscopical Society. 

dent of the Eoyal Academy. 

dent of the Eoyal Agricultural Society of England. 

dent of the Eoyal Canadian Academy of Arts (Toronto). 

dent of the Eoyal College of Surgeons. 

dent of the Eoyal Geographical Society. 

dent of the Eoyal Hibernian Academy. 

dent of the Eoyal Horticultural Society. 

dent of the Eoyal Institute of British Architects. 

dent of the Eoyal Institution. 

dent of the Eoyal Irish Academy. 



SUPPLEMENT. 411 

COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)— 
The President of the Eoyal National Lifeboat Institution. 
The President of the Eoyal Society of Painters in Water Colours. 
The President of the Society of Engineers. 
The President of the Society of Painters in Oil Colours. 
The President of the Society of Telegraph Engineers and Electricians. 
The Editor of " All the Year Bound" (London). 
The Editor of " The Antiquary" (London). 
The Editor of " The Architect " (London). 
The Editor of " The Army and Navy Gazette " (London). 
The Editor of " Berrow's Worcester Journal " (Worcester). 
The Editor of " The Bolton Evening Guardian " (Bolton). 
The Editor of " The Bolton Weekly Guardian" (Bolton). 
The Editor of " The Bradford Observer " (Bradford). 
The Editor of " The British Architect " (London). 
The Editor of " The British Quarterly Eeview " (London). 
The Editor of " The Builder " (London). 
The Editor of " The Bullionist " (London). 

The Editor of " The Cabinet Maker and Art Furnisher " (London). 
The Editor of " The Canterbury Press and County News " (Canterbury). 
The Editor of " The Cardiff Times " (Cardiff). 
The Editor of "The Carnarvon and Denbigh Herald" (Carnarvon). 
The Editor of " Chambers' Journal " (Edinburgh). 
The Editor of " The Chemical News " (London). 
The Editor of " The Colonial Trade Journal " (London). 
The Editor of " The Daily Telegraph " (London). 
The Editor of " The Daily Chronicle " (London). 
The Editor of " The Daily Eeview " (Edinburgh). 
The Editor of " The Darlington and Stockton Times " (Darlington). 
The Editor of " The Durham Chronicle " (Durham). 
The Editor of " The Elgin Courant and Courier " (Elgin), 
The Editor of " The Engineer and Iron Trades' Advertiser " (Glasgow). 
The Editor of " The Exeter and Plymouth Gazette " (Exeter). 
The Editor of " The Exeter Daily Telegram " (Exeter). 
The Editor of " The Farm and Home " (London). 
The Editor of " The Financial News " (London). 
The Editor of " The Folk Lore Journal" (London). 
The Editor of " The Freemason " (London). 
The Editor of " The Friendly Societies' Journal " (Sheffield). 
The Editor of "The Furniture Gazette " (London) . 
The Editor of " The Garden " (London). 
The Editor of " The Globe " (London). 
The Editor of "The Graphic " (London). 
The Editor of " The Hahfax Guardian " (Halifax). 
The Editor of " The Herald Cymraeg (Welsh Herald) " (Carnarvon). 
The Editor of " Herapath's Financial Journal " (London). 
The Editor of " The Holyhead Mail and Anglesey Herald " (Carnarvon). 
The Editor of " Household Words " (London), 



412 THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 

COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)— 
The Editor of " The Huddersfield Daily Chronicle" (Huddersfield). 
The Editor of " The Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News " (London). 
The Editor of " L'Ingenieur Universel" (London). 
The Editor of " Invention" (London). 
The Editor of " Iron " (London). 
The Editor of " The Ironmonger " (London). 
The Editor of " The Jewish Chronicle " (London). 
The Editor of " The Kidderminster Sun " (Kidderminster). 
The Editor of " The Labour News " (London). 
The Editor of " The Lancet " (London). 
The Editor of " The Leeds Mercury " (Leeds). 
The Editor of "The Leeds Times " (Leeds), 
The Editor of " Life " (London). 
The Editor of " The Live Stock Journal" (London). 
The Editor of " The Llandudno Eegister and Herald " (Llandudno). 
The Editor of " The London Figaro " (London). 
The Editor of " The London Medical Eecord " (London). 
The Editor of " The Londonderry Standard " (Londonderry). 
The Editor of " Longman's Magazine " (London). 
The Editor of " The Manchester Guardian " (Manchester). 
The Editor of " The Manchester Courier" (Manchester). 
The Editor of " The Manchester Evening Mail " (Manchester) 
The Editor of " The Manufacturer " (London). 
The Editor of " The Mark Lane Express " (London). 
The Editor of " The Merionethshire Herald " (Carnarvon). 
The Editor of " The Miller " (London). 
The Editor of " The Mining Journal " (London). 
The Editor of " The Morning Post " (London). 

The Editor of " The Newcastle Daily Chronicle " (Newcastle-on-Tyne). 
The Editor of " The North Middlesex Chronicle " (London). 
The Editor of " The .North Wales Guardian " (Wrexham). 
The Editor of " The Northern Whig" (Belfast). 
The Editor of " Notes and Queries "• (London). 

The Editor of " The Nottingham and Midland Counties Daily Express.' 
The Editor of " The Nuneaton Advertiser " (Nuneaton). 
The Editor of " The Observer" (London). 
The Editor of "PubHc Opinion " (London). 
The Editor of " Pump Court " (London). 
The Editor of "The Quarterly Journal of Science " (London). 
The Editor of " The Eeview " (London). 
The Editor of " The Eugby Advertiser " (Eugby). 
The Editor of " The Sanitary Eecord" (London). 
The Editor of " The Scarborough Evening News " (Scarborough 
The Editor of " The Scarborough Mercury " (Scarborough). 
The Editor of " The Scientific Eeview " (London). 
The Editor of " The School Board Chronicle " (London). 
The Editor of " The South Wales Daily News " (Cardiff), 



SUPPLEMENT. 413 

COUNCIL OF TFELCOME (continued)— 
The Editor of " The South Wales Echo " (Cardiff). 
The Editor of " The Southport Guardian" (Southport). 
The Editor of " The Sporting Life " (London). 
The Editor of " The Sportsman" (London). 

The Editor of " The Sportsman's and Tourist's Guide to Scotland " (London). 
The Editor of " St. Stephen's Review " (London). 

The Editor of "The Stratford-upon-Avon Chronicle" (Stratford-upon-Avon). 
The Editor of " The Tamworth Advertiser " (Tamworth). 
The Editor of " The Textile Recorder " (Manchester). 
The Editor of " The United Service Gazette " (London). 
The Editor of " The Volunteer Service Review " (London). 
The Editor of " The Wakefield Express " (Wakefield). 
The Editor of " The Wakefield and West Riding Herald " (Wakefield). 
The Editor of " The Western Daily Mercury " (Plymouth). 
The Editor of " The Westminster and Lambeth Gazette " (London). 
The Editor of " The Whitehall Review " (London). 
The Editor of "Woods and Forest" (London). 
The Editor of " The Worcester Daily Times " (Worcester). 
The Editor of " The World " (London). 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of London (1885). 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor-Elect of London (1885-6). 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of London (1884). 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of London (1883). 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of London (1882). 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of London (1881). 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of London (1872). 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of London (1871). 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of London (1858). 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of Dublin. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Provost of Edinburgh. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Provost of Elgin. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Provost of Glasgow. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Provost of Perth.. 
His Worship the Mayor of Bath. 
His Worship the Mayor of Beverley, 
His Worship the Mayor of Birmingham. 
His Worship the Mayor of Bradford. 
His Worship the Mayor of Cardiff. 
His Worship the Mayor of Chester. 
His Worship the Mayor of Coventry. 
His Worship the Mayor of Dover. 
His Worship the Mayor of Dudley. 
His Worship the Provost of Dundee. 
His Worship the Mayor of Exeter. 
His Worship the Provost of Greenock. 
His Worship the Mayor of Hull. 
His Worship the Provost of Inverness. 



414 THE AMEBICAN EXHIBITION. 

COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)— 
His Worship the Mayor of Kidderminster. 
His Worship the Mayor of Leeds. 
His Worship the Mayor of Limerick. 
His Worship the Mayor of Liverpool. 
His Worship the Mayor of Londonderry. 
His Worship the Mayor of Macclesfield. 
His Worship the Mayor of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
His Worship the Mayor of Newport, Men. 
His Worship the Mayor of Plymouth. 
His Worship the Mayor of Preston. 
His Worship the Mayor of Scarborough. 
His Worship the Provost and High Sheriff of Stirling. 
His Worship the Mayor of Swansea. 
His Worship the Mayor of Wigan. 
The President of the Batley Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Belfast Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Birmingham Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Bradford Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Cardiff Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Coventry Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Dublin Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Dudley Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Port of Falmouth Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Glasgow Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Gloucester Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Goole Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Greenock Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Halifax Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Huddersfield Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Jersey Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Kidderminster Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Leicester Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the London Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Macclesfield Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Newcastle and Gateshead Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Newport (Mon.) Chamber of Commerce. 
■ The President of the South of Scotland Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Southampton Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Stockton-on-Tees Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Warrington Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Waterford Chamber of Commerce. 
The President ot the Wolverhampton Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Worcester Chamber of Commerce. 
The President of the Cheshire Chamber of Agriculture. 
The President of the Cowbridge Farmers' Club. 



SUPPLEMENT. 415 

COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)— 
The President of the Derbyshire Dairy Farmers' Association. 
The President of the East Eiding of Yorkshire Chamber of Agriculture. 
The President of the Essex Chamber of Agriculture. 
The President of the Hampshire Chamber of Agriculture. 
The President of the Kendal Chamber of Agriculture. 
The President of the Maidstone Chamber of Agriculture. 
The President of the Monmouthshire Chamber of Agriculture. 
The President of the Newcastle Farmers' Club. 
The President of the Norfolk Chamber of Agriculture. 
The President of the South Wilts Chamber of Agriculture. 
The President of the Staffordshire Chamber of Agriculture. 
The President of the York Chamber of Agriculture. 
The President of the Warwickshire Chamber of Agriculture. 
Augustus B. Abraham, Esq. 

John G. Adair, Esq., D.L. Monasterevan (Ireland). 
•Cole A. Adams, Esq. London. 
William Eushton Adamson, Esq. Battle, Sussex. 
Daniel Adamson, Esq., M.Inst.C.E. Manchester. 
The Eev. Dr. Hermann Adler, Ph.D., M.A. London. 
Wm. Agnew, Esq., M.P. (Lancashire, Stretford). 
Wm. AUingham, Esq., F.E.S. London. 
W. Allison, Esq. London. 

Professor Geo. J. Allman, M.D., LL.D., F.E.S. London. 
Eev. Henry AUon. London, D.D., of Yale College, New Haven, Conn. 
William AUport, Esq. London. 
Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Esq., E.A. London. 
Sydney AUport, Esq. London. 
George Anderson, Esq., M.P. (Glasgow). 
William Anderson, Esq. London. 
J. C. St. Aubyn Angove, Esq., Mem. Law Soc. London. 
E. H. Appleton, Esq. Preston-on-Tees. 
Vincent Augustin Applin, Esq., M.LL.S. London. 
Professor T. C. Archer, F.E.S.E. 
John H. Arkwright, Esq. Leominster. 
Benjamin Armitage, Esq., M.P. (West Salford). 
T. E. Armitage, Esq., M.D. London. 
Henry H. Armstead, Esq., E.A. London. 
J. E. Astell, Esq. 

Eev. J. C. Atkinson, B.A. Grosmont, York, 
E. J. Atkinson, Esq. London. 
Professor John Attfield, F.E.S., F.C.S., &c. 
Professor W. E. Ayrton, F.E.S. London. 

Professor Charles C. Babington, M.A., F.E.S., F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. Cambridg^ 
The Eev. Churchill Babington, D.D. , F.L. S. , Y.P.E.S.L. Sudbury. 
John Bagot, Esq., J.P. Dublin. 
William A. Baillie-Grohmann, Esq., J.P. London. 
"William Bainton, Esq. Beverley. 



416 THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 

COUNCIL OF- WELCOME {contiaxied)— 
Benjamin Baker, Esq. London. 
Enoch Baldwin, Esq. 
Charles Ball, Esq., C.E. London. 
Hugh Balliughall, Esq., Provost of Dundee. 
S. B. Bancroft, Esq. London. 
Joseph Edge Banks, Esq. Coventry. 
James W. Barclay, M.P. (Forfarshire). 
Frederick S. Barff, Esq., M.A. Kilburn. 
James Barlow, Esq., J.P. Bolton, Lancashire. 
Thomas Oldham Barlow, Esq., E.A. London. 
William Henry Barlow, Esq., F.E. S. London. 

Thomas Barnes, Esq., J.P., D.L. Farnworth Cotton Mills, near Bolton, Lane. 
John Barran, Esq., J.P. Leeds. 
Wilson Barrett, Esq., Tragedian. London. 
V. B. Barrington-Kennett, Esq. London. 
John Wolff Barry, Esq. London. 

Professor Henry Charlton Bastian, M.D., F.E.C.P., F.E.S., F.L.S. London. 
W. W. B. Beach, Esq., M.P. (Hampshire, Andover). 
Professor Lionel Smith Beale, M.B., F.E.S., F.E.C.P. London. 
William E. Bear, Esq. London. 
John T. Bedford, Esq., H.M.L. 
H. Coppinger Beeton, Esq. London. 
Eichard C. Belt, Esq. London. 
The Eev. William Benham, B.D., F. S.A. London. 
F. Williams Benn, Esq. London. 
John Bennett, Esq. Goole. 
John Bennett, Esq. Waddon, Surrey. 
Francis Bennoch, Esq., F.S.A., F.E.S.L. London. 
George Berkley, Esq. London. 

William Henry Besant, Esq., M.A., D.Sc, F.E.S. Cambridge. 
W. T. Best, Esq. Liverpool. 
The Eight Eev. John William Bewick, D.D. 
The Very Eev. E. Bickersteth, D.D., F.E.G.S. 
E. W. Binns, Esq., F.S.A. Worcester. 
C. B. Birch, Esq., A.E.A. London. 
Eobert Bird, Esq. Cardiff. 
Charles Bishop, Esq. Tunbridge Wells. 
James Black, Esq. Glasgow. 

William Black, Esq., J.P., M.Inst.M.E. (Black, Hawthorn & Co.). Gateshead. 
Henry Blackburn, Esq. London. 
Eev. Beaver H. Blacker, M.A. Clifton. 
Professor John S. Blackie. Edinburgh. 
Charles W. Blake, Esq., M.E.C.V.S. London. 
Edward Augustus Bond, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A. London. 

Alfred J. Boult, Esq., Fel. Inst.P.A., M.E. (W. P. Thompson &Boult). London, 
The Eev. Wm. Boyce, M.A., F.E.G.S. London. 
The Eev. A. K. H. Boyd, D.D. Glasgow. . . 



SUPPLEMENT. 417 

COUNCIL OF WELGOltE (continued)— 
E. Lennox Boyd, Esq., F.S.A. Folkestone. 
K. Whelan Boyle, Esq. London. 
J. Brinton, Esq., M.P. Kidderminster. 
John Syer Bristowe, Esq., M.D., LL.D., F.E.S. London. 
Charles Broadbent, Esq. Warrington. 
William B. Brocklehurst, Esq. Macclesfield. 
William C. Brocklehurst, Esq., M.P. (Cheshire, Macclesfield). 
The Eight Eev. C. H. Bromby, D.D. Montford. 
The Eev. William Haig Brown, LL.D. Godalming. 
Chas. Brown, Esq. Chester. 

Eobert Brown, jun., Esq., F.S.A. Barton-on-Humber. 
Wm. E. Brown, Esq. Darlington. 
George B. Bruce, Esq. London. 
T. Lauder Brunton, Esq., M.D,, F.E.S. London. 
Wilham B. Bryan, Esq., M.I.C.E. London. 
James Bryce, Esq., M.P. (Aberdeen, South). 
Geo. Buchanan, Esq., M.D., F.E.S. London. 
J. C. Buckmaster, Esq., F.C.S. London. 

John BuUough, Esq. Accrington, Lancashire, and Meggernie Castle, Perthshire. 
Eobert D. Burnie, Esq. Swansea. 
John Burr, Esq. London. 

E. N. Buxton, Esq., M.P. (Essex, Walthamstow). London. 
Charles Louis Buxton, Esq. Marsham, Norwich. 
W. Pollard Byles, Esq. Bradford. 
Alfred Carpenter, Esq., M.D., M.E.C.P., J.P. Croydon. 

E. Carr, Esq. Wakefield. 

William Carruthers, Esq., F.E.S., F.L.S. London. 

Samuel Cartwright, Esq. London. 

Eobert Chambers, Esq. Edinburgh. 

Wilham Watson Cheyne, Esq., M.B., F.E.C.S. London. 

Ewan Christian, Esq. London. 

Bailie Clark, Esq. Edinburgh. 

J. Moir Clark, Esq. Wilmington (Delaware). 

F. N. Clarke, Esq., F.S.S. London. 
Leigh Clifford, Esq. London. 

T. Spencer Cobbold, Esq., M.D., F.E.S., F.L.S. 

Charles Cochrane, Esq. Stourbridge. 

Wentworth Lindsay Cole, Esq. London. 

John Coleman, Esq. Derby. 

Eugene Collins, Esq. 

Wilkie Collins, Esq. London. 

James C. Colvill, Esq. Eaheny. 

Wilham Cook, Esq., J.P. 

John Corner, Esq. London. 

Thos. Eussell Crampton, Esq. London. 

F. E. Crawshay, Esq., J.P. Pontypridd. 

C. N. CreBswell, Eisq. London. 

27 



418 THE AMEBICAN EXHIBITION. 

COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)— 
Geo. Anderson Critehett, Esq., M.A., F.E.C.S. London. 
The Eev. G. Cromwell, M.A. 
William Crookes, Esq., F.E.S. London. 
James Cropper, Esq., J.P., D.L. 
Francis W. Cross, Esq. Canterbury. 
Thomas Cunliffe, Esq. Bolton. 
Arthur T. Dale, Esq. London. 
Alfred Darbyshire, Esq. Manchester. 
H. Davey, Esq. Worcester. 
Israel Davis, Esq., M.A. London. 
S. Eutherford Davidson, Esq. London. 

Warren de la Eue, Esq., M.A., D.C.L., Ph.D., F.E.S. London. 
Alderman P. de Keyser. London. 
John Dent Dent, Esq. Wetherby. 

J. Bailey Denton, Esq., J.P., F.G.S., M.Inst.C.E. London. 
Brockwell Dalton, Esq. London. 
Edward Dicey, Esq. London. 
Charles Dickens, Esq. London. 
Lewis L. Dillwyn, Esq., M.P. (Swansea Town). 
Professor Dittmar. Glasgow. 
Fredk. A. Dixon, Esq. Ottawa, Canada. 
G. T. Dixon, Esq. Leeds. 
Joseph Dodds, Esq., M.P. (Stockton). 
Thomas Orme Dudfield, Esq., M.D. London. 
William Dudgeon, Esq. London. 
William Duncan, Esq. Durham. 
David Duncan, sen., Esq. Cardiff. 
William Dunham, Esq. London, 
W. Eassie, Esq., C.E. London. 
J. Treeve Edgcombe, Esq. London. 
Robert W. Edis, Esq., F.S.A., F.E.I.B.A. London. 
H. Sutherland Edwards, Esq. London. 
Arthur H. Evans, Esq. London. 
J, Evans, Esq. Carnarvon. 
G. A. Everitt, Esq., J.P. Birmingham. 
Louis Fagan, Esq. London. 
E. E. Farrant, Esq. London. 
The Eev. F. W. Farrar, D.D., F.E.S. London. 
Frank Fearneley, Esq. Kidderminster. 
Dr. Heinrich Felbermann. London. 
Wm. Ferguson, Esq., of Kinmundy, J.P. 
George P. Field, Esq., M.E.C.S. London. 
Eogers Field, Esq., B.A., M.Inst.C.E. London. 
Jos. Firth B. Firth, Esq., LL.B. London. 
John Fisher, Esq., J.P. Hull. 
Professor W. H. Flower, LL.D., F.E.S. London, 
John Forshaw, Esq., Mayor of Preston, 1884, 



SUPPLEMENT. 419 

COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)— 
G. Le Neve Foster, Esq., D.Sc. Llandudno. 
T. Nelson Foster, Esq. Gloucester, 
John Fowler, Esq. London. 
W. Fowler, Esq., formerly M.P. (Cambridge). 
Charles Douglas Fox, Esq. London. 

Professor E. Frankland, D.C.L., LL.D., M.D., F.E.S. London. 
W. E. Freir, Esq. London. 

Eichard Frewen, Esq. Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory, and London. 
Meadows Frost, Esq. Liverpool. 

Chas. John Galloway, Esq., J.P., M.Inst.M.E. Manchester. 
J. Garratt, Esq., J.P. Worcester. 
H. Simpson Gee, Esq. Leicester. 
John Hall Gladstone, Esq., Ph.D., F.E.S. London. 
W. W. Glenny, Esq., J.P. Barking. 
Edward W. Godwin, Esq. London. 

George Godwin, Esq., F.E.S., F.S.A., F.E.I.B.A. London. 
A. E. Goldie, Esq. Glasgow. 
G. Lawrence Gomme, Esq., F.S.A. London. 

D. N. Goodwin, Esq. Kidderminster. 
Frederick Gordon, Esq. Great Stanmore. 
Philip Gosset, Esq. Jersey. 

E. M. Gover, Esq., M.D., F.E.C.P. London. 
W. E. Gowers, Esq., M.D. London. 
Eichard Gowing, Esq. London. 

J. C.Grant, Esq. London. 

WiUiam Grantham, Esq., Q.C., M.P. (Croydon). 

The Very Eev. George Monro Grant, D.D. Kingston, Ontario ; Canada. 

J. P. Graves, Esq. Waterford. 

John Greenway, Esq. Plymouth. 

Eev. Eobert Gregory, M.A, London. 

W. M. Grylls, Esq. Falmouth. 

The Eight Eev. Matthew B. Hale, D.D. London. 

Charles Hancock, Esq., M.A. London. 

Geo. Harper, Esq. Huddersfield. 

Augustus Harris, Esq. London. 

Ernest Hart, Esq. London. 

Joseph Hatton, Esq. London. 

Thomas Hawksley, Esq., F.E.S. London. 

Charles H. Hawtrey, Esq. London. 

Jeremiah Head, Esq. (Fox, Head & Co.). Middlesbro'. 

Edward David Hearne, Esq., M.A., D.C.L. London. 

Professor C. W. Heaton, F.C.S. Charing Cross Hospital, London. 

Charles Heisch, Esq., F.C.S. 

John Snowdon Henry, Esq., J.P. (A. and S. Henry). Manchester. 

W. XJ. Heygate, Esq. Loughborough. 

Pantland Hick, jun., Esq. Scarborough. 

Alfred Hickman, Esq, Wolverhampton, 



420 THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 

COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)— 
Edward Hicks, Esq., formerly M.P. (Cambridge). 
George Hill, Esq. London. 
James L. Hill, Esq. Southampton. 

Isaac Holden,.Esq., D.L., J.P., M.P. (Yorkshire, W. E. North). Keighley. 
Thomas Holder^ Esq., J.P. (Chambers, Holder & Co.). Liverpool. 
Samuel Holland, Esq. 
John HoUingsheadj.Esq. London. 
J. Hopewell, Esq. Eugby. 
Manley Hopkins, Esq. London. 
His Honour Judge Hughes. Chester. 
Professor G. M. Humphry, M.D., F.E.S. Cambridge, 
Eobert Hutchinson, Esq., J.P., P.E.S.E. Caiiowrie. 
Walter Iliffe, Esq., P.E.C.S., Edin., L.F.P.S., Glasgow. Kendal. 
Cosmo Innes, Esq., M.Inst.C.E. London. 
Henry Irving, Esq. London. 
Saul Isaac, Esq., J.P. London. 
Thomas H. Ismay, Esq. Liverpool. 
Eobert Ives, Esq. Calthorpe, Norwich. 
W. L. Jackson, Esq., M.P. (Leeds, North). 
J. S. Jeans, Esq. London. 
Henry A. Jones, Esq. Chalfont St. Peter. 
John Wm. Jones, Esq. Newport, Mon. 
George Kenning, Esq. London. 

Eobert Kerr, Esq. Paisley, N.B., and East Newark, N.J., U.S. 
Eev. Dr. John Kinnear, D.D., formerly M.P. (Donegal). 
Joseph Knight, Esq. London. 
George Lambert, Esq. London. 
Isaac Latimer, Esq. Plymouth. 
John F. La Trobe-Bateman, Esq., F.E.S., C.E, 
E. A. Leatham, Esq., M.P. (Huddersfield). 
H. Lee, Esq. Manchester. 
Henry Lee, Esq. London. 
Eichard Lee, Esq. London. 
Maurice Lenihan, Esq., J.P. Limerick. 
Walter Hume Long, Esq., M.P. (Wiltshire, Devizes). 
Charles James Longman. London. 
Henry Lumley, Esq. London. 
J. Watson Lyall, Esq. London. 
E. S. D. Lyons, Esq., M.D. 
H. C. Macandrew, Esq. Inverness. 
Justin McCarthy, Esq., M.P. (Longford, North). 
James Macdonald, Esq. London. 
Patrick Macfadyen, Esq. London. 
Thomas Macknight, Esq. Belfast. 

John Gordon McMinnes, Esq., formerly M.P. (Warrington). 
Dep. -Inspector-General A. C. Macrae, M.D. London. 
Kobert McVicker, Esq., J.P. Londonderry. 



SUPPLEMENT. ' 421 

COUNCIL OFWELCOME (continued)— 
Philip Magnus, Esq. London. 
H. H. Marks, Esq. London. 
John Marshall, Esq., F.R.S., L.S.D. London. 
George Marsham, Esq., J.P., D.L. Maidstone. 
Eichard B. Martin, Esq., M.A., J.P. London. 
T. W. C. Master, Esq., formerly M.P. (Cirencester). 
W. Mather, Esq., M.P. Manchester. 
Henry Mitchell, Esq., J.P. Bradford. 

The Right Eev. James Moorhouse, D.D. Melbourne, Australia. 
John Morgan, Esq. Stratford-upon-Avon. 
J. T. Morgan, Esq. Leeds. 
Arnold Morley, Esq., M.P. (Nottingham, East). 
Malcolm Morris, Esq., F.E.C.S.E. London. 
Charles Moseley, Esq. (David Moseley & Sons). Manchester. 
Dep. -Inspector- General Frederick J. Mouat, M.D. London. 
Dr. Henry Muirhead. Glasgow. 
P. A. Muntz, Esq., M.P. (Warwickshire, Tamworth) 
Eichard J. Murphy, Esq. Glengeary, co. Dublin. 
Wilham Murrell, Esq., M.D., F.E.C.P. London. 
Ambrose Myall, Esq., Assoc. M.Inst. C.E. London 
The Eight Eev. Louis George Mylne, D.D. 
Joseph Naylor, Esq., J.P. Weston-super-Mare. 
George P. Neele, Esq. London. 
John Newton, Esq. Easingwold. 
Henry Willis Newton, Esq. Newcastle- on- Tyne. 
John Noble, Esq. Henley-on-Thames. 
Ernest Noel, Esq., M.P. (Dumfries Burgh). 
Perry Fairfax Nursey, Esq., C.E. London. 
Lucius E. O'Brien, Esq. Toronto. 
Denzil E. Onslow, Esq., formerly M.P. (Guildford). 
Charles Mark Palmer, Esq., M.P. (Durham, Jarrow). 
A. Villers Palmer, Esq. London. 
A. S. Palmer, Esq. Usworth, County of Durham. 
Charles Park, Esq. London. 
Henry Park, Esq., J.P. Wigan, 
William Parker, Esq. Batley. 
Howard Paul, Esq. London. 
Eichard Peacock, Esq. Manchester. 
John Pearson, Esq. Manchester. 
W. H. Pellow, Esq. Liverpool. 
John Pender, Esq. London. 
Geo. Penfold, Esq. London. 
W. H. Perkin, Esq., F.R.S., P.C.S. Sudbury. 
Charles N. P. Phipps, Esq., J.P. 
Alfred Pickard, Esq. London. 
John Pound, Esq. London. 
W. E. H. Powell, Esq., J.P., D.L., M.P. (Carmarthenshire, West). 



422 THE AMEBICAN EXHIBITION. 

COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)— 
George Zohrab Price, Esq. London. 

James Priestley, Esq. (B. Viekerman & Sons). Huddersfield. 
John Priestman, Esq. London and New York. 
Eobert Davies Price, Esq. Welshpool. 
John Henry Puleston, Esq., M.P. (Devonport). 
John Eae, Esq., M.D., LL.D,, F.E.S. London. 
David Eadclilfe, Esq. Liverpool. 
Wm. Eamsey, Esq. Cupar, Fife. 
J. Eamsbottom, Esq. Alderly Edge. 
H. W. Henniker Eance, Esq. London. 
James Eankin, Esq. London. 
T. W. Eeed, Esq. Leeds. 

Boverton Eedwood, Esq., F.C.S., F.I.C. London. 
E. Eenals, Esq. Nottingham. 

B. Windsor Eichards, Esq. Middlesboro'-on-Tees. 
James Eiley, Esq. Glasgow. 

Geo. C. Elvers, Esq. London. 

Thomas Perkin Eobinson, Esq. Wakefield. 

W. Eobinson, Esq., F.L.S. London. 

James Eock, Esq. Tonb ridge. 

Frederick E. Eoe, Esq. Wrexham. 

A. K. EoUit, Esq.,LL.D., D.C.L., F.E.A.S. Hull. 

Ei chard Eose, Esq. London. 

E. Euddock, Esq. Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Dr. William Howard Eussell. London. 

Peter Eylands, Esq., M.P. (Burnley). 

George Augustus Sala, Esq. London. 

Henry H. Sales, Esq. Manchester. 

Linley Sambourne, Esq. London. 

Henry B. Samuelson, Esq. London. 

Thomas S. Scarborough, Esq. Halifax. 

Professor Edward A. Shafer, F.E.S. London. 

C. P. Scott, Esq. Manchester. 

Samuel Smith Seal, Esq., M.I.L.S. London. 
Charles Seely, juu., Esq., J.P., D.L., M.P. (Nottingham, West). 
George E. Shepherd, Esq. London. 
Henry Simon, Esq. Manchester. 
Eev. Professor W. W. Skeat. Cambridge. 
John Slagg, Esq. Manchester. 
H. F. Slattery, Esq. London. 
T. Carrington Smith, Esq. Admeston. 
The Hon. Donald A. Smith. Montreal, Canada. 
Isaac Smith, Esq. Bradford. 
'Eonald Smith, Esq. Southport. 
James Somervell, Esq. Mauchline. 
Lieut. -Col. Thos. Sowler. Manchester. 
Charles E. Spagnoletti, Esq. London. 



SUPPLEMENT. 423 



COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)- 
Samuel Spalding, Esq., J.P. South Darenth. 

E. P. Spice, Esq., M.Inst.C.E. London. 

Ed. J. Stanley, Esq., M.P. (Somersetshire, Bridgewater). 

George Edward Stanley, Esq. San Francisco, Cal. 

Walte-r J. Stanton, Esq., J.P. 

H. H. Statham, Esq. London. 

T. Ballan Stead, Esq. Leeds. 

J. D. Steele, Esq., F.F.P.S., F.R.G.S. London. 

George Eobert Stephenson, Esq., C.E. 

Philip Stern, Esq. London. 

James Stewart, Esq., M.P. (Greenock). 

Alderman Samuel Storey, M.P. (Sunderland). 

J. Meliss Stuart, Esq. London. 

William Summers, Esq., formerly M.P. (Stalybridge). 

Thomas Sutherland, Esq., M.P. (Greenock). 

James Tait, Esq. Edinburgh. 

Richard Tangye, Esq. Birmingham. 

Arthur Tapp, Esq. London. 

J. Pridgin Teale, Esq., M.B., M.A., F.R.C.S. Leeds. 

William L. Thomas, Esq. London. 

Henry Thomson, Esq. London. 

Chas. Meymott Tidy, Esq., M.B. London. 

William Tipping, Esq., J.P., M.P. (Stockport). Sevenoaks. 

M. Tomkinson, Esq. Kidderminster. 

Albert S. Tomson, Esq. Coventry. 

A. Loftus Tottenham, Esq., M.P. (Winchester). 

Frederick Treves, ffsq., F.E.C.S. London. 

J. Henry Trewby, Esq. London. 

Tom Turner, Esq., J.P. Beverley. 

Professor John Tyndall, D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S. London. 

Eobert George Underdown, Esq. Manchester. 

William Valentine, Esq., J.P. Belfast. 

S. D. Waddy, Esq., Q.C. London. 

J. C. Wakefield, Esq., J.P. London. 

W. H. Wakefield, Esq. Kendal. 

James Wakley, Esq., M.D., M.E.C.S. London. 

L. Walker, Esq. Greenock. 

T. J. Walker, Esq. Halifax. 

Alfred Wallis, Esq., M.B., A.A. Exeter. 

William Warren, Esq. London. 

Alfred E. T. Watson, Esq. London. 

T. Lindsay Watson, Esq. Hawick. 

William Clarence Watson, Esq., F.E.G.S. London. 

Edwin Waugh, Esq. Manchester. 

H. Weaver, Esq. London. 

F. W. Webb, Esq. Crewe. 
John Weir, Esq. Glasgow. 



424 THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 

COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)— 
William H. Welsh, Esq. London. 
T. B. Whitefoot, Esq. London. 
John Eobinson Whitley, Esq. London. 
Joseph Whitley, Esq. Leeds. 
Thos. P. Whittaker, Esq. Scarborough. 
Mark Whitwell, Esq., J.P. Bristol. 
Alfred Wilcox, Esq. London. 
Josiah Wilkinson, Esq. Highgate. 
E. Crane Wilkinson, Esq. Exeter. 
C. Stanley Williams, Esq. Langton, Kent. 
Professor A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., F.E.S., LL.D. London. 
Wm. Hy. Wills, Esq. Blagdon. 
Edward Wilson, Esq. Greenock. 
Geo. F. Wilson, Esq., F.E.S., F.C.S., F.L.S. London. 
Thomas Wilton, Esq. Bath. 
Thomas Witherow, Esq., D.D. Londonderry. 
Gilbert Wood, Esq., F.E.G.S. London. 
Thomas Woodall, Esq. Dinham, Chepstow. 
Mr. Alderman Edward Woodhouse, J.P. Leeds. 
Edward Woods, Esq. London. 
E. F. Wyman, Esq. London. 
Charles Wyndham, Esq. London. 
Edmund Yates, Esq. London. 
Eobert Yellowlees, Esq. Stirling. 
E. D. Yelverton, Esq. London. 
Adolphus W. Young, Esq. Twyford. 
H. Young, Esq. Cleish, Kinross. 



CONTINENTAL COUNCIL OF WELCOME. 



Monsieur J. Bartholdi. Paris. 

Herr Eobert Bayer, Bregenz. Austria. 

Monsieur Edmund Bazire. Paris. 

Herr Karl Blind. London. 

Professor George Brandes, Ph.D. Copenhagen. 

Herr Max Bruch. Breslau. 

Professor Ludwig Biichner, M.D. Darmstadt. 

Professor William Camphausen. Diisseldorf . 

Monsieur Alphonse de CandoUe. Geneva. 

Professor Cesare Cantu. Milan. 

Monsieur Francis Charmes. Paris. 

Monsieur Jules A. A. Claretie. Paris. 



SUPPLEMENT. 425 

CONTINENTAL COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)— . 
Capt. F. Le Clerc. London. 
Professor Daniel Colladon. Geneva. 
Professor J. Conrad. Halle. 
Lieut. -Col. Descharmes. London. 
Monsieur M. Ernest Leon J. Desmarest. Dordogne. 
Professor August Dillmann, Ph.D., D.D. Berlin. 
Professor Johannes Diimichen. 
Herr Dr. E. Diimmler. Halle. 
Professor Dr. August Eisenlohr. Heidelberg. 
The Baron Erlanger. Paris. 
Professor Karl Elze, Ph.D., LL.D. 
Lieut. -Col. A. Fernandez Fret. London. 
Professor Kuno Fisher, Ph.D. Heidelberg. 
Don B. Perez Galdos. Madrid. 
Signer Alessandro Gavazzi. Eome. 
Monsieur Henry de Grelle. London. 
Monsieur Charles Francois Gounod. Paris. 
Signer Cavaliere Guglielmo Grant. Eome. 
Professor Ernst Hackel. Jena. 
Herr Alfred Hartmann, Solothurn. Switzerland. 
Dr. J. H. Von Hefner Alteneck. Munich. 
Professor Paul Heyse, Ph.D. Munich. 
Monsieur Jules Barthelemy-Saint-Hilaire. Paris. 
Monsieur Arsene Houssaye. Paris. 
Herr Dr. Kayserling. Budapest. 
Dr. Paul Lindau. Berlin. 
The Chevalier F. Krapf de Liverhoff. Loudon. 
Eev. Dr. Louis Loewe. Broadstairs. 
M. Hyacinthe Loyson (Father Hyacinthe). Paris. 
The Count Liitzov?^. London. 
H. S. J. Maas, Esq. London. 
His Excellency Don Marcial Martinez. 

Herr Oskar Meding (" Gregor Samarow "). Wohldenburg, Hanover. 
M. Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier. Paris. 
Professor Frederick Max Miiller. Oxford. 
M. Michael de Munkacsy. Paris. 

Monsieur Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Breau. Paris. 
Professor Dr. Julius Oppert. Paris. 
Monsieur Edmond de Pressense, D.D. Paris. 
Monsieur Felix Pyat. Saint Gratien, France. 
Monsieur Philippe Eicord. Paris. 
The Chevalier Leopold Von Sacher-Masoch. Leipzig. 
Monsieur Seydelmeyr. Paris. 

Dr. Heinrich Schliemann, F.S.A., M.E.I.B.A. Athens. 
Professor W. Schott, Ph.D. Berlin. 
His Eminence Cardinal Giovanni Simeoni. Eome. 
Monsieur Jules Simon. Paris. 



426 THE AMBBICAN EXHIBITION. 

CONTINENTAL COUNCIL OF WELCOME (continued)- 
Herr Friederich Spielhagen. Berlin. 
Monsieur Maurice Strakosch. Paris. 
The Baron B. Von Tauchnitz. Leipzig. 
Professor Arminius Vambery. Budapest. 
Monsieur Louis Gustave Vapereau. Paris. 
Captain I. Da Fouseca Vaz. London. 
General A. Vogeli-Bodmer. Zurich. 
Dr. Karl Vogt. Geneva. 
Professor G. Weil, Ph.D. Berlin. 



AMERICAN GENERAL COUNCIL. 



His Excellency the Governor of the Territory of Arizona. 

His Excellency the Governor of the State of Arkansas. 

His Excellency the Governor of the State of Connecticut. 

His Excellency the Governor of the State of Delaware. 

His Excellency the Governor of the State of Florida. 

His Excellency the Governor of the Territory of Idaho. 

His Excellency the Governor of the State of Kansas. 

His Excellency the Governor of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 

His Excellency the Governor of the State of Maryland. 

His Excellency the Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

His Excellency the Governor of the State of Minnesota. 

His Excellency the Governor of the State of Mississippi. 

His Excellency the Governor of the Territory of Montana. 

His Excellency the Governor of the State of Nebraska. 

His Excellency the Governor of the State of New Hampshire, 

His Excellency the Governor of the State of New Jersey, 

His Excellency the Governor of the State of Oregon. 

His Excellency the Governor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 

His Excellency the Governor of the State of Rhode Island. 

His Excellency the Governor of the State of Tennessee. 

His Excellency the Governor of the State of Texas. 

His Excellency the Governor of the State of Vermont. 

His Excellency the Governor of the Territory of Washington. 

His Excellency the Governor of the State of West Virginia. 

His Excellency the Governor of the State of Wisconsin. 

Member of Congress for Alabama. (Second District.) 

Member of Congress for Alabama. (Third District.) 

Member of Congress for Arkansas. (At Large.) 

Member of Congress for California. (At Large.) 



SUPPLEMENT. 427 

AMERICAN GENERAL COUNCIL (continued)— 
Member of Congress for California. (Third District.) 
Member of Congress for California. (Fourth District.) 
Member of Congress for Georgia. (Fifth District.) 
Member of Congress for Illinois. (Seventeenth District.) 
Member of Congress for lUinois. (Eighteenth District.) 
Member of Congress for IlHnois. (Nineteenth District.) 
Member of Congress for Indiana. (Twelfth District.) 
Member of Congress for Iowa. (Second District.) 
Member of Congress for Kansas. (At Large.) 
Member of Congress for Kansas. (At Large.) 
Member of Congress for Kansas. (At Large.) 
Member of Congress for Kansas. (First District.) 
Member of Congress for Kentucky. (Ninth District.) 
Member of Congress for Louisiana. (Fourth District.) 
Member of Congress for Maine. (At Large.) 
Member of Congress for Maryland. (First District.) 
Member of Congress for Maryland. (Sixth District.) 
Member of Congress for Massachusetts. (Fourth District.) 
Member of Congress for Massachusetts. (Tenth District.) 
Member of Congress for Michigan. (Eleventh District.) 
Member of Congress for Minnesota. (Second District.) 
Member of Congress for Mississippi. (Third District.) 
Member of Congress for Mississippi. (Sixth District.) 
Member of Congress for Missouri. (Ninth District.) 
Member of Congress for New Hampshire. (First District.) 
Member of Congress for New York. (Twenty-second District.) 
Member of Congress for New York. (Thirty-first District.) 
Member of Congress for New York. (Thirty-third District.) 
Member of Congress for North Carolina. (Sixth District.) 
Member of Congress for North Carolina. (Eighth District.) 
Member of Congress for Ohio. (Fourth District.) 
Member of Congress for Ohio. (Sixth District.) 
Member of Congress for Ohio. (Seventh District.) 
Member of Congress for Ohio. (Ninth District.) 
Member of Congress for Pennsylvania. (Eighth District.) 
Member of Congress for Pennsylvania. (Tenth District.) 
Member of Congress for Pennsylvania. (Eleventh District.) 
Member of Congress for Pennsylvania. (Nineteenth District. 
Member of Congress for Pennsylvania. (Twenty-second District.) 
Member of Congress for Pennsylvania. (Twenty-seventh District.) 
Member of Congress for South Carolina. (First District.) 
Member of Congress for Tennessee. (First District.) 
Member of Congress for Tennessee. (Tenth District.) 
Member of Congress for Texas. (Second District. ) 
Member of Congress for Texas. (Seventh District.) 
Member of Congress for Texas. (Tenth District.) 
Member of Congress for Virginia. (First District.) 



m THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 

AMERICAN GENERAL COUNCIL (continued)- 
Member of Congress for West Virginia. (Second District.) 
Member of Congress for Wisconsin. (Fourth District.) 
The Delegate from Arizona Territory. 
The Delegate from Washington Territory. 
The Delegate from Wyoming Territory. 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Baltimore (Md.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of Bay City (Mich.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Boston (Mass.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Bridgeport (Conn.), 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Cambridge (Mass.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Chicago (111.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Columbus (Ohio). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Des Moines (Iowa). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Dubuque (Iowa). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Elmira (N.Y.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of Fort Wayne, Allen Co. (Ind.).. 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Grand Eapids (Mich.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Harrisburg (Pa.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Hoboken (N. J.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Indianapolis (Ind.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Lancaster (Pa.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Louisville (Ky.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Lynn (Mass.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Milwaukee (Wis.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Minneapolis (Minn.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Newark (N.J.), 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of New Bedford (Mass.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Newport (Ky.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of New York (N.Y.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Norfolk (Va.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Oakland (Cal.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Oswego (N.Y.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Paterson (N.J.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Petersburg (Va.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Philadelphia (Pa.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Portland (Me.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Providence (E.I.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Eichmond (Va.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of San Francisco (Cal.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of St. Louis (Mo.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of St. Paul (Minn.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Sacramento (Cal.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of San Antonio (Tex.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Scranton (Pa.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Somerville (Mass.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Springfield (Mass.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Taunton (Mass.). 



SUPPLEMENT. 429 

AMERICAN GENERAL COUNCJL {continue^)— 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Terre Haute (Ind.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Trenton (N.J.). 

The Hon. the President of the Board of Commissioners of the City of Wash- 
ington (D.C). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Wheeling (W. Va.). 
The Hon. the Mayor of the City of Wilmington (Del.). 
Edward A. Abbot, Esq. Boston, Mass. 
Frank Abbot, Esq., M.D. New York. 
The Eev. Edward Abbot. Boston, Mass. 
Thomas Bailey Aldrich, Esq. Boston, Mass. 
Frank D. Allen, Esq. Boston, Mass. 
The Hon. Stephen M. Allen. Boston, Mass. 
Stillman Boyd Allen, Esq. Boston, Mass. 
Wm. E. Ailing, Esq. New York. 
The Hon. Oliver Ames. Boston, Mass. 
Col. A. Andrews. San Francisco, Gal. 

Clarence Andrews, Esq. New York, and Beaconsfield Club, London. 
Constant A. Andrews, Esq. New York. 
Capt. Nathan Appleton. Boston, Mass. 
The Hon. W. W. Astor. New York. 
Edward Atkinson, Esq. Boston, Mass. 
F. E. Atteaux, Esq. Boston, Mass. 
Henry Bacon, Esq. Paris. 
William K. Baker, Esq. Springfield, Mass. 
W. D. Baldwin, Esq. Washington, D.C. 
W. W. Baldwin, Esq. 
T. W. Barhydt, Esq. 

F. A. P. Barnard, Esq., D.D., LL.D. New York. 

E. J. Barney, Esq. 

G. W. Bartholomew, Esq. Hartford, Conn. 
Dervey Bates, Esq. London. 

William Baumbarten, Esq. New York. 

William H. Beers, Esq. 

Clark Bell, Esq. New York. 

Solon Spencer Beman, Esq. Chicago, 111. 

Henry Bergh, Esq. 

Albert Bierstadt, Esq., N.A. New York. 

A. L. Blackman, Esq. 

H. E. Bloomer, Esq. London. 

A. J. Bloor, Esq. New York. 

W. A. Blount, Esq. Pensacola, Fla. 

F. M. Boggs, Esq. Paris. 

The Hon. Alex. E. Boteler. Shepherdstown, West Virginia, 
George H. Broughton, Esq., A.E.A. London. 

G. Bouscaren, Esq., M.Am.Soc.C.E. Cincinnati. 
Oden Bowie, Esq. Baltimore, Md. 

C. B. Boyd, Esq. Wytheville, Va. 



430 THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 

AMERICAN GElSfERAL COUNCIL (continued) — 
James Thomas Boyd, Esq. San Francisco, Cal. 
Judge S. M. Breckinridge. St. Louis, Mo. 
S. W. Bretzfield, Esq. New York. 
Lyman Bridges, Esq. 
F. A. Bridgman, Esq. Paris. 
Isaac Britton, Esq. 

Enoch S. Brown, Esq. Brooklyn, N.Y. 
John G. Brown, Esq., M.N.A. New York. 
John Haskall Butler, Esq. Boston, Mass. 

E. A. Buck, Esq. New York. 

W. Masters Camac, Esq. Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Hon. Angus Cameron, U.S. Senator, La Crosse, Wis. 

The Hon. Henry W. Cannon. Washington, D.C. 

Gen. Charles A. Carleton. New York. 

Will Carleton, Esq. Brooklyn, New York. 

Thos. M. Carnegie, Esq. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Gen. J. B. Carson. Chicago, 111. 

Jerome Carty, Esq. Philadelphia, Pa. 

F. Chamberlain, Esq. Hartford, Conn. 
Parker C. Chandler, Esq. Boston, Mass. 
J. E. Childs, Esq. New York. 

Eliot C. Clarke, Esq. Boston, Mass. 

W. S. Chisholm, Esq. Savannah, Ga. 

Thos. C. Clarke, Esq. New York. 

Capt. Arthur H. Clark, Boston, Mass. 

The Hon. J. Eandolph Clay, U.S. London. 

S. L. Clemens, Esq. Hartford, Conn. 

Alexander Cochrane, Esq. Boston, Mass. 

A. B. Coffin, Esq. Boston, Mass. 

Gen. Charles H. T. CoUis. New York. 

John Esten Cooke, Esq. Boyce, Va. 

A. L. Coolidge, Esq. (Houghton, Coolidge & Co.). Boston, Mass. 

Professor Edward D. Cope. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Elmer L. CorthiU, Esq. New York. 

Alexander I. Cotheal, Esq. New York. 

The Hon. M. J. Cramer. Berne. 

The Hon. J. Schuyler Crosby. Washington, D.C. 

Ralph F. CuUinan, Esq. Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Hon. A. G. Curtin. Bellefonte, Pa. 

The Hon. George William Curtis, LL.D. West New Brighton, Staten Island. 

Charles H. Dalton, Esq. Boston, Mass. 

Charles P. Daly, Esq. New York. 

Professor James D. Dana, LL.D. New Haven, Conn. 

W. T. Dannat, Esq. Paris. 

Felix 0. C. Darley, Esq, Claymount, Del. 

Professor George Davidson, A.M., Ph.D. San Francisco, Cal. 

Professor Thomas Davidson, M.A. Boston, Mass. 



SUPPLEMENT. 431 

AMERICAN GENERAL COUNCIL (continued)— 
Lewis H. Davis, Esq. Chicago. 
Col. L. M. Dayton. Cincinnati, Ohio. 
W. E. Dean, Esq. San Francisco, Cal. 
J. S. Decker, Esq. New York. 
Tallmadge Delafield, Esq. New York. 
Hon. Alex. Del Mar. New York. 

John H. de Mott, Esq, (De Mott & Durant, Bankers and Brokers). New York. 
Chas. F. Dennet, Esq. Brighton, Eng. 
Joseph Derrick, Esq. London. 
J. W. Doane, Esq. Chicago, 111. 
Thomas Dolan, Esq. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Edward Bates Dorsey, Esq., Mem.Am.Soc.C.E. New York and London. 
Gen. Neal Dow. Portland, Me. 
W. A. Drake, Esq., M.Am.Soc.C.E. 
Chester A. Dresser, Esq. Southbridge, Mass. 
Joseph W. Drexel, Esq. New York. 
Thomas H. Dudley, Esq. New Jersey. 
John Ward Dunsmore, Esq. London. 
John L. Durant, Esq. (De Mott & Durant). New York. 
C. W. Durham, Esq., M.Am.Soc.C.E. New York. 
Capt. J. B. Eads. St. Louis, Mo. 
George R. Eager, Esq. Marietta, Ga. 
The Hon. Dorman B. Eaton. Washington, D.C. 
Thomas A. Edison, Esq. New York. 
James B. Edmonds, Esq. Washington, D.C. 
Hon. Wm. Edwards. Cleveland, Ohio. 
Walton White Evans, Esq. New York. 
Edward A. Farrington, Esq. New York and London, 
The Hon. W. B. Farwell. San Francisco, Cal. 
John. T. Ferguson, Esq. Memphis, Tenn, 
The Hon. T. W. Ferry. Michigan. 
Albert Fink, Esq. New York. 
Mark Fisher, Esq. Maidenhead. 
Col. Thomas Fitzgerald, Phila. , Pa. 
John Flintoff, Esq. New York. 
G. J. Foreacre, Esq. Atlanta, Ga. 
L. N. Fowler, Esq. London. 

Thomas Powell Fowler, Esq. (Dunning, Edsall, Hart, & Fowler). New York. 
James B. Francis, Esq. Lowell, Mass. 
Gen. W. B. Franklin. Hartford, Conn. 

Major-Gen. John Charles Fremont. New Brighton, Staten Island. 
The Hon. Henry F. French. Washington, D.C. 
Hon. Robert Froehlich. Manchester. 
0. B. Frothingham, Esq. Boston, Mass. 
The Hon. Robert W. Furnas. Brownville, Neb. 
Lyman J. Gage, Esq. New York. 
Albert Gallatin, Esq. San Francisco, Cal. 



432 THE AMEBICAN EXHIBITION. 

AMERICAN GENERAL COUNCIL (continued)— 
George Clinton Gardner, Esq. New York. 
J. G. Gates, Esq. London. 
J. Drew Gay, Esq. Eavena, Cal. 
Walter Gay, Esq. Paris. 

Geo. E. Ghiselin, Esq. Daggett, San Bernardino Co., Cal. 
The Hon. Addison C. Gibbs, LL.D. London. 
The Hon Eandall L. Gibson. U.S., New Orleans, La. 
William Aug. Gibson, Esq. London. 
Benj. J. Gifford, Esq. Eantoul, 111. 
John A. Gifford, Esq. New York. 
The Hon. Henry A. Gildersleeve. New York. 
C. F. Gillingham, Esq., M.D., M.E.C.S.E. Los Angeles, Cal. 
Col. Auguste H. Girard. New York. 
The Hon. G. W. Glick. Topeka. 
Thomas Gliddon, Esq. Eochester, N^Y. 
Samuel P. Godwin, Esq. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Benjamin A. Gould, Esq. Boston, Mass. 
Frederic Graff, Esq. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Eobert A. Grannis, Esq. New York. 
Simon Gratz, Esq. Philadelphia, Pa. 
George E. Gray, Esq. San Francisco, Cal. 

William Bullough Gray, Esq. (Howard, Bullough & Eiley). Boston, Mass. 
Henry C. Greeley, Esq. Boston, Mass. 
Maj.-Gen. Geo. S. Greene. New York. 
John E. Green, Esq. Louisville, Ky. 
Henry Greenebaum, Esq. New York, 
Col. James T. Griffin. London. 
James J. Grinnell, Esq. Greenfield, Mass. 
F. L. Griswold, Esq. Buenos Ayres. 
Dr. Egbert Guernsey. New York. 
M. F. H. De Haas, Esq., N.A. New York. 
John Habberton, Esq. New York. 
The Hon. John A. Haldeman. Bangkok. 
A. Oakey Hall, Esq. London. 
W. S. Hall, Esq. Chicago, 111. 
Clifton A. Hall, Esq. Providence, E.I. 

John A. Hambleton, Esq. (John A. Hambleton & Co., Bankers). Baltimore, Md. 
Chas. D. Hamill, Esq. Chicago, 111. 
Frank H. Hamilton, Esq. New York, 
Dr. Grseme M. Hammond. New York. 
Surg. -Gen. W. A. Hammond, M.D. New York. 

Maj.-Gen. Winfield S. Hancock, U.S.A. Governor's Island, New York. 
Professor Henry G. Hanks. San Francisco, Cal. 
George Harding, Esq. New York and Philadelphia, Pa. 
W. W. Harding, Esq. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Theodore Harris, Esq. LouisviUe. 
Edwin B. Hay, Esq. (Hancock, Hay & Griswold). Washington, D.C. 



SUPPLEMENT 433 

AMERICAN GENERAL COUNCIL (continued)— 
The Hon. John Hay. Cleveland, Ohio. 
Eowland Hazard, Esq. Peace Dale, K.I. 
George P. A. Healey, Esq. Paris. 
A. Hegewisch, Esq. New York. 
John J. Hemphill, Esq. Chester, S.C. 
W. J. Hennessy, Esq. Honiieur. 

Morris H. Henry, Esq., M.A., M.D., LL.D. New York. 
Gen. John Hewston. San Francisco, Cal. 
Dr. F. M. Hexamer. New York. 

Lewis B. Hibbard, Esq. New Orleans. , 

Rev. E, E. Higbee. Harrisburg. 

Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Esq. Cambridge, Mass. 
Jerome Hill, Esq. St. Louis, Mo. 
P. Hanson Hiss, Esq. Baltimore. 
Richard Hoffmann, Esq. New York. 
Col. W. W. HoUister. Santa Barbara, Cal. 
J. F. HoUoway, Esq. New York. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Esq. Beverly Farms, Mass. 
Augustus Hoppin, Esq. Providence, R.I. 
Professor E. N. Horsford. Cambridge, Mass. 
John C. Houk, Esq. Knoxville, Tenn. 
Bronson Howard, Esq. Detroit (Michigan). 
George W. Howe, Esq. Cleveland. 
H. P. Hubbard, Esq. New Haven, Conn. 
W. D. Hubbard, Esq. Hartford, Conn. 
Richard A. Hudnut, Esq. Broadway, New York. 
E. Aubrey Hunt, Esq. London. 
Thomas Sterry Hunt, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S. Montreal. 
W. P. Hunt, Esq. Boston, Mass. 
The Hon. C. P. Huntington. New York. 

D. Huntington, Esq., N.A. New York. 
W. E. Ingalls, Esq. Cincinnati, Ohio. 
James Jackson Jarvis, Esq. Rome. 

M. R. Jefferds, Esq., C.E. Galveston, Texas, and London, England. 

Morris K. Jesup, Esq. New York. 

Eastman Johnson, Esq., N.A. New York. 

W. E. Johnston, Esq., M.D. Paris. 

Evan R. Jones, Esq. Wisconsin, and Cardiff, S. Wales. 

Eben D. Jordan, Esq. Boston, Mass. 

Philip S. Justice, Esq. London and Philadelphia, Pa. 

Judge Wm. D. Kelley. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Edmund Kelly, Esq. Paris. 

E. H. Kendall, Esq. New York. 
Samuel H. Kennedy, Esq. New Orleans. 
Charles S. Keyser, Esq. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Maj. J. C. Kinney. Hartford, Conn. 
Joseph Kinsey, Esq. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

28 



434 TEE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 

AMERICAN GENERAL COUNCIL (continued)— 
Daniel Kirkwood, Esq., LL.D. Bloomington, Ind. 
Sherman W. Knevals, Esq. New York. 
The Hon. John Jay Knox. New York. 
William Kohl, Esq. San Erancisco, Cal. 
Wm. Lacy, Esq. Los Angeles, Cal. 
E. Lamb, Esq. Providence, E.I. 
Burnet Landreth, Esq. Bristol, Pa. 
The Hon. Elbridge J. Lapham. Canandaigua, N.Y. 
J. A. Latcha, Esq., M.Am.Soc.C.E. Toledo, Ohio. 
Augustus Layer, Esq. San Francisco, Cal., U.S. 
Judge Be Witt C. Lawrence. Washington, B.C. 
Joseph Le Conte, Esq., M.B. Berkeley, Cal. 
Lewis W. Leeds, Esq. London. 
M. D. Leggett, Esq. Cleveland, Ohio. 
Joseph Leidy, Esq., M.D., LL.D. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Charles G. Leland, Esq. London. 
Professor J. P. Lesley. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Hon. Eobert T. Lincoln. Chicago, 111. 
John E. Lionberger, Esq. St. Louis, Mo. 
Col. Eobert M. Littler. Chicago, 111. 
The Hon. L. J. Logan. Boston, Mass. 
Elias Loomis, Esq., LL.D. New Haven, Conn. 
Benson John Lossing, Esq., LL.D. Dover Plains, Duchess Co., N.Y. 
Col. C. A. Lounsberry. Bismarck, Dakota. 
H. Loutrel, Esq. New York. 
Col. Wm. H. Love. Baltimore. 
Maj. Garret J. Ly decker. Washington. 
Moses Lyman, Esq. Sandford, Orange Co., Pla. 
William J. MacAlpine, Esq. New York. 
The Hon. J. K. McCammon. Washington, D.C. 
Donald Macleay, Esq. Portland, Oregon. 
Leander McBride, Esq. Cleveland, Ohio. 
Cyrus H. McCormick, jun., Esq. Chicago, 111. 
Col. Mark L. McDonald. Santa Eosa, Cal. 
George Eoss McKenzie, Esq. New York. 
The Hon. J. H. McLean. St. Louis, Mo. 
General M. T. McMahon. New York. 
James McMillan, Esq. Detroit, Mich. 
Wm. McMillan, Esq. St. Louis, Mo. 
W. F. McNutt, Esq., M.D. San Francisco, Cal. 
Montague Marks, Esq. New York. 
C. C. Martin, Esq. Brooklyn. 
Edward Martin, Esq. New York. 
Geo. C. Mason, jun., Esq. Newport, E.I. 
Leonard Matthews, Esq. St. Louis, Mo. 
Hiram S. Maxim, Esq. London. 
David N. Melvin, Esq. Linoleumville, Staten Island, N.Yj 



AMEMGAN GENERAL COUNGIL (continued)— 
Lieut. -Col. George H. Mendell. San Francisco, Cal. 

A. Mitchell, Esq. Milwaukee, Wis. 

Donald Grant Mitchell, Esq., LL.D. (" Ik Marvel "). 

L. H. Mitchell, Esq. London. 

E< Morgan, Esq. Springfield, Mass. 

Charles O. Morris, Esq. (White, Morris, & Co^, Bankers). New York. 

Godfrey Morse, Esq. Boston, MasS; 

Hon. Leopold Morse, M;C. Boston, Mass.' 

John F, Moulton, Esq. Buffalo, N.Y. 

Henry Mosler, Esq. St. Cloud, France; 

Logan 0. Murray, Esq. New York. 

Thomas Nast, Esq. MorristowUj N.J. 

J. S. Newberry, Esq. New York. 

George B. Newcomb, Esq. New York< 

H. Victor Newcomb, Esq. New York. 

M. J. Newmark, Esq. Lyons, France. 

Maj.-Gen. John Newton, U.S.A. Washington, D.C, 

Henry J. Newton, Esq. New York. 

J. Howard Nichols, Esq. Boston, Mass. 

G. A. Nicolls, Esq. Beading, Pa. 

Joseph Nimmo, jun., Esq. Washington, D.C. 

W. E. Norton, Esq. London. 

James B. Osgood. Boston, Mass. 

Courtlandt Palmer, Esq. New York. 

Edwards A. Park, Esq. , D.D, Andover, Mass. 

Ernest Parton, Esq. London. 

William A. Paton, Esq. New York. 

H. W. Peabody, Esq. Boston, Mass. 

Charles Sprague Pearce, Esq. Paris. 

Hon. Henry B. Peirce. Boston, Mass. 

B. F. Peixotto, Esq. Lyons. France. 
George D. Maduro Peixotto, Esq. Paris. 
Mark P. Peixotto, Esq. Lyons, France. 

P, H. Philbrick, Esq., M.S., C.E. Iowa City. 

C. H. Phillips, Esq. San Luis Obispo, Cal. 
E, F, Phillips, Esq. St. Louis, Mo. 
Charles Phillips, Esq. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Professor Edward C. Pickering. Cambridge, Mass. 
W. L. Picknell. Parkstone, Dorset. 

Henry Evelyn Pierrepont, Esq. Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Evelyn Pierrepont, Esq. London. 
The Hon. Albert Pike. Washington, D.C. 
Anthony PoUok, Esq. Washington, D.C. 
Frank L. Pope, Esq. New York. 
Maj.-Gen. Fitz John Porter. New York. 
Orville W. Powers, Esq. London. 
Adolph Proskauer, Esq. Mobile, Ala. 



436 THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 

AMERICAN GENERAL COUNCIL (continued)^ 
Eastus S. Eansom, Esq. New York. 
Samuel H. Eathbone, Esq. New York. 
The Hon. Dwight T. Eeed. Madrid. 
Whitelaw Eeid, Esq. New York. 
Hon. Alexander H. Eice. Boston, Mass-. 
Col. John Hamilton Eice. Boston, MasSi 
John Morgan Eichards, Esq. London; 
Gen. E. H. Eipley. Eutland, Vt: 
Col. A. F. Eockwell. Washington^ JD.C-. 
Capt. J. F. Eodgers. Washingtonj D.C; 
John Eogers, Esq. New York. 
The Hon. Theodore Eoosevelt. New York City^ 
William H. Eoss, Esq. New York. 

Vice-Admiral Stephen C. Eowan, U.S.N. Washington, B.C. 
Col. Henry Stm'gis Eussell. Boston, Mass. 
The Hon. H. S. Sanford. Berlin. 
Prof. Charles S. Sargent. Brookline, Mass. 
John S. Sargent, Esq. Paris. 
The Hon. Philetus Sawyer. Oshkosh, Wis. 
Philip Schaff, Esq., D.D., LL.D. New York. 
Irving M. Scott, Esq. San Francisco, Cal. 
W. H. Secor, Esq. New York. 
Clarence A. Seward, Esq. New York. 
Gen. Alexander Shaler. New York. 
E. S. Sheffield, Esq. Santa Barbara, Cal. 
E. L. Sheldon, Esq. London. 
George E. Sherman, Esq. Port Henry, N.Y. 
Gen. Thomas Sherwin. Boston, Mass. 
Edward Shippen, Esq. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Frank Hill Smith, Esq. Boston, Mass. 
Geo. Putnam Smith, Esq. New York. 
Lloyd P. Smith, Esq. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Milton H. Smith, Esq. Louisville, Ky. 
John Gilmer Speed, Esq. New York. 
Thomas A. Speed, Esq. Louisville, Ky. 
Thomas W. Spencer, Esq. Albany, N.Y, 
Henry M. Stanley, Esq. London. 
The Hon. Edgar Stanton. St. Petersburg. 
Theodore Stanton, Esq. Boston, Mass. 

D. McN. Stauffer, Esq. New York. 
Simon H. Stern, Esq. New York. 
Simon Sterne, Esq. New York. 
Alfred Stone, Esq. Providence, E.I. 
David M. Stone, Esq. New York. 

Eussell Sturgis, Esq. (Baring Bros. & Co., London). Leatherhead.- 

E. H. Talbott, Esq. Chicago, 111. 

Col. Stuart Taylor. San Francisco, Cal. 



SUPPLEMENT. 437 

AMERICAN GENERAL COUNCIL (continued)— 
Wm. H. Thomson, Esq. St. Louis, Mo. 
Eev. E. P. Thwing, Ph.D. Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Dr. J. A. Tonner. New York. 
Major Ben C. Truman, Esq. San Francisco, Cal. 
James C. Truman, Esq. Binghampton, N.Y. 
The Hon. Charles K. Tuokerman. Paris. 
C. G. Turner, Esq. New York. 
Theo. N. Vail, Esq. Boston, Mass. 
P. H. Van Der Weycle, Esq., M.D. New York, 
Gen. Egbert L. Viele. New York. 
John A. L. Waddell, Esq. Tokio, Japan. 
William H. Wallace, Esq. New York. 
Thomas U. Walter, Esq., LL.D. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Gratiot Washburne, Esq. Chicago. 
Leander Water bury, Esq. New York. 
S. Waterhouse, Esq., Ph.D., LL.D. St. Louis, Mo. 
George H. Watrous, Esq. New Haven, Conn. 
The Hon. J. Eiley Weaver. Vienna. 
Gen. Alex. S. Webb. New York. 
J. J. Wedgwood, Esq., M.D., D.D.S., L.D.S. London. 

E. L. Weeks, Esq. Paris. 
John Weir, Esq. London. 

L. C. Weir, Esq. Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Henry S. Welcome, Esq. London. 
James Wemyss, jun., Esq. Boston, Mass. 
Joseph E. West, Esq. Washington, D.C. 
The Hon. Byron Weston. Dalton, Mass. 
G. F. Wetherbee, Esq. London. 
George H. Wheeler, Esq. Chicago, 111. 
James McNeal Whistler, Esq. London. 

F. M. White, Esq. Memphis, Tenn. 
D. J. Whitney, Esq. New York. 

John Greenleaf Whittier, Esq. Amesbury, Mass. 

Thos. H. Williams, Esq. San Francisco, Cal. 

Gen. Jas. Grant Wilson. New York. ' 

Joseph M. Wilson, Esq., A.M.C.E. Philadelphia, Pa. 

De Volson Wood, Esq. Hoboken, N.J. 

T. W. Wood, Esq., N.A. New York. # 

Col. C. W. WooUey. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Eear-Admiral John L. Worden, U.S.N. Washington, D.C. 

Col. Carroll D. Wright. Boston. 

Professor Thomas Yeatman. Paris. 

H. M. Yerington, Esq. Carson City, Nev. 

Gen. James E. Yonge. Pensacola, Fla. 

J. Henry Zeilin, Esq. Philadelphia, Pa. 



438 



THE AMEBICAN EXHIBITION. 



COMMISSIONERS APPOINTED BY THE GOVEENOES TO REPRESENT THEIR RESPECTIVE 
STATES AT THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION, LONDON. 

California - - - - A. ANDREWS, of San Francisco. 

Colorado .... NOEL MAY, of Denver. 

Georgia - . . . . THOMAS P. STOVALL, of Atlanta. 

Idaho P. J. KINNEY, of Boise City. 

Kansas EEEDEEICK COLLINS. 

Louisiana- . - . . SAMUEL P. BLANC, of New Orleans. 

„----- JAMES T. GRIFFIN, of London, Eng. 

Maine - - - - - - J. B. HAM, of Lewiston. 

Maeyland J. THOMAS SCHARF, of Baltimore. 

Michigan - - - - - . F. W. NOBLE, of Detroit. 

Minnesota - - - - W. D. WASHBURN. 

Montana JOHN E. KENNEDY, of Blatchford. 

Nebeasea - - . - W. F. CODY, of North Platte. 

Nevada W. M. HAVENER, of Reno. 

New Jersey .... WM. S. TAYLOR, of Burlington. 

New Mexico - - . - W. B. SLOAN, of Santa Fe. 

Noeth Carolina - - . P. M. WILSON, of Raleigh. 

Oeegon E. W. ALLEN, of Portland. 

Pennsylvania - - - - J. G. DITMAN, of Philadelphia. 

Rhode Island ... - MARK H. WOOD, of Barrington Centre. 

South Caeolina - - - A. P. BUTLER, of Columbia. 

Tennessee - - - - L. B. McWHIRTER, of Nashville. 

Texas S. J. T. JOHNSON, of Corsicana. 

Vermont ----- JOHN B. MEAD, of Randolph. 

Virginia E. B. MOON, of Richmond. 



CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN GOVERNOR T. M. WALLER, UNITED 
STATES CONSUL-GENERAL IN LONDON, AND MR. JOHN E. WHIT- 
LEY, DIRECTOR-GENERAL OF THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION 
(LONDON). 

Consulate -Geneeal op the United States of Ameeica, 

London, December 17, 1885. 
To John Robinson Whitley, Esq., 

Director-General, 

American Exhibition, London. 
Sir, — I beg you to express to the Executive Council of the American Exhibi- 
tion in London my appreciation of the compliment implied in my nomination 
as an Honorary Vice-President, and my regrets that my position as Consul- 
General will prevent my acceptance, until the State Department at Washington 
(if such action is thought unadvisable) has had an opportunity to so instruct 
me. In this connection I hope you will pardon me for repeating the advice I 
have already given you in relation to the time of holding the proposed Exhibi- 
tion. I am led to do this, not only in the interest, as I think, of the undertaking 



SUPPLEMENT. 439 

you and your colleagues are so earnestly labouring to promote, but as a duty I owe 
to American producers and manufacturers who desire and expect to participate 
in it. While I believe that an American Exhibition in London, if opportunely 
held, will advance the commercial relations of both England and America, I am 
convinced, from frequent interviews I have had on the subject with leading men 
of these countries, that the holding of two great Industrial Exhibitions — the 
Colonial and Indian and the American — simultaneously in London, in 1886, 
would be unfortunate for either one or the other, and very likely for both, and 
that it is to be hoped that the American Exhibition, as a matter of pohcy, as 
well as of courtesy, will be postponed until 1887. 

The 1886 Colonial and Indian Exhibition is to close, I understand, a series of 
National Industrial Exhibitions, inaugurated by His Eoyal Highness the Prince 
of Wales, and was projected, and its preliminary work entered upon, long before 
the organisation of the Exhibition that you represent ; if this be so, this cir- 
cumstance, I submit, as between the two Exhibitions, entitles the former to 
preference in the order of events. Besides, the Colonial and Indian Exhibition 
so peculiarly appeals to the pride and attention of tl;e English people, that no 
Exhibition of a like character should, in my judgment, be opened at the same 
time, which would tend to divert that attention, or in any way compete for it. 
The good feeling now existing in England and America towards the American 
Exhibition, and the satisfaction that is felt with the character of its manage- 
ment, will, I am sure, be increased by the postponement suggested. For 
although the Exhibition is not to be controlled or directed by Governmental 
authority, still the postponement of it for a year would, I think, in consideration 
of the circumstances, be esteemed on both sides of the Atlantic as an act 
approaching to the dignity of an international courtesy. 

Wishing you and your colleagues success in whatever action your better judg- 
ment may direct you to take in the matter about which I have written, 

I am, very truly yours, 

THOMAS M. WALLEE. 

The Amebican Exhibition (London, 1886), 

City Offices: 7, Poultey, London, E.G., 

December 21, 1885. 
The Hon. T. M. Wallee, 

Consul-General of the United States, 
London. 
Sir, — I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 17th instant, the 
contents of which are having the careful consideration of my Executive Council. 
We have recently become aware of the existence of a growing desire among 
Americans and Englishmen that the American Exhibition be not held before 
1887, so as to remove all apprehension that the holding of the Colonial and 
Indian Exhibition and the American Exhibition concurrently would, for the 
reasons specified by you, be the reverse of expedient. 

Whatever be the decision which we may come to, I desire to express to you the 
thanks of my colleagues and of myself for the information furnished, and for 
the spirit which led to your kindly assuming the role of a friendly intermediary 
in this important matter. 



440 THE AMERICAN EXHIBITION. 

At interviews which His Excellency, the Hon. E. J. Phelps, United States 
Minister to Great Britain, has honoured me with, on the subject of your com- 
munication, I must confess that I have been deeply imiDressed by His Excellency's 
strong concurrence in the consensus of opinion which you have been kind enough 
to convey to me. 

I am, yours very truly, 

JOHN R. WHITLEY, 
Director-General of the American Exhibition. 

The Amekican Exhibition (London, 1886), 

City Offices : 7, Poultry, London, E.G., 

January 6, 1886. 
The Hon. T. M. Wallee, 

United States Consul-General, London. 
SiE, — Confirming my communication to you of the 21st ultimo, and adverting 
to the subsequent conversations we have had upon the expediency of not open- 
ing the American Exhibition in London until 1887, I beg to inform you that, in 
view of the counsel kindly given by the Hon. E. J. Phelps and yourself (so 
strongly endorsed by several of the most distinguished American citizens 
residing in this country, and by representative Englishmen), my Executive 
Council have decided that the American Exhibition is not to be opened until 
May 2, 1887. 

It was considered unwise by my Executive Council to run counter to sugges- 
tions emanating from such high authorities as those who have so warmly, 
and we are sure sincerely, advocated the holding of the American Exhibition 
next year. 

To all of us who have at heart the success of the American Exhibition, it is 
of the highest importance that, in an undertaking of this magnitude, the Execu- 
tive endeavour to meet the views, as far as possible, of the greatest number, and 
especially of those who are, as it were, our hosts, and there can be no doubt that 
our decision will result, as anticipated by the Hon. E. J. Phelps, yourself, and 
others, in enhancing the cordiality of feeling towards the first exclusively 
American Exhibition held beyond the limits of the national territory. 
I am, yours very truly, 

JOHN E. WHITLEY, 
Director-General of the American Exhibition. 



AWAEDS TO EXHIBITOES. 



Early in September, 1887, the Executive Council of the American Exhibition 
requested a committee to examine carefully the various exhibits on view, and 
select those of sufficient merit to deserve a certificate of award or diploma. This 
committee was composed as follows : — 

Mr. John E. Whitley, London. 

Mr. John Gilmer Speed, New York, 

Mr. Vincent A. Applin, London. 

Prof. A. E. Foote, Philadelphia, Pa. 



SUPPLEMENT. 441 

Mr. George Mills, Nev York. 

Mr. F. W. Sargent, Boston, Mass. 

Mr. D. E. Keating, Mt. Pleasant, Providence, E.I. 
This committee met promptly, and adopted rules to regulate their action in 
deciding what exhibits should be awarded diplomas. These rules were very 
simiDle, but at the same time comprehensive. They decided that exhibits not 
American, i.e., not originating in the United States, or not being products or 
manufactures of the United States, should not be considered at all. This being 
determined, the committee decided to be guided by the following considerations : — 

1. Novelty. 

2. Utility. 

3. Commercial value. 

4. Excellence of workmanship. 

5. Educational importance. 

The Secretary of the Exhibition, at the request of the committee, sent to the 
exhibitors forms to be filled up, showing the claims which each exhibitor con- 
sidered he possessed to entitle him to receive a diploma under these regulations. 
Many of the exhibitors filled up these forms at once and returned them. The 
committee decided not to consider any claims after Thursday, October 20th. 

As the result of the committee's work. Diplomas were awarded to the following 
Exhibitors : — 

Adams & Westlake Manufacturing Co., Chicago, 111. — For oil and lamp stoves. 

Alsing, J. E., New York. — For a machine constructed to reduce substances to 
a fine powder or pulp. 

Amberg, Cameron & Co., New York and Chicago. — For a particularly rapid 
and convenient method of filing letters and papers. 

American Braided Wire Co., Philadelphia. — For an important improvement 
in pillows and mattresses. 

American Machine Co., Philadelphia, Pa. — For household machines. 

American Eubber Co., Boston, Mass. — For rubber boots, shoes, and clothing 

American Steam Gauge Co., Boston, Mass. — For steam pressure gauges. 

American Wine Co., St Louis, Mo. — For champagne, claret. Burgundy, and 
Catawba. 

Arizona Copper Mining & Smelting Co., Clifton, Arizona. — For azurite, mala- 
chite, and other copper ores. 

Armour Canning Co., Chicago. — For canned meats. 

Atlantic Cotton Mills, Lawrence, Mass. — For brown and bleached sheetings 
and shirtings of superior manufacture. 

Autocopyist Co., New York. — For the " Autocopyist," a simple and effective 
apparatus for reproducing in fac-simile any desired writing or drawing. 

Ayer, Mrs. Harriet Hubbard, New York. — For Eecamier cream. 

Bailey, C. J., & Co., Boston, Mass. — For a good, low-priced hand sewing 
machine. 

Bailey Wringing Machine Co., Woonsocket, E.I. — For wringing machines. 

Baker, Walter, & Co., Boston, Mass. — For chocolate preparations of great 
purity and excellence. 

Barker, Bradley, & Co., Alleghany City, Pa.— For the " Stott " patent auto- 
matic gas governor. 



442 THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 

Barnard & Leas Manufacturing Co., Moline,Ill.— For oat and weed separator, 
smutter and double-brush machine. 

Barnett, G. & H., Philadelphia, Pa. — For a display of machine-made files, 
rasps, etc., of the "Black Diamond" brand. 

Batchelor Sons & Co., Wallingford, Vt. — Elastic, cast steel, hay, manure, and 
spading forks with ash handles. 

Baugh & Sons, Philadelphia, Pa. — For animal charcoal, glue. Neat's foot oils, 
animal oils, and grease made by the naphtha process. 

Baugh & Sons, Philadelphia, Pa. — For bone fertilizers, azolin and other 
animal ammoniates and sulphate of ammonia. 

Beethoven Piano-Organ Co., Washington, New Jersey. — For cabinet organs. 

Beethoven Piano-Organ Co., Washington, Warren Co., N.J. — For furniture 
frames. 

Bergner & Engel Brewing Co., Philadelphia, Pa. — For beer, stock ale, pale 
ale, porter, and brown stout. 

Berlin Machine Works, Berlin, Wis. — For a novel and useful wood-polishing 
machine for smoothing curved surfaces. 

Berlin Machine Works, Berlin, Wis. — For a machine for sand-papering and 
polishing plain boards or slabs. 

Berlin Machine Works, Berlin, Wis. — For a combined planing and polishing 
machine in wood working. 

Betteley & Wolf, Philadelphia, Pa. — For a safe and useful automatic coupling 
for railroad cars. 

Bickford & Huffman, Macedon, N.Y. — For an excellent seed and fertilizer 
driU. 

Bickmore Self-levelling Ship's Berth Co., Boston, Mass. — For self -levelling 
berth. 

Bien, Julius, New York. — For a geological map of the United States of scien- 
tific and practical importance. 

Bissell Carpet Sweeper Co., Grand Eapids, Mich. — For a praiseworthy ex- 
hibit of carpet sweepers. 

Bristol Pump Co., Bristol, E.I. — For a positive, direct acting, and durable 
pump. 

Brooke, Benjamin, & Co., Philadelphia, Pa.^ — For " Brooke's Soap," Monkey 
Brand, a superior article for cleaning and polishing metals, glass, and 
marble. 

Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing Co., Providence, E.I. — For accuracy and high 
standard of workmanship in micrometers, vernier callipers, vernier gauges, 
steel rules, quadrants, etc. 

BuUard Eepeating Arms Co., Springfield, Mass. — For repeating and single 
shot rifles for military, sporting, and target purposes. 

Burroughs, Wellcome & Co., New York. — For Congo medicine chests, valoid 
fluid extracts, and hypodermic pocket-cases. 

Burroughs, Wellcome & Co., New York. — For Kepler's solution of cod liver 
oil in extract of malt. 

Bush, Thomas J., Lexington, Kj. — For an economical, safe, and permanent 
rail-boat and gauge. 

Carter, J., & Co. — For lawn grass seeds, Calif ornian annuals, tobacco, etc. 



SUPPLEMENT. 443 

Castle Carpet Sweeper Co., Geneva, Ohio. — For the " Crescent," the best 
carpet sweeper. 

Chadborn & Coldwell Manufacturing Co., Newburgh, N.T. — For the best lawn- 
mowers for horse or hand power. 

Chambers, Bro. & Co., Philadelphia. — For a perfect brick machine. 

Charter, Gait & Tracy, Sterling, 111. — For the Charter gasoline engine, a 
simple, compact, economical, and reliable motor. 

Cbeal & Sons. — For American trees and shrubs. 

Cheseborough Manufacturing Co., New York. — For vaseline and preparations 
of vaseline. 

Chicago and North-Western Eailroad. — For an exhibit of vegetable and 
mineral productions from their lands. 

Chicopee Manufacturing Co., Chicopee Falls, Mass. — For the best brown and 
bleached cotton flannels. 

Cocheco Manufacturing Co., Dover, N.H. — For printed cottons of superior 
design and finish. 

Colgate & Co., New York. — For "Cashmere Bouquet Soap," unexcelled in 
quality and fragrance. 

Columbia Type Writer Co., New York. — For the best type writer of low price 
and convenient form. 

Copper Queen Mining Co., Bisbee, Arizona. — For copper ores. 

Coxe, Eckley B., Drifton, P. 0., Luzerne Co., Pa. — For anthracite coal. 

Crescent City Cutlery Works, New Orleans, La. — For fine cutlery of superior 
quahty and finish. 

Crompton Loom Works, Worcester, Mass. — For a fancy worsted loom, com- 
bining simplicity, speed, and economy. 

Crompton Loom Works, Worcester, Mass. — For a rapid ingrain carpet loom, 
with a great capacity for colouring, design, and economical production. 

Crompton Loom Works, Worcester, Mass. — For a new Moquette or Oriental 
carpet loom, which economises cost of manufacture. 

Curtis, S. A., & Co., New York. — For Indian corn, utilized for decorative and 
ornamental purposes. 

Dana, Tucker & Co., Boston, Mass. — For Lancaster ginghams of good design 
and permanency of colour. 

Davis Vertical Sewing Machine Co., Watertown, N.Y. — For the best domestic 
sewing machine. 

Detroit Emery Wheel Co., Detroit, Mich. — For an improvement in construc- 
tion of emery wheels. 

Dodge Manufacturing Co., Mishawaka, Ind. — For split wood pulleys. 

Domestic Sewing Machine Co., New York. — For a light-running domestic 
sewing machine and handsome cabinet cases. 

Dougherty Eailway Equipment Co., Philadelphia. — For a positive and effective 
safety signal. 

Dougherty Eailway Equipment Co., Philadelphia.^For a metallic cushioned 
sleeper, as reducing strains on railway bridges by compensating vibration. 

Dougherty Eailway Equipment Co., Philadelphia, Pa. — For an excellent 
cable tramway, combining simplicity and economy of working, with great dura- 
bility. 



444 THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 

Douglas, W. & B., Middletown, Conn. — For patent lift and force pumps, 
hydraulic rams, etc. 

Downer Boiler Incrustation Preventive Co., San Francisco, Cal. — For the 
eucalyptus boiler fluid. 

Electric Gas Lighting Co., Boston, Mass. — For electric gas lighters, bells, an- 
nunciators, burglar alarms, etc. 

Emerson Albumenoid Food Co., New York, N.Y. — For " Albumenoid Food," 
a carefully and accurately prepared food for infants and invalids. 

Enterprise Manufacturing Co., Philadelphia, Pa. — For meat chopper and 
mincing machines. 

Errico, Salvatore, New York. — For manufactured jewelry. 

Estate of A. Weber, New York. — For excellent pianos of good tone and fine 
workmanship. 

Estes, E. B., & Sons, New York. — For turned wood goods and locked corner 
boxes. 

Ethrington, J. B., & Co., Boston, Mass. — For step-ladders, folding-chairs and 
tables, and novelties in towel-racks and egg-beaters. 

Everitt, James, & Co., New York, N.Y. — For the "Little Giant" gas stove. 

Exhaust Ventilator Co., Chicago, 111. — For the Blackman fan. 

Fairbanks Canning Co., Chicago. — For canned meats. 

Fairchild Bros, and Foster, New York.-^For " Digestive Ferments," extract 
pancreatis, peptonising powder, pepsin in scales, elegant, reliable, and con- 
venient preparations for peptonising food. 

Fellows' Medical Manufacturing Co., New York, N.Y. — For a preparation of 
extraordinary merit in treatment of wasting diseases. 

Fisk, Samuel, New York. — ^For the " National Cane Shredder." 

Foote, A. E., Philadelphia, Pa. — For carefully-selected educational collections 
of minerals, 

Foote, A. E., Philadelphia. — For a most comprehensive display of American 
minerals. 

Foote, A. E., Philadelphia. — For a complete series of American geological 
surveys, educational, health, and other reports. 

Frees, C. A., New York. — For Artificial Limbs : light and durable, and with 
flexible joints, closely imitating nature. 

Gatling Gun Co. , Hartford, Conn. — For improved Gatling guns. 

Germains, A. Z., New York, N.Y. — For disinfecting and fumigating apparatus 
and powders. 

Gillette Barrel Co., New York. — For " Steel Clad Barrels," a valuable improve- 
ment in barrels. 

Girard Trust, per A. E. Foote. — For a remarkably fine mass of anthracite 
coal, weighing 2,256 pounds. 

Golding & Co. , Boston, Mass. — For hand printing presses. 

Gordon & Dilworth, New York. — For preserved fruits and vegetables of pure 
quality and natural flavour. 

Gray, W. H., New York. — For a fire extinguisher, simple in construction, easy 
of operation, and thoroughly effective in results achieved. 

Griswold, H. J., Boston, Mass. — For a simple, economical, and durable stock- 
ing knitter, 



SUPPLEMENT. 445 

Hall Steam Pump Co., New York. — For the Hall duplex steam pump. 
Hall Type Writer Co., New York. — For a good type writer of low price. 
Hammond Type Writer Co., New York. — For the best type writer for office 
work where speed is required. 

Hancock Inspirator Co., Boston, Mass.— For an improved injector for boilers. 
Harden Star and Sinclair Fire Appliance Co. — For hand grenade fire extin- 
guishers. 

Hartmann, P., New York. — For an improved inkstand. 

Hartshorn, Stewart, New York. — For self-acting spring window shade rollers. 
Hazard, E. C, & Co., New York. — For Shrewsbury tomato catsup. 
Hinds, Ketcham & Co., Brooklyn, N.Y. — For colour printing. 
Hooker, Henry, & Co., New Haven, Conn. — For carriages and buggies, elegant, 
light, and durable. 

Hooper Bros. & Darlington, Westchester, Pa. — For carriage wheels, hubs, and 
spokes. 

Horton, E., Son & Co., Windsor Locks, New York. — For chucks of a high 
standard of quality and workmanship. 

Howard, C. Frusher, San Francisco, Cal. — For his "Art of Beckoning," which 
includes novel and improved methods of business arithmetic. 

Howes & Swell, Silver Creek, N.Y. — For American wheat-cleaning machinery. 
Kygeia Sparkling Distilled Water Co., New York.— For apparatus for manu- 
facturing distilled water. 

Imperial Fire Extinguisher Co., Limited, New York. — For hand grenade fire 
extinguishers. 

IngersoU, Simon. — For Duplex Eock Drill. 

International Terra Cotta Lumber Co. (Limited), Chicago, 111. — For Porous 
Earthenwares, a new fire-proof building material, remarkable for strength, cheap- 
ness, and adaptability to many purposes. 

Jerome, Charles C, Chicago, 111. — For the Jerome metallic packing. 
Johnston Harvester Co., Batavia, New York. — For improved agricultural 
machinery of great strength and light draught. 
Judson, Charles, New York. — For toilet waters. 

Kepler Malt Extract Co., Limited, New York. — For "Kepler's Extract of 
Malt." A preparation in the highest degree meritorious, a valuable substitute 
for cod liver oil. 

Kimball, W. S., & Co., Eochester, N.Y. — For cigars and cigarettes. 
Kinney Tobacco Co., New York. — For cigarettes. 

Knitted Mattress Co., Canton, Mass. — For knitted mattresses, table padding, 
stair pads, etc., soft, pliant, and not liable to become lumpy. 

Knowd, John J. , Philadelphia, Pa. — For trotting and hunting shoes and racing 
plates. 

Lanman & Kemp, New York. — For " Florida Water." A most agreeable per- 
fume and a luxury for bath and toilet. 

Lawton, W., Boston, Mass. — For a superior absorbent cotton. 
Lee & Son. — For American trees and shrubs. 
Libby, McNeill & Libby, Chicago.--For canned meats and soups. 
Lincoln Institute, Philadelphia, Pa.— For ingenious work done by aboriginal 
Indians. 



446 THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 

Lippincott Co., J. B., Philadelphia, Pa.— For books, excellently printed and 
illustrated, and valuable works of reference. 

Lloyd & Supplee Hardware Co., Philadelphia, Pa. — For the " Pennsylvania," 
a superior lawn-mower. 

Lucas, John, & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. — ^For paints, varnishes, and printers' ink. 

Magee Furnace Co., Boston, Mass. — For Chelsea art castings for ornamental 
and decorative purposes. 

Matthews, John. — For improved soda water machinery and dispensing appa- 
.ratus of great practical advantage, and combining elegance with superior work- 
manship. 

Malleson, Frederick, Brooklyn, N.Y,— For fishing rods. 

McCoy, M. P. — For a Model American Printing Office. 

McKesson & Bobbins, New York. — For ovoid capsuled pills ; an original form 
of sub-dividing drugs for any climate. 

McKellar, Smith & Jordan Co., Philadelphia, Pa. — For excellent type. 

McKesson & Bobbins, New York. — For anhydrous crystals of hydrochlorate of 
cocaine. 

Merrimack Manufacturing Co., Lowell, Mass. — For printed cotton fabrics of 
excellent quality and good colourings. 

Michigan Lubricator Co., Detroit, Mich. — For cylinder lubricators for steam 
engines. 

Morgan, Enoch, Sons & Co., New York. — For " Sapolio," an economical 
material for cleaning metals, marbles, etc. 

Morse Bros., Canton, Mass. — For " Bising Sun " stove polish. 

Morse Twist Drill Co., New Bedford, Mass. — For a high standard of work- 
manship and quaUty in twist drills, taps, reamers, and milhng cutters. 

Moseman, C. M., & Bros., New York. — For harness and saddles of excellent 
workmanship. 

Mosler Safe & Lock Co., Cincinnati, Ohio.— For safes of excellence of con- 
struction and high-class workmanship. 

Nash, Duane H., Millington, N.J.— For a clod crusher. 

National Cash Eegister. — For the Cash Kegister Till. 

New Haven Clock Co., New Haven, Conn. — For improved designs in low- 
priced clocks. 

New Home Sewing Machine Co., New York. — For a sewing machine, com- 
bining simplicity of construction with an easy action. 

New York Produce Exchange. — For flour and grain. 

Northern Pacific Eailroad. — For a remarkably large, valuable, and attractively 
arranged display of the products (agricultural, mineral, etc.) of the country 
served by the road. 

Norton Door Check and Spring Co., New York. — For an excellent device to 
secure the noiseless closing of doors. 

Oswego Indurated Fibre Co., Oswego, N.Y.— For indurated ware made from 
wood pulp. 

Pacific Mills, Lawrence, Mass. — For printed cottons, cotton and wool and 
woollen dress fabrics of the highest order of excellence. 

Parker, Joseph, New Haven, Conn.— For " Paper Fibre Lint," useful in dental 
and surgical operations. 



SUPPLEMENT. 447 

Parvin, Eeeves, & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. — For canned tomatoes. 
Paul, W., & Son. — American trees, shrubs, and roses. 

Pennsylvania State Mineral Exhibit. — For a large and valuable display of coals 
and ores, and useful and rare minerals. 

Pomeroy, C. B., New York. — For a novel and ingenious convertible wire basket. 
Post Sewing Machine Co., Washington, D.C. — For an improved sewing 
machine combining lock and chain stitch. 

Pratt & "Whitney Machine Co., Hartford, Conn. — For excellence of workman- 
ship in screwing machines, stocks, dies, and chucks. 

Eichmond Cedar Works, Limited, Eichmond, Va.— For cedar wooden ware. 
Eicker, Hiram, & Son, Poland Springs, South Poland, Me. — For " Poland 
Spring ' ' water. 

Eochester Lamp Co., New York. — For a new and excellent lamp of great illu- 
minating power. 

Eogers & Co., Boston, Mass. — For " Lignomar," a cheap and durable decora* 
tive material. 

Eussia Cement Co., Gloucester, Mass. — For an excellent liquid glue. 
Schlicht, Field & Co. , Eochester, N.Y. — For very safe and permanent methods 
of filing letters and documents, and a rapid roller damp-leaf copyer. 
Seabury & Johnson, New York. — For medicated and other plasters. 
Shipman Export Engine Co., Boston, Mass. — For an improvement in method 
of burning petroleum automatically for engine purposes. 

Silver Lake Co., Boston, Mass. — For solid braided sash cords and lines. 
Simpson, T. S. & G. F., Brooklyn, N.Y. — For a powerful and rapid eccentric 
pulverizing mill for minerals and other substances. 

Singer Manufacturing Co., New York. — For machines for sewing button-holes. 
Singer Manufacturing Co., New York. — For machines for sewing carpet seams. 
Singer Manufacturing Co., New York. — For an improved oscillating shuttle 
sewing machine for domestic and manufacturing purposes. 

Smith, G. T., Middlings Purifier Co., Jackson, Mich. — For Middlings purifier, 
centrifugal fiour-dressing machine and scalper. 

Spencer Optical Co., New York. — For eye glasses, opera, field, and marine 
glasses, and celluloid frames. 

S. S. White Dental Co., Philadelphia, Pa. — For porcelain teeth, chairs, 
engines, instruments, gold foil, corundum wheels, and all dental appliances. 

State of Ehode Island, Mark H. Wood, Commissioner. — For an exhibit of the 
natural productions and industrial resources of the State. 
Stoner, J. B., New York. — For floating light-houses. 

Stoner, J. B., New York. — ^For an automatic, self-acting,'and economical grain 
conveyor, operated solely by weight of grain conveyed. 
Stoner, J. B., New York. — For a sack-holder. 

Stoner, J. B., New York. — For a self -registering grain weighing machine. 
Stoner, J. B., New York. — For a very economical grain elevator. 
Stoner, J. B., New York. — For an improved float. 

Stoner, J. B., New York. — For an automatic water meter controlling measure 
by weight. 

Stout, Mills & Temple, Dayton, Ohio. — For the " New American " Turbine. 
Stroh Brewing Co., Detroit, Mich. — For beer of pure quality and good flavour^ 
and suitable for export. 



448 THE AMEBIGAN EXHIBITION. 

Sturtevant Blower Co., Boston, Mass. — For the Sturtevant blower as applied 
to furnaces, forges, etc. 

Taylor, John H., & Co., New York. — For silicate cotton and mineral wool. 
Thompson, Dr. Augustus, Lowell, Mass.— For " Moxie" nerve food. 
Thome Machine Co., Hartford, Conn. — For an economical and labour-saving 
type-setting and distributing machine. 

Uebel & Barber, New York.- — -For sea-bean and alligator-teeth jewellery. 
United States Metallic Packing Co., Philadelphia, Pa. — For a metallic packing, 
making a steam-tight fit and reducing friction. 

United Zylonite Co., New York.— For " Zylonite," a new and useful substitute 
for amber. 

Vacuum Oil Co., Eochester, N.Y. — ^For an economical lubricating oil. 
Ware, T. S. — For American hardy plants. 
Waring, E. S., Pittsburg, Pa. — For electric cables. 

Warner, W. E., & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. — For sugar-coated pills, granules, 
and parvules, and effervescing broma soda. 

Waterbury Eubber Co., New York. — For armoured hose of a high degree of 
merit. 

Waterbury Watch Co., Limited. — For low-priced and accurate watches. 
Waterer, Anthony. — For rhododendrons. 

Wheeler & Wilson Manufacturing Co., Bridgeport, Conn. — For excellent 
sewing machines for domestic and manufacturing purposes. 

Wheelock, Jerome, Worcester, Mass. — For an engine simple in construction, 
durable, prompt in action to meet a sudden load, and economical of fuel and 
repairs. 

Whiting, John L., & Son, Boston, Mass. — For paint brushes. 
Winchester Eepeating Arms Co., New Haven, Conn. — For repeating rifles and 
shot guns. 

Wing, L. J., New York. — For a powerful and economical fan. 
Wirt, Paul E., Bloomsburg, Pa. — For a perfect fountain pen. 
Withington & Cooley Manufacturing Co., Jackson, Mich. — For hay and 
manure forks, hoes, handles, scythes, snaths, and other farming implements. 

Wood, Walter A., Hoosick Falls, Eensselaer Co., N.Y. — For the best straw 
band, sheaf -binding harvester. 

Woodburn-Sarven Wheel Co., Indianapolis, Ind. — For wheels and wheel 
materials of the highest excellence in quality and workmanship. 

Women's Silk Cultural Association, Philadelphia,, Pa. — For raw and manu- 
factured silk. 

Wooton Desk Manufacturing Co., Eichmond, Ind. — For the Wooton cabinet 
secretary. An ingenious and comprehensive arrangement of writing-table, shelves, 
drawers, and filing boxes, within a limited space. 

Writing Telegraph Co., New York. — For an improved method of transmitting 
and recording telegraph messages. 

Wyeth, John, & Bro., Philadelphia, Pa. — For dialysed iron, easily assimilated, 
etc. 

Young, Ladd & Coffin, New York. — For " Lundborg's Perfumes " of the highest- 
excellence in delicacy and permanence of odour. 
Young, Maurice.-^For rhododendrons. 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 
LONDON, 1888. 

PATRON. 
H.M. THE KING OF ITALY. 

HONORARY PRESIDENT. 
H.E.H. THE PEINCE OP NAPLES. 

DIRECTOR-GENERAL 

AND 

CHAIRMAN OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 
JOHN E. WHITLEY. 

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS. 

Secretary ..-.--- VINCENT A. APPLIN. 

Chief Commissioner in Italy - - - GUGLIELMO GEANT. 

Chief of Industrial Section . - - T. BOSTON BEUCE. 

Chief of Fine Art Section - - - T. CAEEW MAETIN. 

Engineer ALFEED PICKAED. 

Architect - - - - - - - T. W. CUTLEE, F.E.I.B.A. 

Accountant - ALFEED JOHNSON. 

Chief Correspondent - - - - W. F. COLLIVEE. 

Chief of Italian Staff - - - - G. AMBEOSI. 

Chief of Eecreation Department - - L. DUCHENE. 

Chief of Admissions Department - - G. E. EUTTEE. 

Landscape Gardener - - - - W. GOLDEING. 

Official Patent Agent - - - . - ALFEED J. BOULT, M.I.M.E. 

Inspector of Police P. CEONIN. 

Chief of Fire Brigade - - - - G. DUCK. 

hanging committee. 

A. BACCANI. C. MAETIN. 

CAEEW MAETIN. P. PALESTEINO. 

C. L. EASTLAKE. W. SEVEEN. 

FOSSI PIANIGIANI. F. STOPPANI. 

LOED E. GOWEE. C. STEATTA. 

F. GEISPINI. M. TEDESCO. 

Sir HENEY A. LAYAED, G.C.B., P.C., D.C.L. 

sculpture committee. 
J. E. BOEHM, A.E.A. V. JEEACB. 

G, FOOAEDI. L. PABEUOCI. 

LOED E. GOWEE. 

29 



450 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 



EXECUTIVE OFFICERS (continued)— 
medical staff. 
Dk. SASSELLA. Dr. WHITCOMB. 

Dr. MAETIN. Dr. BATEMAN. 

De. EICHMOND. 



LONDON COMMITTEE. 

honorary president. 
Sir FEEDEEIC LBIGHTON, Bart., P.E.A. 

honorary vice-presidents. 



LOED ABEEDAEE, G.C.B., P.C. 
DANIEL ADAMSON, Esq., C.E., 

President Iron and Steel Institute. 
HAMILTON AIDE, Esq. 
ALFEED AUSTIN, Esq. 
JOHN BALL, Esq., C.B., E.E.S. 
General Sir H. P, DE BATHE, Baet. 
Sir ALGEENON BOETHWICK, 

Bart., M.P. 
EOBEET BEOWNING, Esq. 
WILKIE COLLINS, Esq. 
DON MAECANTONIO COLONNA, 

DUKE OF MARINO. 
EAEL COMPTON. 
MONSIEUE DE BUNSEN. 
HENEY E. DOYLE, Esq. C.B. 
Sir WM. E. DEAKE, F.S.A. 
CHAS. LOCKE EASTLAKE, Esq. 
LOED ESHEE, P.C. 
CYEIL FLO WEE, Esq., M.P. 
JAMES STAATS FOEBES, Esq. 
A. GALLENGA, Esq. 
BAEON F. PETEUCCELLI BELLA 

GATTINA. 
Eear-Admiral His Serene Highness 

COUNT GLEICHEN. 
Sir GEOEGE GEOVE. 
MARQUIS OF HEADFOET, K.P. 
BAEON HEATH, Consul-General of 

H.M. King of Italy in London. 
Wm. BEATTY KINGSTON, Esq. 
Lieut.-Col. Sir ALFEED KIEBY. 
C. C. LACAITA, Esq. 



Sir HENEY LAYAED, G.C.B., P.C. 
Sir MOEELL MACKENZIE. 
FEEDEEIC D. MOCATTA, Esq. 
LOED EOBEET MONTAGU. 
Sir CHAELES NEWTON, K.C.B. 
Colonel J. T. NOETH. 
The MAEQUIS OF OEMONDE. 
Sir NOEL BATON. 
Sir FEEDEEICK POLLOCK, Bart. 
The duke OF POETLAND, P.C. 
Sir J. H. PULESTON, M.P. 
EOBT. EICHAEDSON-GAEDNEE, 

Esq., M.P., D.L. 
EAEL OF EOSSLYN. 
Professor EUSKIN. 
Dr. W. H. EUSSELL. 
The duke OF EUTLAND, G.C.B, 
The EAEL STANHOPE, F.S.A. 
Sir AETHUE S. SULLIVAN. 
The DUKE OF SUTHEELAND, K.G. 
General Sir E. TAYLOE, K.C.B. 
COUNT TELFENEE. 
LOED TENNYSON. 
Dr. VINCENT, COUNT DI TEE- 

GOLINA. 
Professor JOHN TYNDALL. 
LOED WALSINGHAM. 
EAEL DE LA WAEE. 
Col. W. COENWALLIS WEST, M.P. 
The EAEL OF WHAENCLIFFE. 
The EAEL OF WINCHILSEA AND 

NOTTINGHAM. 
EDMUND YATES, Esq. 



president. 

Cav. L. BONACINA, 

President of the Italian Chaml^er Qf^Commerce in Loudon. 



SUPPLEMENT, 



451 



LONDON COMMITTEE (continued)— 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

SiG. E. ARBIB, Vice-President of the Italian Chamber of Commerce in London, 

Cav. EOBERTO M. STUAET. 

WALTER SEVERN, Esq., President of the " Dudley Gallery." 



Cav. Harold E. Acton, 
*Sig. A. AUatini. 

Sig. G. Ambrosi. 

Comm. Bernardo Berio. 

J. E. Boehm, Esq. 

T. Boston Bruce, Esq. 

Cav. Buzzegoli, Vice-Consul of H.M. 
the King of Italy in London. 

Count C. Candiani, Naval Attache 
in London of H.M. the King of 
Italy. 

Egerton Castle, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 

Capt. H. Bruce M. Carvick. 

Baron Enrico Celli. 

Sir J. J. Coghill, Bart. 

H. G. Close, Esq. 

Thos. W. Cutler, Esq. 

Richard Davey, Esq. 

Prof. Carlo Ducci. 

Prof. L. Fabbrucci. 

Sig. Giovanni Festa. 

Sig. G. Focardi. 

Sig. Augusto Fortuna. 

Cav. Roberto Froehlich, Italian Con- 
sul in Manchester. 

R. C. Gallico, Esq. 

Sir Julian Goldsmid, Bart., M.P. 

Lord Ronald Gower. 

Sig. Filippo Grispini. 

Norman H. Hardy, Esq. 



Sir John Heron-Maxwell, Bart. 

J. S. Jeans, Esq. 

T. Carew-Martin, Esq. 

Charles Martin, Esq. 

Cav. De Martino. 

Cav. Tito Mattel. 

Sig. M. Musi, Italian Consul in 

Liverpool. 
*Sig. P. Micah. 
*Sig. A. Narizzano. 

Major S. Flood Page. 

Capt. Edward Palliser. 
*Cav. C. Pavia. 

Chas. Pegler, Esq. 

J. T. Peacock, Esq. 

Alfred Pickard, Esq. 
*Sig. P. Polenghi. 

W. H. Pollock, Esq. 

John Priestman, Esq. 

Prof. W. B. Richmond. 

Sig. Monari Rocca. 

E. St. John Brennan, Esq. 
*Sig, C. Salviati. 
*Sig. A. Serena. 

Jno. Gilmer Speed, Esq. 

Cav. F. Tosti. 

Randolph C. Want, Esq. 

Cav. E. Zuccani, Treasurer of the 
Italian Chamber of Commerce in 
London. 



SECEETAEIES. 

VINCENT A. APPLIN, Esq. 
Avv, A, MELIS, Secretary of the Italian Chamber of Commerce in London. 

BOME COMMITTEE. 

HONOEAEY PEESIDENT. 

DUKE LEOPOLDO TORLONIA. 

PEESIDENT. 

CoMM. RUGGERO BONGHI. 

* Connfijllprs of the Italian Cbawter of Commerce in liondon, 



452 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 



ROME COMMITTEE (continued)— 

YICE-PEESIDKNTS. 

CoMM. VALEEIO TEOCCHI, President of the Chamber of Commerce in Eome. 
Cav. GUGLIELMO GEANT. 



Cav, Edoardo Arbib. 

Comm. Ing. Francesco Azzurri. 

Comm. Marco Besso. 

Sig. Angelo Bianchi. 

Cav. Ferdinando Buonaceorsi. 

Don Onorato Caetani, Duke of Ser- 

moneta. 
Sig. Costantino Calvi. 
Sig. Annibale Cagiati. 
Sig. Luigi Cavallini. 
Sig. Enea Cavalieri. 
Cav. Cerletti, Secretary of the " Vine 

Cultivators' Society." 
Comm. Alessandro Centurini. 
Marquis Chigi-Zondadari. 
Don Marcantonio Colonna, Duke of 

Marino. 
Cav. Jacopo de Benedetti, Editor of 

the "Bollettino delle Finanze-Fer- 

rovie e Industrie." 
Comm. Eaffaele de Cesare, 



Sig. Alberto De Falker. 

Marquis Giorgio Del Grillo. 

Cav. Guglielmo De Sanctis. 

Don Alfonso Doria-Pamphili, Duke of 

Avigliano. 
Sig. Ettore Eoesler Franz. 
Comm. Edoardo Gioja. 
Comm. Francesco Jacovacci, President 

of the " Circolo Artistico Interna- 

zionale." 
Cav. Clemente Levi. 
Comm. Giulio Monteverde. 
Cav. Alessandro Nelli. 
Cav. Luigi Pierret, President of the 

" Societa degli Orafi." 
Sig. Cesare Eoccheggiani. 
Sig. Giulio Silvestrelli. 
Cav. Attilio Simonetti. 
Baron Giorgio Sonnino, Senator. 
Comm. Aw. Tommaso Tittoni. 
Don Stanislao Torlonia. 



MILAN COMMITTEE. 
THE COUNCILLOES OP THE CHAMBEE OF COMMEECE. 

.PEESIDENT. 

CoMM. EENESTO DE ANGELI, President of the Chamber of Commerce 

in Milan. 

VICE-PRESIDENT. 

Cav. MASSIMO DE VECCHI, Vice-President of the Chamber of Commerce 

in Milan. 



Cav. Carlo Antognini. 
Cav. G. Angelo Bergami. 
Cav. Tommaso Bertarelli. 
Sig. Francesco Biffi. 
Cav. Dionigi Bonacina. 
Cav. G. B. Cima. 
Sig. Enrico Cramer. 
Cav. Dionigi Crispi, 
Sig. Francesco Dubini. 
Cav. Ing. Pio Gavazzi. 

CHIEF SECRETAEY. 

Aw. MALDIFASSI. 



MEMBERS. 

Cav. Francesco Gondrand. 

Cav. Ing. Massimiliano Graraizzi, 

Ing. Paolo Muggiani. 

Cav. Ing. Guglielmo Miani. 

Comm. Arnoldo Pavia. 

Nobile Eugenio Eezia. 

Ing. Alberto Eiva. 

Comm. Achille Villa. 

Sig. Edoardo Vigano. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

Aw. TICOZZL 



SUPPLEMENT. :'4S3 

MILAN FINE ARTS COMMITTEE. 
peesident. vice-president. 

Marquis VISCONTI VENOSTA. Comm. MYLIUS. 

MEMBERS. 

Comm. Pagliano. Sig. Bezzi. 

. Comm. Steffani. Sig. Butti. 

Sig. Fornara. Sig. Argenti. 

SECRETARY. 

Count SEBEEGONDI. 
NAPLES COMMITTEE. 

HONORARY PRESIDENT. 

PEINCE OF EUFFANO, Mayor of Naples. 

PRESIDENT. 

CoMM. PETEICCIONE, President of the Chamber of Commerce in Naples. 

MEMBERS. 

Cav. Aiiotta, Municipal Councillor. Cav. Orlandi, Provincial Councillor. 

Cav. Cacace, Member of Naples Cham- Sig. Pavoncelli, Treasurer of the 

ber of Commerce. Naples Chamber of Commerce. 

Comm. Delucca, President of the Cav. Perricci, Prof, in Eoyal Institute 

Eoyal Institute of Fine Arts in of Fine Arts. 

Naples. • Cav. Pisanti, Prof, in Eoyal Institute 
Comm. Gloag. of Fine Arts. 

Count of Balzorano. Cav. Piccoli. 

Cav. Materi, Secretary of the Land- Cav. Savarese, Member of Chamber of 

lords and Agriculturists Association Commerce. 

in Naples. 

SECRETARIES. 

Baron SAENELLI, Secretary of Chamber of Commerce. 
Prof. MOSCHITTI, Vice-Secretary of Chamber of Commerce. 

TURIN COMMITTEE. 

HONORARY PRESIDENT. 

CoMM. Prof. GIUSEPPE LOCAENI, President of the Chamber of Commerce 

in Turin. 

PRESIDENT. 

*CoMM. GIULIO PEYEOT, 

VICE-PRESIDENT, 

Cav. Aw. PIETEO BEETETTI, Vice-President of the Chamber of 

Commerce in Turin. 

* Coimcillor of the Chamber of Commerce in Turin. 



454 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION.. 



TURIN COMMITTEE (continued)— 

MEMBEES. 



*Cav. Antonio Abrate. 
Comm. Luigi Ajello, President of the 

" Society for Promoting National 

Industry." 
Comm. Prof. Giorgio Anselmi, Eector 

of " Turin University." 
Comm. Aw. Luigi Arcozzi Masino, 

President of the " Comizio Agra- 

rio " in Turin. 
Aw. G. J. Armandi, Secretary of 

the " Circolo Enofilo Subalpino." 
*Cav. G. B. Auxilia. 
*Comm. Marco Beltramo. 
Comm. Prof. Carlo Felice Biscarra, 

Secretary of the "Eoyal Academy 

of Fine Arts " in Turin. 
Sig. Leonardo Bistolfi. 
*Cav. Attilio Bollati. 
Cav. Carlo Bonis. 

Cav. Prof. Onorato Botteri, Vice- 
President of the "Circolo Enofilo 

Subalpino." 
Major Cav. G. Bottero. 
*Cav. Luigi Bozzaglia. 
Cav. Ing. Riccardo Brayda. 
Marquis A. Calani. 
Sig. Marco Calderini. 
*Baron Cav. Ernesto Casana. 
Aw. Baldassare Cerri. 
Cav. Aw. Giaeinto Cibrario. 
Cav. Enrico Cinzano. 
Aw. Prof. Salvatore Cognetti De 

Martiis. 
Marquis Carlo Compang Di Bri- 

chanteau. 
Cav. Angelo Cuglierero. 



Comm. C. De Bels Brounlie, English 
Vice-Consul at Turin. 

Cav. Pietro Delia Vedova. 

Cav. Lorenzo Delleani. 

Comm. Prof. Enrico D'Ovidio, Mem- 
ber of the Council of Turin Uni- 
versity. 

Aw. Tancredi Galimberti. 

Dr. Gancia. 

Cav. Pier Celestino Gilardi. 

Aw. Angelo Guastalla. 

Sig. Angelo Magauza. 
*Comm. Alessandro Malvano. 

Comm. Prof. Luigi Mattirolo. 

Cav. Paolo Meille. 
*Cav. Aw. Nicolo Oxilia. 

*Cav. Aw. Paolo Palestrino, Secretary 
of the " Chamber of Commerce " 
in Turin. 

*Cav. Lorenzo Rabbi, Town Councillor. 

Comm. Giuseppe Ratti, Town Coun- 
cillor. 

*Cav. Giacomo Rey. 

Cav. Carlo Rizzetti. 

Cav. Guido Eocca. 

Aw. Luigi Roux. 

*Cav. Vittorio Sclopis. 

*Cav. Alessandro Sella. 

*Cav. G. B. Serralunga. 

Comm. Aw. Ferdinando Siccardi, 
President of the " Silk Associa- 
tion " in Turin. 

Comm. Prof. Odoardo Tabacchi. 

*Cav. Federico Tivoli. 

*Comm. Carlo Trombotto, Town 
Councillor. 



VENICE COMMITTEE. 

HONOBAEY PBESIDENT. 

Sib HENRY LAYARD, G.C.B., P.C, D.C.L. 



PBESIDENT. 

Comm. ALESSANDRO BLUMENTHAL, President of the Chamber of Commerce. 
* Councillors of the Chamber of Commerce in Turin. 



SUPPLEMENT. 



455 



VENICE COMMITTEE (continued)— 

ADVISORY COMMITTEE. 

Sig. Luig Barbieri. Dott. Angelo Levi. 

Cav. Uff. Pacifico Ceresa. Cav. Filippo Millini. 

Cav. Augusto Cini. Sig. Federico Weberbeck. 
Cav. Giulio Coen. 



AKTISTS' COMMITTEE. 



Comm. Levi. 
Cav. Guggenheim. 
Comm. Castellani. 
Cav. Stella. 
Cav. Molmenti. 
Aw. Sacerdoti. 



Sig. Urbano. 
Prof. Orefl&ce. 
Cav. AUegri. 
Cav. Faido. 
Cav. Bas. 
Sig. Botner. 



TUSCAN COMMITTEE. 

HONOEAEY PRESIDENT. 

CoMM. UBALDINO PEEUZZI. 

president. 
Marquis CAELO GINOEI. 

vice-presidents. 
CoMM. N. BAEABINO. Comm. A. PADOVANI. 

executive members. 

Marquis GIOEGIO NICCOLINI. Cav. L. FEULLIN;. 

Comm. A. PADOVANI. 



Prof. Alpe, Secretary of the Florence 

Agricultural Society. 
Cav. Barzellotti, Secretary of Chamber 

of Commerce, Municipal Councillor. 
Cav. Conti, President of Leghorn 

Chamber of Commerce. 
Prince Corsini, Senator. 
Cav. Fenzi, President of the Eoyal 

Tuscan Horticultural Society. 
Cav. FruUini, Vice-President of the 

Artists' Club. 
Sig. Hoare. 
Sig. Luzzatti, President of Siena 

Chamber of Commerce. 
Cav. Marzighi-Lensi. 
Marquis Niccolini, Municipal Council- 
lor, Florence. 



Marquis Ippolito Niccolini. 

Cav. Pellegrini, President of Lucca 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Comm. Philipson, Member of the 
Council of Industry and Commerce, 
and Municipal Councillor of Flor- 
ence. 

Cav. Eemaggi, Member of Pisa Cham- 
ber of Commerce. 

Cav. Sanecolini, President of Arezzo 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Cav. Shnaiderif , Member of Florence 
Agricultural Society. 

Count Vimercati, Member of Florence 
Chamber of Commerce. 



456 THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 

TUSCAN COMMITTEE (continued)— 

SECEETAEY. 

Cav. p. l. barzellotti. 
paleemo committee. 

PEESIDENT. 

CoMM. MICHELE AMATO POJEEO. 

VICE-PEESIDENT. 

Aw. LUIGI MUEATORI. 

COUNCIL. 

Cav. Achille Bova. Sig. Francesco Di Benedetto 

Cav. Carmelo Lagana. Sig. Michele Lauria. 

Cav. Giuseppe Mormino. Sig. Stefano Pellegrini. 

Cav. Giulio Yung. Sig. Salvatore Artese. 

Cav. Giulio Schumacher. Sig. Andrea Lo Vico. 

Cav. Giulio Eiccobono. Sig. Salvatore Briuecia. 

Comm. Ignazio Florio. Sig. Crispino Messina. 

Comm. Emanuele Notarhartolo. Sig. Camillo Lojacono. 
Sig. Alfonso Scialabba. 

GENOA COMMITTEE. 

PEESIDENT. 

CoMMi GIACOMO MILLO, President of the Chamber of Commerce. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

Cav, LUIGI AEGENTO, President of the "Associazione Generale del 
Commercio." 
Comm. Aw. EMANUELE CELESIA, President of the " Societa di Letture 
e Conversazioni Scientifiche." 



Aw. Enrico Bensa. Cav. Giuseppe Mingotti. 

Comm. Enrico Cravero. *Cav. Nicolo Odero. 

*Ing. Cav. Bartolomeo D'Albertis. *Sig. Giuseppe Pastore. 
Ing. Cav. Gio-Luca De Katt. Sig. Americo Poggetti. 

Comm. Prof. Felice Fasella. *Sig. Antonio Sciaccaluga. 

Sig. Lorenzo Gerard. Comm. Prof. Jacopo Virgilio. 
Cav. Gio Batta Ghersi. 

MODENA COMMITTEE. 

PRESIDENT. 

Cav. GIOVANNI GILLI, President of the Chamber of Commerce in Modena. 

VICE-PEESIDENT. TEEASUREE. 

Sig. BORELLI GUGLIELMO. Cav. GUGLIELMO NASI. 

* Councillors of the Chamber of Commerce in Genoa. 



SUPPLEMENT. 457 

MODENA COMMITTEE (continued)— 

MEMBERS. 

Cav. Pio Baccarini. Sig. Emilio Palazzi. 

Sig. Valniro Bocchi. Sig. Ettore Kizzi. 

Sig. Enrico Lodi. Sig. Antonio Tagliazucchi. 

Sig. Ettore Nardini. Sig. Paolo Toschi. 

SECEETARY. 

Aw. Cav. PIO VECCHI. 
LECCE COMMITTEE. 

HONORARY PRESIDENT. 

Count Cav. COSTANTINO CASTEIOTA SCANDEEBEEG, President of the 
Chamber of Commerce and Arts. 

president. 
Marquis LUIGI CAPECE MINUTOLO DI BUGNANO. 

LECCE. 
vice-president. secretary. 

Baron FILIPPO BACILE. Ing. OEONZO BODINI. 

BRINDISI. 

VICE-PRESIDENT. SECRETARY. 

LUIGI DENTICI, Prince di Frasso. Dr. EOMUALDO DE NITTO. 

TARANTO. 

VICE-PRESIDENT. 

Marquis GIUSEPPE GEANAFFI. 

SECRETABY. 

Sig. NICOLA DI FEANCESCO PAOLO TEAVEESA. 
GALLIPOLI. 

VICE-PRESIDENT. 

CoMM. ANTONIO WINSPEAEE, Duke di Salve. 

secretary. 
Cav. DONATO ZOCCO. 

PARIS COMMITTEE. 

HONORARY PRESIDENT. PRESIDENT. 

CoMM. PASINI. CoMM. GAL ANTE. 

FIRST HONORARY VICE-PRESIDENT. 

Cav.;.magagna. 

honorary vice-presidents, 
Cav. BEEOLATTI. Comm. MOEGANTINI. 

Principe MANGANELLI. Cav. PAEODI. 

vice-presidents. 
Cav. PITTAEA. Cav. FELICE VIVANTE. 



458 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 



Vittorio Aimone. 

Cav. I. Caponi. 

Duca Carlo Carafa di Noja. 

Cav. Cassellari. 

Marchese Delia Kajata di Castrone 

Cav. De Bellis. 

Cav. Detti. 

Cav. Facchini. 



PAEIS COMMITTEE (continued)— 

MEMBERS. 

Sig. Benvenuto-Tancredi Ferrari. 

Cav. Anselmo Gavioli. 

Sig. Eampoldi. 

Cav. Senta. 

Sig. Troili. 

Cav. Verazzi. 

Sig. Volpini. 



seceetaey. 
Cav. LAZZAEINI. 

artists' COMMITTEE, 

President. 

CoMM. PASINI. 

Memhers. 



Cav. Casellari. 
Cav. Detti. 



Cav. Pittara. 
Sig. Troili. 



ENGLISH RECEPTION COMMITTEE. 

PRESIDENT. VICE-PRESIDENT, 

Colonel J. T. NOETH. JOHN E. WHITLEY, Esq. 



MEMBERS. 



Lord Aberdare, G.C.B., P.C. 

Eight Hon. Earl of Aberdeen, P.C. 

Daniel Adamson, Esq. 

J. E. W. Addison, Esq., Q.C., M.P. 

Hon. A. P. AUsopp, M.P. 

Hon. G. H. Allsopp, M.P. 

Vincent A. Applin, Esq. 

Sir Alex. Armstrong, K.C.B., F.E.S. 

Sir Edwin Arnold, C.S.I. 

Alfred Austin, Esq. 

John Barran, Esq., M.P. 

Sir Joseph W. Bazalgette,*C.B. 

Eight Hon. G. A. F. Cavendish. 

Bentinck, M.P, 
W. T. Best, Esq. 
Lieut. -Gen. Sir Michael Biddulph, 

K.C.B. 
Colonel H. Blundell, C.B., M.P. 
Eight Hon. Lord Braniwell. 
Colonel Hon. F. C. Bridgeman, M.P. 
Carl Von Buch, Esq. 
Ernest De Bunsen, Esq. 
A. Cayley, Esq. 
Lord Churchill. 



Sir Thomas Clark, Bart., Lord Pro- 
vost of Edinburgh. 

Hon. Bernard Coleridge, M.P, 

Hon. C.W. A. N. CochranerBaillie, M.P, 

Wilkie Collins, Esq. 

Hon. G. N. Curzon, M.P. 

Baron Dimsdale, M.P. 

Sir John Dorington, Bart., M.P. 

The Marquis of Ely, F.E.G.S. 

Lord Erskine. 

Eight Hon. Lord Esher, Master of 
the EoUs. 

Eight Hon. Marquis of Exeter, 

Louis Fagan, Esq. 

Cyril Flower, Esq., M.P. 

Sir B. W. Foster, M.P. 

Alderman Sir E. N. Fowler, Bart., M.P. 

Lieut.-Gen. Eraser, V.C, C.B., M.P. 

Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.E.S. 

Hon. A. E. Gathorne-Hardy, M.P. 

E. Gent-Davis, Esq., M.P. 

Herbert Gladstone, Esq., M.P. 

Sir Julian Goldsmid, Bart., M.P. 

Lord Eonald Gower. 



SUPPLEMENT. 



459 



ENGLISH RECEPTION COMMITTEE (continued)— 



Dr. W. E. Gowers, F.R.S. 

Hon. F. S. A. Hanbury-Tracy, M.P. 

John Hollingshead, Esq. 

Sir W. H. Houldsworth, Bart., M.P. 

Sir Victor Houlton, G.C.M.G. 

Baron Huddleston. 

Sir W. Guyer Hunter, M.P. 

J. S. Jeans, Esq. 

C. E. Jerningham, Esq. 

F. H. Jeune, Esq. 

Henry Kimber, Esq., M.P. 

Lieut.-Col. Sir Alfred Kirby, J.P. 

Colonel Cuthbert Larking. 

Eight Hon. Earl of Lathom, Lord 

Chamberlain. 
The Duke of Leinster. 
Eight Hon. Viscount Lewisham, M.P. 
Hon. W. Lowther, M.P. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P. 
Eight Hon. the Lord Mayor of London. 
Sir John Heron-Maxwell, Bart. 
Sir Eobert Menzies, Bart. 
Viscount Newark, M.P. 
Major S. Flood Page. 
Sir C. M. Palmer, M.P. 
J. T. Peacock, Esq. 
H. F. Pease, Esq., M.P. 
Sir John Pender, K.C.M.G. 
Eight Hon. Sir Lyon Playfair, M.P. 
Hon. Ashley J. G. Ponsonby. 



John Priestman, Esq. 

Sir J. H. Puleston, M.P. 

Eight Hon. H. C. Eaikes, M.P., Post- 
master-General. 

Sir E. J. Eeed, K.C.B., M.P. 

E. Eichardson-Gardner, Esq., M.P. 

Sir H. E. Eoscoe, M.P. 

Lieut.-Col. T. D. Sewell. 

Captain E. M. Shaw, C.B. 

Eight Hon. Sir U. J. Kay Shuttleworth, 
M.P. 

C. E. Spagnoletti, Esq. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir Donald Stewart, G.C.B. 

Sir Eichard Temple, M.P., G.S.C.I. 

Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate. 

Sir Henry Thompson, F.E.C.S. 

Sir H. W. Tyler, M.P. 

Professor Tyndall, F.E.S. 

Sir H. Hussey Vivian, Bart., M.P. 

Lord Walsingham. 

The Earl De La Warr. 

Eight Hon. Marquis of Waterford. 

The Duke of Wellington. 

The Earl of Wharncliffe. 

Sir Samuel Wilson, M.P. 

The Earl of Winchelsea and Not- 
tingham. 

Alderman Joseph Woodhead, M.P. 

Charles Wyndham, Esq. 

Edmund Yates, Esq. 



Hon. Secretary — Captain H. B. M. Carvick. 

LIST OF AWAEDS TO EXHIBITOES. 

Class I. 

Vegetable Pkoducts. 

membees of the jury. 

Mr. E. J. Beale. Mr, J. L. Johnson. Mr. John Kay. 

I. Diploma. 
Damman & Co., San Giovanni a Teduccio (Naples), for their whole collection. 
Ingegnoli Bros., Milan, for a splendid collection of grasses and forage. 
Maurano, F., Castellahate, for his special system of preserving and packing figs 
Pellas, Fratelli di Carlo, Genoa, for excellent samples of rice, 
Ferrarini, E., & Fratelli, Formigine [Modena), for excellent samples of rice. 
Count Gattina, Matera (Potenza), for excellent samples of wheat. 
Spada, Ca,rlo Di A., Spinazzola, for excellent samples of wheat. 



460 THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 

II. Diploma. 

Vanelli, Francesco, Secugnago {near Lodi), for excellent samples of rice. 
Vanni, Fratelli, Siena, for an excellent collection of samples of seeds. 
Catoni, Felice, Avellino, for good samples of wheat. 
Martinez, G., Girgenti, for superior quality of samples of almonds. 

DIPLOMAS AWARDED BY SUPPLEMENTAKY JURY. 

III. Diploma. 
Piazzesi, Attilio, Florence, for fruits. 

Class II. 

Farm and Dairy Produce and Preserved Food. 

MEMBERS OF THE JURY. 

Mr. James Hudson, of Messrs. Hudson Bros. 
„ John Bidwell „ Crowson & Son. 

,, H. S. Gerritzen ,, Oetzes & Gerritzen. 

Pastry and Chocolate. 
I. Diploma. II. Diploma. 

Talmone, Michele, Turin. Menegoni, Vittoria, Milan. 

Venchi, S. & Co., Turin. Biancotti, FUi., Milan. 

Gabutti, P., Turin. 

Macaroni, Vermicelli, and other Italian Pastes. 
I. Diploma. II. Diploma. 

Buitoni, Giov. & FUi., Sansepolcro. Alfonso, Forte, Nocera Inferiore. 

Amendola, FUi., Amalfi. Amodio, S., Torre Annunziata. 

Carpaneto & Gastino, Turin. MerU, E., Genoa. 

Honey. 
I. Diploma. II. Diploma. 

Bertoli, Giacomo, Varallo. Lucio, Paglia, Castel S. Pietro. 

Eovagnati, Domenico, Milan. Gaiani, Bonaghi & Co., Bologna. 

Eossi, Ing. Paolo, Sondrio. 

Preserved Meat. 
I. Diploma. II. Diploma. 

Pinolini, Luigi, Gasale Monferrato. ' BeUentani, Gius., Modena. 

Fiocchi, FUi., Melegnano. CaruUi & Lanfranchi, Cremona. 

Dentici, Francesco, Milan. Borelli, Giov., Turin. 

Freschi, Agostino, Bassano-Veneto. 

Preserved Fish. 
I. Diploma. 
Florio, I. & v., Palermo. Bellini, Luigi, Gomacchio. 

Preserved Vegetables and Fruits. 
I. Diploma. II. Diploma. 

Cirio & Co., Turin. Dentici, Francesco, Milan. 

Sogno, B. & Co., Turin. Picirillo, Domenico, London. 

Corazza, Luigi, Parma. Quagliotti, Maurizio, Turin. 



SUPPLEMENT. 



461 



I. Diploma. 
Anselmi, Cesare, Piacenza. 

I. Diploma. 
Zazzera, Antonio, Godogno. 

II. Diploma. 
Ferrari, Francesco di A., Godogno. 
Latteria, Clara, Pancalieri. 



Eggs. 

II. Diploma. 
Zaini & Vallarani, Godogno. 

Butter. 

III. Diploma. 
Latteria, Sociale a Vapors, 

stica. 
Polenghi, FUi., Godogno. 
Eizzi, E. & Co., Milan. 



Mara- 



I. Diploma. 
Polenghi, Flli., Godogno. 
Bodega, FUi., Lecco. 



I. Diploma. 
Mezzanotte, Eredi, Milan. 

II. Diploma. 
Bodega, Flli., Lecco. 



Gorgonzola Gheese. 

II. Diploma. 
Zazzera, Antonio, Godogno. 
Eonchetti, G. C, London. 
Zuceoni, FUi., Gorgonzola. 
Corsi e figli, Milan. 

Parmesan Gheese. 

III. Diploma. 
Corsi e figli, Milan. 
Pelagatti, T. Via Chiari, Parma. 
Corazza, Giacomo, Parma. 
Polenghi, Flli., Godogno. 

Various Gheeses. 



I. Diploma. 
Zazzera, Antonio, Godogno. 
Matebi, F. P., Grassano. 

II. Diploma. 
Ferrari, Francesco di A., Godogno. 
Principe di Cellamare, Naples. 
Palieri, E., Gerignola. 
Giovinazzi, Nicola, Naples. 
Galiero, F., Naples. 

DIPLOMAS AWARDED BY THE SUPPLEMENTARY JURY. 

Pastry. 

I. Diploma. 
Donati, A., Roma. 

Macaroni, Vermicelli, and other Italian Pastes. 

•I. Diploma. 
Balsamo, A. V., Termini Imeresse. 

III. Diploma. 
G. Petroechi e figli, 3Iassa Marittima. 



462. THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 

Class III. 

Wines — Othee Beverages — Oils. 

SECTION A. 
MEMBERS OP THE JURY ON WINES. 

Mr. Wm. Hudson, President. Mr. Wm. Kean. 

„ E. Merritt. „ J. B. Eutherford. 

„ C. W. Tyler, of Messrs. Tyler & „ J. G. Austin. 

Sons. ,, L. Mouraille (Spiers & Pond, 

Limited). 

White Table Wine. 

I. Diploma. 
Vitali, Egidio, London, for " Capri." 

Palumbo, Pasquale, Ravello, for " Episcopio moscato." 

II. Diploma. 
Silvestri, Luigi, Riomaggiore. 

III. Diploma. 
Oncle, Francesco, Villa Spinelli. 
Negrone, Marquis Giulio, Prd-Liguria. 

Superior White Table Wine. 

I. Diploma. 
Grassi, Carlo, London, for " Capri." 

II. Diploma. 

Alliata, Duke di Salaparuta Ed., Palermo, for " Corvo." 
Grassi, Carlo, London, for "Lacrima-Christi." 
Scala, Giuseppe, Naples, for " Capri." 

Ill, Diploma. 

Cassola, Fratelli, Siracusa, for " Albanello." 
Palumbo, Pasquale, Ravello, for " Episcopio." 

White Sioeet Dessert Wine. 

I. Diploma. 
Capra, G. B., Cagliari. 
Capitaneo, Pietro, Napoli. 
De Pasquale, Fillipo, Lipari- Sicily. 
Foresi, Ulisse, Portoferrajo. 
Ingham, Whitaker& Co., Marsala. 

Marsala Wine. 

I. Diploma. 
Ingham, Whitaker & Co., Marsala, for " old Solera," 
Woodhouse & Co., Marsala, for " S. 0. P." 



SUPPLEMENT. 463 

D'Ali e Bordonaro, Trapani, for " extra qualita 0. S." 
Ingham, Whitaker & Co., Marsala, for " extra Vergine." 
Maligny, R., London, for " Vino di Zucco." 

II. Diploma. 

Florio, I. e V. & Co., Marsala, for " S. 0. M." 

D'Ali e Bordonaro, Trapani, for " L. 0. S." 

Woodhouse & Co., Marsala, for " Vergine." 

Grassi, Carlo, London. 

Ingham, Whitaker & Co., Marsala, for " Vergine." 

Woodhouse & Co., Marsala, for " L. M." 

Ingham, Whitaker & Co., Marsala, for " Naturale." 

Dessert Wine, 

I. Diploma. 
Rouff, L., Naples, for "Falerno.'' 

III. Diploma. 

Farnerari, Manfredi, Monopoli, for " Zagarese," 

Ordinary Bed Table Wine, 

I. Diploma. 
Angeleri, Carlo, Valenza, for " Wine of 1886." 
Barone de Riseis, Naples, for "Wine of 1885." 

Nicolai, Dr. Vittorio, Milan, for " 1st Ordinary Wine of 1887." 

Curtopassi, Marchese, Bisceglie, for " Sorgente." 

BuUi, Alessandro, Eecanati, for " Valdice." 

Orlandi, Bonfiglio & Co. (Cumbo Platania), Messina, for " Milazzo, 

BuUi, Alessandro, Eecanati, for " Balsaminia." 

II. Diploma. 
Tupputi, Marchese, Trani, for " Torricella, 1883." 
Cantina, Nicolai, Milan, for " quality, 1887," inferior quality. 
Ronchetti, G. C, London, for " Chianti Castel Barone," 
BuUi, Alessandro, Eecanati, for " Sangiovese." 

Angeleri, Carlo, Valenza, for " Wine of 1887." 
Curtopassi, Marchese, Bisceglie, for " Santa Barbara." 
De Giacomo, FrateUi, Naples. 

III. Diploma. 

Perroni, Ratto & Co., Genoa, for " Castel Piovera, 1887." 

Di Rende, Siciliano, Naples. 

De Cristoforo, Ludovico, Summonte, for " Wine of 1887." 

Marchese Viviani C. della Robbia, Florence, for " Chianti, 1886." 

Cav. Capponi Franceschi Marini, Florence. 

Gaeta, Gaetano, Montefredane. 

Franceschini, FrateUi, Lecce, iox " San Martino." 

Picardi, G. B., Val d'Arno Siiperiore, for " Sant' Antonio." 



464 THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 

Orsini, Pasq. Eaf., Capua, for " Campanorosso." 
Eomieux, G. A., Firenze, for " Pozzarello." 
Grassi, Carlo, London, for " Barolino." 
Barone, Eieasoli, Florence, for "Brolio." 
Farnerari, Manfredi, Monopoli. 
Peruzzi, Fattoria, Florence. 
Gennari, Euttilio, Eoncaglia-Pesaro. 

Superior Red Table Wine. 

I. Diploma. 
Eicci-Parracciani, Ancona, for " Montepulciano." 
Fossi, Cav. Giorgio, Florence. 

Barone Ant. Spitalieri, Catania, for " Etna." 

Maggiacomo, Giorgio, Palermo, for " Solunto." 

Jacobini, Fratelli, Rome, for " Genzano." 

Barberis, Cav. Francesco, Turin, for " Wine of 1883." 

Laborel-Mellini, L. L., Florence, for " Chianti." 

Marehese Valva d'Ayala, Salerno, for " Eed Wine." 

Ferri e Pierotti, London, for " Maolina." 

Marehese Policastrello, Palermo, for " Eed Wine." 

Barone Baracco G., Naples, for " Cacurri, 1874." 

Alesi, Valentino, Ortanova, for " Eed Wine." 

Duca di Salve, Naiiles, for "Eed Wine." 

Bosso, Fratelli, MombercelU, for " Barolo." 

AUiata, Duca di Salaparuta Ed., Palermo, for " Corvo." 

II. Diploma. 

Strutt, Arthur, Civita Lavinia, for " Eed Wine." 
Ceino, Pasquale, Lecce, for " Wine of 1884." 
Casein, E., Chianti, for " Eed Wine." 
Scala, Giuseppe, J^rtpies, for " Lacrima Christi." 
Quarone, Conjugi, Novello, for " Dolcetto." 

III. Diploma. 
Perroni-Eatto & Co., Genoa, for "Eed Wine." 
Cinzano & Co., Turin, for " Nebiolo." 

Gagna, Cav. & Co., Monforte d'Alba, for "Barolo, 1883." 
Barberis, Cav. Francesco, Turin, for "Barbera, 1883." 
Barone Antonio Spitaleri, Catania, for " Eed Wine." 
Opera Pia Barolo, Barolo, for "Barolo." 
Baracco, Barone G., Naples, for " Wine of 1880." 
Visocchi, Fratelli, Atina, for "Eed Wine." 
Duca di Salve, Naples, for " Lepra." 

Vermouth. 

I. Diploma. 
Branca, Fratelli, Milan. 
Majaris, Carlo, Turin, for " Marca Gialla," 



SUPPLEMENT. 465 

Moesle & Co., Saluzzo, for " Excelsior." 

DuprS e Bondoli, Turin. 

Gabutti, Pietro, Turin. 

Freund, Bailor & Co., Turin. 

Cinzano, Francesco & Co., Turin. 

Faramia, Luigi, Casalmonferrato. 

Giacobini, Fratelli, Altomonte, for " Marea Gialla." 

II. Diploma. 

Majaris, Carlo, Turin, for " Marca Bianca." 
Genta, Cav. G., Turin, 
Cinotti, A., Siena. 
Macchi, L., Milan. 
Pisani d'Auria, E., Naples. 

III. Diploma. 

Casissa, Angelo, Genoa. 

Methier & Eobbi, Saluzzo. 

Cantina, Chierici, Parma. 

Vivenza, Giuseppe, Turin. 

Moesle & Co., Saluzzo, for " Esportazione." 

Barberis, Cav. Francesco, Turin. 

Giacobini, Fratelli, Altomonte, for " Marca bleu." 

Spa/rkling Wine. 

I. Diploma. II. Diploma. 

Barone A. Spitalieri, Catania, for " his Moesle & Co., Saluzzo, for " Stella." 
collection." Carpenl-Malvolti, Conegliano. 

Gancia, Fratelli & Co., Canelli, for 

" their collection." HI. Diploma. 

Moriondo 6 Liprandi, ^sii. Cantina Chierici, Pama, for "Vigo- 

lante." 

Blending Wines. 

II. Diploma. III. Diploma. 
Societa Produttrice Vinicola, Gorato. Terrone, Gaetano, Salerno. 
Fiorentino, Edoardo, Gallipoli. Lops, Fratelli, Gorato. 
Oronzo Bodini, Ottanto. Ferri e Pierotti, London. 
Spada d'Agostino, Spinazzola. 

Gognac. 
I. Diploma. 
Society Generale per I'Acquavite, Messina, for " Cognac." 
Eigamonti, G. & Co., Milan, for " Cognac." 
Macchi, L., Milan, for " Cognac." 

II. Diploma. 
Barone A. Spitalieri, Gatania, for " Cognac." 
Ottavi 6 Morbelli, Gasalmonferrato, for " Cognac." 
iSancani, F. & Co., Sanpierdarena, for " Cognac Begina." 

30 



466 



TEE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 



III. Diploma. 
Barone A. Spitalieri, Catania, for " Cognac Etna.^' 

Liqueurs. 

I. Diploma. 
Garino, Eligio & Co., Biella, for " Eatafia." 

II. Diploma. 

Freund, Bailor & Co., Turin, for " Mandarino, Flora delle Alpi." 
Elia De-Sena, Naples, for " Diavoletto." 

III. Diploma. 

Avezzano, Flli., Turin, for " Elixir Dottor Kermann." 

Barattucci, Giulio, Pescara, for " Corfinio." 

Macchi, Luigi, Milan, for " Mandarino." 

Valfre, G. & Co., Turin, for " Menta Glaciale." 

Luciano, G., Pancalieri, for " Menta." 

Zancani, F. & Co., Sanpierdarena, " Curasao Eosso." 

SECTION B. 

MBMBEES OF THE JUBY ON OILS. 

Mr. E. Dowling, of Messrs. Pinchin, Johnson & Co. 
„ John B. Gallini „ Hilton, Eider & Co. 
„ Samuel Ward ,, Samuel Ward & Co. 
,, J. Claxton ,, Morel Brothers, Limited. 



Oils of Tuscany. 



I. Diploma. 
Mastiani, Brunacci, Pisa. 
Giannini, Matteucci, Lucca. 
Fossi, Cav. Giorgio, Florence. 

II. Diploma. 
Delle, Sedie Francesco, Calci {Pisa). 
Padelletti, Montalcino. 
Delia, Seta Cte. Alfredo, Lucca. 
Pietro, Franciosi Bani, Terricciuola. 
Flli. Pistrucci, Lucca and London. 
Caponi Fraceschi Marini, Pelago. 



Procacci Iginio, Florence. 

Carlo Grassi, Leghorn and London. 

III. Diploma. 
Delia Eobbia, March., Florence. 
Cinotti, A., Siena. 
Francesconi Callisto, Lucca. 
Ginori (Proprieta), Florence. 
Mimbelli, Cav. Luca, Leghorn. 
Fortuna, E. P., Lucca. 
Ferri & Pierotti, Lucca and London^ 



Oils of Northern Italy. 
II. Diploma. III. Diploma. 

Ferrari, Francesco, Porto Maurizio. Ghio, Flli. Fu. G. B., Chiavari^ 

Croce, Andrea, Oneglia. Fabris, Pietro, Conegliano. 



SUPPLEMENT, 



467 



Oils oj Southern Italy. 



1. Diploma. 
Di Eencte, Siciliano, Giovinazzot 

II. Diploma. 
De Donno, Achillej Maglie. 
MarinarOj Orlando, Sante Stefano Ca- 
viastra, 



III. Diploma* 
De Angelis, Ferdinaiido, Gajazzoi 
De Giacomo, Fill., Fofjgia. 
Bacile, Filippo, Sjjongano^ 



Oils of Timbriai 
(Collective Exhibit of the Foligno Chamber of Commerce.) 



I. Diploma. 
Mantovani, Dr. Alessandro, Giibhio. 

II. Diploma. 
Pesci, Nobile Federico, Cannaro. 
Salari, Domenico, Foligno. 
Virgili, Angelo, Vacone. 

Camera di Commercio, Foligno (type 

sample). 
Cimini, Felice, Aspra Sahina. 
Marignoli, M. Filippo, Trevi. 
Di Campello, Cte. Paolo, Spoleto. 
Segarelli, Settimio, Sangemini. 
Vignoli, Pompeo Ezio, Passignano. 
Giannani, Paolo, Montopoli. 

III. Diploma. 
Piastrelli, FUi., Castiglione del Lugo. 



Bovini, Cesare, Corciano. 
Nicolaj, Stanislao, Magione. 
Mancia, Antonio, Spello. 
Marchettoni, Francesco, Paciano. 
Marocchi, FUi., Monteleone. 
Mancini, Enrico, Foligno. 
Grassi, Sinibaldi Pasquale, Toffia.' 
Papi, Agostino Tuoro. 
Loreti, Anselmo, Montefctlco. 
Montani, Montano, Terni. 
Basili, Nicola, Otricoli. 
Minicucci, Liberato, Cottanello. 
Vicentini, Marchese Gab., Eoccantica. 
Natalucci, Giuseppe, Trevi. 
Fagotti, Giovanni, San Venanzio. 
Baglioni, Conte Oddi, Perugia. 
Poll, Adolfo, Spoleto, 



Class IV. 

MiNEEALS AND MeTALLUEGY. 
MEHBEES OF THE JUET. 

Messrs. Johnson, Matthey & Co. 

I. Diploma. 

Gregorini, Giovanni Andrea, Lovere {Lago d'Iseo). 

II. Diploma. 
Zamara, Nobile Gius., Spezia. 

III. Diploma. 

Mr. James Stevenson, Lipari. 

DIPLOMAS AWAEDED BY THE SUPPLEMENTAEY JTJEY. 

I. Diploma. 
Bocieta Anonima delle terre bolari, Siena, for excellent quality and preparation. 
Ci Lavelli & Co.^ Milan, for magnesia basic firebricks. 



468 



THE ITALIAN EXSlBITtON. 



Societa Anonima di BeneventOj Benevento, for perforated bricks and tiles. 
Bender e Martini, Turin, for asbestos, raw and wrought. 
De Valle Pelli, Turin, talc in powder> various produce from asbestos. 
Impresa Mineraria Italiana, Rome, for colouring earths with special mention of 
fossil meal. 

II. Diploinai 

E. Albasini & Co., Milan, for wrought asbestosn 

III. Diploma. 

United Asbestos Go., Sondrio, for wrought asbestos^ 

dlass V. 

•Mechanical Engineering, &c. 



MEMBERS OF THE JURY. 

h\ Ewart C. Amos, C.E., and Mr. Edwin Smith, of Messrs. Smith & Grace. 



I. Diploma. 
Battocchi, G. B., Verona. 
Biggi, G., Piacenza. 
Corsi, Pietro, Palermo. 
Cravero, E. & C, Genoa. 
Mini, G. B. &. P., Alessandria. 
Pagani, Fratelli, Milan. 



II. Diploma. 
Anderlini, G., Modena. 
Ballotta, G., Verona. 
Bellotti, S., London. 
Poesio, G., Turin. 

III. Diploma. 
Giusti, Taddeo, Modena. 



Class VI. 

Colonial and Chemical Products. 
SECTION A. 



MEMBERS OF THE JURY. 



Mr. W. E. Blenkinsop, of the firm of May & Baker. 
,, Chas. Umney, ,, ,, Wright, Layman & Umney. 



I. Diploma. 
Sulphur Mines of Girgenti, Girgenti. 
Eosselli, Angelo, Leghorn. 
Cassarini, Clodoveo, Bologna. 
Fabbrica Lombarda di Prodotti, 

Chimici, Milan. 
Torta, Giovanni, Turin. 

II. Diploma. 
Miniera di Torri, Florence, 
E. Brayda & Co., Turin. 
Erba, Carlo, Milan. 



L. Fino & Co., Turin. 
Jesu e Mosca, Naples. 
Eeimandi, Dr. Guiseppe, Acqui. 
Nascio, Avelhne e C, Messina. 
Venzano, Carlo Fu S., Genoa. 

III. Diploma. 
Societa delle Acque di Ceresole Eeale, 

Ceresole Reale. 
Gallia, Pietro, Brescia. 
Vincon, David, S, Germano (Pinerolo). 



SUPPLEMENT. 469 

SECTION B : PERFUMERY, SOAP AND ESSENCES. 
MEMBERS OF THE JURY, 

Messrs. Piesse and Lubin. 
„ John Gosnell and Co. 

Toilet Soaps. 

II. Diploma. 
Chiozza e Turchi, Pontelagoscuro. 

Soaps for Domestic Use. 

II. Diploma. 
Conti, E. e Figli, Leghorn. 
Medo Musmeci e Co., Acireale (Sicily). 

Essences of Bergamot, Oranges and Lemons. 

I. Diploma. 

Griso Melagrino Gaetano, Eeggio- Calabria. 
Labocetta Genoese, Reggio-Calabria. 

II. Diploma. 

Arcudi, F. & Co., Beggio-Galahria. 

SECTION C: CANDLES. 
JUKOR. 

Mr. George H. Spicer. 

I. Diploma. 
FUi. Lanza, Turin. 
FUi. Savorani, Pisa. 

Societa Anonima per la fabbricazione di candele steariche, 
Milan. 

II. Diploma. 
Vitali Maurizio, Naples. 

SECTION D: MEDICAL AND SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS. 
MEMBERS OF THE JURY. 

Henry A. Mustin, M.D. 

P. Percival Whitcombe, M.D. 

H. S. Bateman, M.D. 

I. Diploma. 

FUi. Avezzano, Turin. 
Pivetta, Gaetano, Naples, 
Scalaffa, Arrigo, Milan. 



470 THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 

II. Diploma. ■: 

Galante e Pivetta, Naples, 

Class VII. 

Textile Peoducts and Fabrics. 
section a: hemp and hemp manufactures. 

JDKOE. 

Mr. W. Good, of Messrs. W. Good & Sons. 

I. Diploma. 11. Diploma. 

Camera di Commercio, Ferrara. Canapificio Ferrarese, Ferrara. 

Comizio Agrario, Bologna and Forli. Municipalita di Carmagnola. 

Ceiiani e Co., Milqn. Count Francesco Spinelli, Naples. 

Comm. Carlo Zizzi, Naples. 

A. Cavalieri, Ferrara. 

SECTION B: HORSE HAIR. 
JUKOR. 

Mr. James N. Blyth, of Messrs. Blyth & Sons, 

AWARD. 

Pacchetti, Francesco & Co., Milan. 

SECTION C: SILKS AND TEXTILE FABRICS. 
MEMBERS OF THE JURY. 

Mr. Thomas Wardle, President of the British Silk Company 
,, William B. Leaf, of Messrs. Leaf, Sons & Co. 
,, Henry Birchenough, of Messrs. Birchenough & Sons. 
,, Chas. E. D. Gumming, of Messrs. Durrant & Sons. 
,, Lindsay A. Walters, of Messrs. Walters & Co., Ld. 
,, George Griffin. 

I. Diploma with Special Mention. 
Bernardo Solei, Turin, silk brocades, &c. 
Jesurum, M. e C, Venice, lace. 

I. Diploma, 
Pasquale de Vecchi e C, Milan, silk, raw and thrown. 
A. Giretti, Bricherasio, silk, raw and thrown. 
Sinigaglia erede Salomone, Turin, silk, raw and thrown. 
Semenza e Kavasi, Milan, silk, raw and thrown. 
Ausano Lazzaroni, 3Iilan, silk, spun and twisted. 
Offritelli, Pascal e C, Naples, silk brocades, &c. 
F. Vernazzi, Milan, silk brocades, &c. 
Bersanino, Corti e Marengo, Turin, silk stuffs, 



SUPPLEMENT. 471 

Carcano Musa e C, Gomo, silk stuffs. 

Mariano Amaclori, Rome, coverlets and scarves. 

Flli. Scliiavio e C, Gorla, coverlets and scarves. 

Lodovico Castagna, Milan, stuffs and flannels. 

Sella e Eezia, Milan, stuffs and flannels. 

A. Eistori, Florence, lace. 

Scuola Merletti, Burano, lace. 

Einaldo, Martini fu Giuseppe, Milan, embroidery in gold and silver. 

Emilio Masson, Milan, elastics for boots. 

Smargiassi, Venice, paintings on gauze. 

Ing. Eoberto Taeggi Piscieelli, Naples, painting on silk screens and fans. 

Luigi Villa, Acqiiaseria, felt hats. 

Gargiulo e C, Naples, gloves. 

II. Diploma. 
Francesco Ferrari Ant, Milan, raw silk. 

Antonio Gti&n7.i.m,Gliignolo Po, „ and for silk for embroidery. 
Prof. Luigi Corsi, Turin, cocoons. 
Maiia Bosio fu Elia, Milan, coverlets and scarves. 
Flli. Barbarulo, Salerno, stuffs. 
A. Beati, Milan, hosiery. 
Albina Fontana, Borne, Eoman scarves. 
Eugenia Berra ed Annetta Piovano, Turin, for screens. 
Giuseppina Pini, Milan, embroidery. 
Giulia Eivolta, Milan, „ 

Giacinto Cesati e Figli, Milan, embroidery in gold and silver. 
S. Salvadori e Figlio, Florence „ „ 

Eoberto Majuri, Naples, silk screens and fans. 
Isaia Eeina, Milan, silk hats. 

III. Diploma. 
Antonio Denegri, Novi Ligure, silk, raw and thrown. 
Cav. Ant. Pascucci Garulli, Becanati, raw silk. 
Luigi Pahnieri, Naples, silk brocades. 
Antonio Beretta, Milan, coverlets and scarves. 
Giovanni Valori, Milan, hand embroidery. 
Emilia Trenti, Bologna „ „ 

Bernardo Eosani e Figlio, Brescia, fans. 
Cesare Hirsch e Figii, Ferrara, hosiery. 
Gennaro Insons, Naples, gloves. 

DIPLOMAS AWARDED BY THE SUPPLEMENTARY JURY. 

I. Diploma. 
Alfonso Orsenigo, Milan, embroidery designs. 
G. Mercandino, Turin, waterproofs. 
Giuseppe Moroni, Naples, hosiery. 



472 



THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 



Class VIII. 

SECTION A : PAPERS— BOOKS AND STATIONERY— TYPOGRAPHICAL AND DIDAC 
TICAL WORKS— ITALIAN INSTITUTIONS IN GENERAL. 

MEMBERS OF THE JURY. 

Comm, E. Bonghi. 

Mr. ¥. 0. Stevens, of Messrs. Powell & Co., London. 

,, F. A. Bell, of Waterlow & Sons, Limited. 

„ H. E. Tedder. 

,, A. Gallenga. 



Category I. : Publishers. 



I. Diploma. 
Ermanno Loescher, Turin. 

F. Ongania, Venice. 

G. B. Paravia e Co., Turin. 
L. Pasqualucei, Rome. 
Luigi Eoux e Co., Turin. 
Fratelli Salmin, Padua. 



II. Diploma. 
L. Battei, Parma. 

L. Ferrari {Istituto Sordo-Muti), Genoa. 
Cav. Ant. Morano, Naples. 
A. G. Morelli, Ancona. 



Category II. : Printers. 



I. Diploma. 
Vincenzo Bona, Turin. 
Francesco Vigo, Leghorn. 
Stamperia Eeale, Turin. 
Tipografia Salesiana, Turin. 

Category III. 

I. Diploma. 
G. Commoretti e Figlio, Milan. 
Pagano Gennaro, Naples. 



II. Diploma. 
Feliciano Campitelli, Foligno. 
S. Simboli, Eecanati. 



Type Founders. 

Wooden Type. 
II. Diploma. 
Espartero Toni e Co., Foligno. 
Francesco Salvati, Foligno. 



Category IV. : Paper, Eaw and Manufactured, 



I. Diploma. 

Fratelli Bellenghi, Mantua. 
A. Caccia e Ci, Milan. 
Pietro Miliani, Fabriano. 
C. Simondetti e Figlio, Turin. 
Stabilimenti del Fibreno, Isola del 
Liri. 



II. Diploma. 
Cartiera Italiana, Turin. 
Francesco Ferrario, Como. 
Vonwiller e Co., Romagnano-Sesia. 
Giovanni Ferro, Milan. 

III. Diploma. 
La Cartotecnica, Milan. 



Category V. : Didactical and Educational Works. 

[For the reasons set forth in the report, no diploma has been awarded for 
this category.] 



SUPPLEMENT. 473 

. Category VI. : Geogkapht. 

I. Diploma. 
Pianca, Simondetti e Ci, Turin. 
It. Eoux e Co., Turin, 

Category VII. : Ohromolithogeapht, Photoxype, and Photozincotype. 

I. Diploma. II. Diploma. 

Fratelli Oattaneo, Bergamo. Pianca, Simondetti e Ci, Turin. 
Giuseppe Ferroni, Florence. 

L. Giani, Turin. III. Diploma. 

G. Pavarotti, Modena. Giovanni Scarpati, Naples. 
V. Turati, Milan. 

Category VIII. : Calligkaphy. 

I. Diploma. 

Prof. Silvestro Provini, Pavia. 
Giulio Euggieri, Teramo. 
Sorelle Eatto, Genoa. 

Category IX. : Institutes. 

I. Diploma. 
Scuola Serale d'Arte Applicati, Avellino. 

Category X. : Account Books. 

I. Diploma. 

Eag. Cav. Gius. Bareggi, Milan. 
E. Pisani, Turin. 

SECTION B: PHOTOGRAPHS. 

I. Diploma. 
G. Broggi, Florence. 

Ugo Bettini, Leghorn, for photographs and for a treatise on photography. 
Carlo Naya, Venice, for artistic photographs. 
Barone Melazzo, Naples, for a new photographic apparatus. 
Charvet & Grassi, Turin, for photographs. 

II. Diploma. 

Fratelli Nicotra, Messina, for photographs. 

III. Diploma. 

A. Pesce, Naples, for photographs and photoengravings. 

SECTION C: PROJECTS AND STUDIES. 
MEMBERS OP THE JURY. 

Cav. Guglielmo Grant. Mr. J. W. Peggs. 

Mr. George Estall. Sig. Giuseppe Galetti. , 



474 THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 

I. Diploma. 
Lamont Young, Engineer, Naples, for his project for the improvement and 
extension of Naples. 

. Class IX. 

Fdenitdee — Decoeation — Caeeiages. . 

membees of the juey. 
Mr. H. Henry, of Messrs. Gillow & Co. 
„ G. S. Lucraft. 
,, W. Benn. 

I. Diploma. 
Bugatti, Carlo, Milan, for originality of .design. 
Biasotti, Venice, for inlaid and carved tables. 
Campi, G. B., Rovellasea, for fine workmanship. 
Corbetta, Carlo, Milan, fqr splendid furniture. 

„ „ Pompeian style. 

Flaibani, A., Venice, for very fine carved work. 
Foca, Eocco, Turin, „ ,, ,, 

Gaolio, G. B., Genoa, for inlaid work in mosaic and ivory. 
Grandi, Francesco, Sorrento, for coloured tables and inlaid work. 
Givanni, D., Vicenza, for a, very fine writing table. 

Guggenheim, M., Venice, for carved work and furniture of the highest merit. 
Martinotti, L., Turin, for carved cabinets and furniture. 
Mastrodonato, L., Naples, for carved book-case. 
Mora, Flli., Milan e Bergamo, stamped leather for tapestry. 
Picchi, Andrea, Florence, for a carved walnut writing table. 
Quartara, G., Turin, for cabinets and furniture of the highest order. 
Eaddi, G., Venice, for very fine carvings in wood. 
Eomanelli, F., Florence, for carved work. 
Eossi, G. & Co., Venice, for Louis XV. furniture. 
Salviati & Co., ,, for furniture and carved work. 
Toso, F., Venice, for sculptures in wood. 
Vanni, J. fu V., Naples, for furniture, Arabian style. 
Vergani & Co., Turin, for furniture and tapestry. 
Zara & Zen, Milan, for fine carvings and furniture. 

II. Diploma. 
Aimone, Vittorio, Paris, for very fine workmanship. 
Bauer, Adolfo, Florence, for furniture generally. 

Bertolotti, Fco., Milan, for a piece of renaissance style furniture. 

Borelli, D., Naples, for furniture, Arabian style. 

Cadorin, V., Venice, for figures in carved wood. 

Cambi, C, Siena, for furniture generally. 

Candiani, Nap., Venice, for furniture, antique style. 

Cassina, G., Milan, for carved furniture. 

Cattaneo, S., Milan, for carved furniture. 



SUPPLEMENT. 475 

Cortellazzo, S., Vicenza, for very fine work in carved wood (Fapade of the 

Olympic Theatre of Palladio). 
Dal Tedesco, M., Venice, for cabinet in carved wood. 
Duse & Campiglio, Milan, for inlaid furniture. 

Gomez, E., Venice, for furniture inlaid with marbles and precious stones. 
Guetta, G. & Co., Venice, for carved furniture. 
Istituto, Evangelico Industriale, Venice, for furniture generally. 
Leva, E. & Figlio., Messina, for jewel case in carved wood. " 

Mariani, E. di A., Milan, for carved furniture. 
Oliverio, Sisto, Milan, for bedroom furniture in Louis XVI. style. 
Pizzati, G., Vicenza, for furniture in general. 
Pogliani, Fernando, Milan, for inlaid furniture. 
Poll, M., Venice, for figures in carved wood. 
Polo, G., Bassano {Vicenza), for "Sulky." 
Euggiero, G. (of the Credito Industriale Napolitano), Nai^les, for carved 

furniture. 
Sellaro, C, Naples, for wood carvings (view of Pompeii). 
Zanetti, Antonio, Vicenza, for carved furniture. 

III. Diploma. 
Besana, A. & Co., Milan, for chair frames. 
Borelli, Pasquale, Naples, for furniture, Arabian style. 
Biraghi, G., Venice, for walnut book-case. 
Dante, Francesco, Turin, billiard cues. 
Ferri e Bartolozzi, Siena, for carved furniture. 
Gasperini, Luigi, Turin, for furniture, Gothic style. 
Gatti, Giov., Milan, for inlaid furniture. 
Materozzoli, E., Florence, for furniture in general. 
Monti, G., Milan, for furniture in general. 
Minghetti, G. B., Vicenza, for furniture in general. 
Piazza, G. fu A., Venice,- iov carved furniture. 
Querena, F., Turin, for carved furniture, 
Eamelli, A., Milan, for furniture in general. 
Eietti, D., Venice, for inlaid and carved furniture. 
Tradico, FUi., Milan, mirrors and artistic chairs. 
Yalli, Domenico fu Antonio, Boccaleone (Bergamo), for anti-seasickness chairs. 

DIPLOMAS AWARDED BY THE SUPPLEMENTAEY JDKT. 

I. Diploma. 
Zari, Fratelli, Milan, wood flooring. 
Garganico, Apollo, Bellagio, turned olive wood. 

II. Diploma. 
Cambieri, T. e C, Milan, fancy articles for decoration. 

III. Diploma. 
Zanfi, G, e Fratelli, Modena, inlaid wood flooring. 

Gargiullo, G., Sorrento, inlaid wood work. • 

Contarini, Carmela, Naples, inlaid wood work. 

CangiuUo, Gennaro, Naples, antique and modern furniture. 



476 THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 

Class X. 

Artistic Industeies, Glass, Mosaics, Porcelain, Jewellery, &c. 

SECTION A : PORCELAIN AND GLASS. 

members of the joey. 

Mr. Fred. Litchfield. Mr. William Henry Fairbairns, of 

„ Wilton P. Eix. Messrs. William Fairbairns & Sons 

Mr. John B. Austin. 

I. Diploma. 
Antonibon Pasquale e Figli, Nove Veneto, artistic majolica. 
Moreno, Cesare, Genoa, artistic majolica. 

A. Minghetti e Figlio, Bologna, terra cotta, specially for the bust of Emanuele 

Filiberto. 
Cacciapuoti, Ettore e G.. Posilippo, terra cotta. 
Ghiloni e Gabbanini, Pisa, do. 

Compagnia Venezia-Murano, Venice, artistic glass ware. 

Do. do. do. mosaic in glass, specially for a portion of 

frieze for American Church in Eome. 

II. Diploma. 

D. Tadolini e C, Florence, artistic majolica and terra cotta. 

Alberto Melillo, Naples, do. do. 

Luigi Caramanna, Naples, do. do. 

Societa Musiva, Venice, mosaic in glass. 

Luigi Delia Venezia, Venice, glass enamels used in mosaic work. 

Dair Ara, Milan, terra cotta. 

Cetti e Figli, Carenno Lario, glass for scientific purposes. 

III. Diploma. 
G. Macario e Figlio, Turin, artistic decoration in glass. 
Societa Ceramiche Artistiche, C. Gai., Pesaro, artistic majolica. 
Molaroni, Vincenzo, Pesaro, do. 

D'Amato, Edoardo, Naples, do. 

Margaroto, Venice, terra cotta. 
Pruvini e G.,' Milan, do. 
Guetta Gius. e C, Venice, artistic glass. 
Candiani Napoleone, Venice, do. 

Do. do. do. mosaic. 

Tenca e C, Milan, artistic mirrors. 

DIPLOMA AWAEDED BY THE SUPPLEMENTARY JURY. 

Bonlini & Arbib, Venice, I. diploma, glass enamels used in mosaic work. 

SECTION B : JEWELLERY, etc. 
MEMBERS OF THE JUEY. 

Sir John Bennett. 

Mr. Sigfried Strauss, of Messrs. Backes & Strauss, Limited. 

Messrs. Hancocks & Co. 



SUPPLEMENT. 



477 



I. Diploma. 
Giacinto Melillo, Naples, category A. 
Luigi e FUi., Venice, category A. 

B. Merlo e C. , Milan, church vestments and gold and silver vessels. 
Giuseppe Accarisi e Nipote, Florence, category C. 
Arnaldo Salvestri, Leghorn, category D. 
Francati e Santamaria, Rome, category E. 
Giovanni Ugolini, Florence, category F. 
Pietro Fiorentino, Rome, category F. 

II. Diploma. 
Agostino Boni, Rome, category A. 
Luigi Pierret, Rovie, category A. 
Alessandro^Bertolotti, Paris, category A. 
Enrico Einaldini, Rome, category B. 
Egisto Sivelli, Genoa, category B. 
Costantino Calvi, Rome, category C. 
B. M. Criscuolo, Castellamare, category D. 
Michele Piscione, Naples, category E. 
Cav. Luigi Labriola, Naples, category E. 
Fallani e C, Rome, category F. 
Bargigli e Grazzini, Florence, category F. 

III. Diploma. 
G. B. Cristofanetti, Rome, category C. 
Eaffaele Costa e C, Genoa, category D. 
Domenico Pascoli, Rome, category E. 
A. Montelatici e Figli, Florence, category F. 

SECTION C: METAL WORK. 

MEMBERS OF THE JURY. 

Mr. Henry Baily. 
,, Edwin Heteber, of Messrs. Winfields, Limited. 



I. Diploma. 
Donato Bastanzetti, Udine. 

De Luca, Carmine e Figlio, Naple 
Ing. Francesco de Poli, Vittorio. 
Antonio Pandiani, Milan. 
Cav. Alessandro Nelli, Rome. 
Pietro Tis, Venice. 
Prospero Castello, Twin. 
Gaetano Smorti, Florence. 

II. Diploma. 

Conversini e C, Pistoja. 
Sabatino de Angelis, Naples. 
Salvatore Errico, Naples. 
"Fratelli Lapini, Florence. 



Cesare Pertile e C. , Milan. 

Ing. Eoberto Piscicelli Taeggi, Naples^ 

Giuseppe Calligaris, Udine. 

Latino Movio, Milan. 

Antonio Lora, Vicenza. 

Gius. Michieli e Figlio, Venice. 

Olivotti Lodovico, Venice. 

Pellas Gius, Florence. 

III. Diploma. 
Fratelli Alfano, Naples. 
Giovanni Biggi, Rome. 
Enrico Fumagalli, Turin. 
Fratelli Eomani, Milan. 



,478 THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION, 

Class XI. 

SECTION A : MANUFACTURES NOT OTHERWISE CLASSIFIED. 

JDEOE. 
Mr. John Short. 

I. Diploma. 
Enrico Vigevano, Milan. 

0. Committi, Brienno-Lario (& London. 
E. Cetti, Careno-Lario <& London. 

SECTION B : LEATHER WORK. 

MEMBERS -or THE JURY. 

Mr. E. J. Snow. Mr. Trew E. Snow. 

I. Diploma. 

Felice Eranzi, Milan, for his excellent collection of portmanteaux, &c. 

Luigi Ferro, Naples, for an assortment of ladies' walking boots and shoes, fancy 

embroidered shoes, and gentlemen's walking boots. 
Filippo Avanzini, Rome, for men's glove button boots, cloth elastic sides, and 

ladies' glac6 button boots and bronze shoes. 
Fratelli Martini, Calci (Pisa), for the leather manufactures in purses, bags, 

straps, &c. 
Silvio delle Sedie, Calci (Pisa), for dyed roans. 
Giovanni Spissu, Gagliari, for tanned leather hides. 
Marcello Casarino, Staglieno [Genoa), for tanned leather hides. 
Carlo Mongini, Turin, for an assortment of ladies' walking and evening boots and 

shoes, and gentlemen's walking boots. 
Sebastiano Bocciardo, Genoa, for tanned leather hides. 

II. Diploma. 

Alfio Scandurra, Catania, for gentlemen's walking boots and shoes. 
Melchiorre Vinci & Sons, Palermo, for men's high-legged riding boots and an 

assortment of general walking boots. 
Pietro Serralunga, Biella, for his specialties in leather. 

Domenico Greco, Turin, for gentlemen's walking boots and rough grain boots. 
Fratelli Picich^, Messina, for tanned leather hides. 

III. Diploma. 

Costante Ferriguto e Figli, Padua, for men's rough Levant boots for peasants. 
Antonio Manetti, Turin, for men's rough boots and women's lasting ditto. 
Cavahere G. Pierni, Leghorn, for men's russet shoes for military use. 

SECTION G I BROOMS AND BRUSHES. 

. MEMBERS OF THE JURY. 

Messrs. J. A. Rooney & Sons. 

I. Diploma. II. Diploma. 

!Pasquale Cometti, Borgoricco {Padua), Antonio Piovesan, Nervesa (Treviso). 



SUPPLEMENT. 479 

SECTION D: BATHS. 
JUEOE. 

C. Hay ward, Esq., of Messrs. Shanks & Co. 

A first-class diploma to Signer Annibale Callarotti, of Turin, for his sitz and 
needle baths. 

Class XII. 

Products of the Sea ; Naval Architecture ; Fisheries, &c. 

A first-class diploma with special mention was awarded to the Ministry of 
Marine for its splendid exhibit of naval models. 

Class XIII. 

Education and Italian Institutions. 
This class was examined by the jury appointed for Class VIII., quod vide. 

Class XIV. 

Music and Musical Instruments. 

jviembees of the jury. 
Mr. Thos. J Brinsmead. 
,, Isaac Barrow. 

„ Edward E. Terry (Messrs. Chappell & Co.) 
,, John Hopkinson. 
,, A. J. Hipkins. 

I. Diploma. 

Eicordi e C, Milan and London, for musical publications. 
Simonetti, Francesco, Naples, for his pianista. 
Trevisan, Girolamo, Bassano Veneto, for violin cords. 
Melegari, Enrico, Turin, for string instruments. 
Platania, M., Naples, for various compositions. 
Ajello, Giuliano, London, for vertical pianos. 
Ducci, Carlo, Florence and London, for pianos. 

II. Diploma. 

Caldera, Ing. Lugi, Turin, for Calder harp (new instrument). 

Gavioli & Co., Paris, pneumatic pianos. 

Giudici e Strada, Tiirin, for music and musical instruments. 

Tromba, M. T., London, for mouthpieces for brass instruments. 

Marchetti, Enrico, Turin, for a violin. 

Degani, Enrico, Montagnana, for system of repairing violins. 

Celentano, M., Naples, for excellent mandolinets. 

Ducci, Carlo, Florence and London, for publications. 

III. Diploma. 
Blanchi, F., Torino, for musical publications. 
Mezzetti, Flli., Budrio, for ocarine. 

Conversini e C, Pistoia, for assortment of special musical instrumeiits.- 



480 TRE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 

Miscellaneous. 

Diplomas Awarded by the Sxjpplementaey Juet. 

list of awards for unclassified exhibits. 

I. Diploma of Honour with Special Mention. 
Ministry of Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce, Borne, for a magnificent 

collection of samples. 
Ministry of Marine, Bome, for splendid collection of naval models. 
Corps of Eoyal Mining Engineers, Borne, for its splendid collection. 
Felice Bottino, Genoa, for mill stones. 

I. Diploma. 
Achille, Eobbiati, Coma, for vegetable ivory buttons. 
Edoardo, Tacchini, Palazzolo sulV Oglio, for buttons in general. 
G. Sardi & Co., Venice, for organic and inorganic manures. 
Angeli, Bignotti, Milan, for iron wire. 

Lavoro & Carita, Naples, for embroidery and straw-work. 

II. Diploma. 
Alesio, Sofia, Messina, barrels. 

Andrea, Gastaldi, Turin, guano and manure. 

Zuccato & Wolff, Venice, trypograph. 

Cav. Garnier, Valletti, Turin, artificial fruit. 

G. Zucchi, Milan, targets. 

T. Lemoigne & Co., Milan, corks. 

G. Canavesio, Turin, coffee machines. 

Cesare Marchini, Fiesole, straw-work. 

Alessio Maffiolini, Bome, horse-shoes. 

F. Viola, London, tailoring. 

Gallantini & Kizzieri, Turin, sausage machines. 

III. Diploma. 
Luigi, Bossa, Vercelli, for chicory and coffee. 
Emilio, Ferrari, Turin, for a mechanical bust. 



EEPORT OF THE WINE JURY.* 

To the Members of the Italian Chamber of Commerce in London. 

Gentlemen, — Having at length finished completely the task you were good 
enough to impose upon us as Jury for the Italian Wines, Spirits, and Liqueurs, 
and having duly handed in our awards for the several Diplomas of Honour you 
placed at our disposition, we ought perhaps to consider our function at an end. 

We have thought, however, it would at least be accepted as a courteous 
tribute to the efforts of your countrymen to extend the happiest relations of com- 
merce, if we endeavoured to place upon the records of your very enterprising 

* Owing to the importance of the subject of " Italian Wines," some of the more salient remarks, 
to which it is advisable to call the attention of the reader, have been printed in Italics. 



SUPPLEMENT. 481 

■ Exhibition a few notes in relation to our tastings, whicli may at the same time 
prove to be interesting to some of your people in Italy, and possibly useful at a 
future time to those who may desire to initiate another and similar Exhibition. 

We could not approach the tasting of Italian Wines, under the circumstances 
in which they were presented to us, without feeling that the task was as difficult 
as it was hkely to be unsatisfactory to all concerned, unless the recognised 
modus o])erandi of judging Wines without prejudice was carefully arranged and 
rigidly adhered to. 

Too frequently Medals, Diplomas, and Awards, as doubtless you are aware, 
have been given so perfunctorily and so recklessly, as to discount their value in 
the eyes of the world. 

Too much tribute and regard have been paid to houses who, while no doubt 
deserving every honour previously obtained, have not always kept their brand 
up to the standard to which an almost daily competition was legitimately and 
. naturally enforcing them. 

The religious loorsliip of the rising sun ivas not always observed, if indeed itivas 
not vieiued ivith a suspicion of its possible heresy. 

We therefore resolved to taste all Wines ivithout reference to their titles or to the 
names of groivers and shippers. 

Diplomas ivere consequerdly given to anonymous samples, solely and wholly upon 
the merits of the Wines themselves so presented. 

By this simple and obviously fair process of elimination another great defect of 
these awards has, loe hope, been avoided. 

Hitherto medals have been given for one or two articles, and these have been 
indiscriminately attached to others of the same proprietor to which the award 
had no reference. 

Wine varying as it must by reason of soil, ehmate, and aspect, to say nothing 
of the more or less intelligent care and treatment it may receive, cannot be 
assessed at an uniform level of excellence, nor, in our judgment, can any one 
house monopolize the whole values of a district or a country. 

Your jury have, therefore, sought to give Diplomas to such particular Wines 
as are named in the award, and to these only ; and we shall ask you to convey 
this notification, if you agree with its justice and the limit of its application, to 
the several successful competitors. 

This system may perhaps have involved a more lavish expenditure of your 
much prized honours, but you will better understand the reasons which have 
guided our actions after these observations. 

Again, we must record that, accustomed as we are to the survey and tasting 
of wines, the task you allotted to us was, as to its extent, of a magnitude 
altogether unexpected. 

We believe we have had under our review some 700 or 800 samples. 

Nevertheless, we hope your Italian exhibitors will come before the markets of 
this country again, not only as competing amongst themselves, but as challenging 
the other Wine-growers of Europe and the ivorld of Wine. 

We would in such case suggest that, before exhibiting, counsel should be 
taken between the executive, the exhibitor, and those who will have to pass 
judgment upon their products, so that a closer organisation of details may exist. 

By the application of a little technical judgment, guided by experience, in 

31 



482 THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 

unison with the wishes of exhibitors, not only could the labour of tasting be 
simplified and thereby lightened, but the dangerous mistakes to which even 
experts are liable in the sample-room might be minimised, if not avoided 
altogether. 

We are of opinion that to every Wine should be affixed a selling price, as being 
the simplest test of market value. That in order to prevent any undue attrition 
with trade interests by unreasonable or accidental publicity, such price should 
be enhanced by a certain percentage, to be fixed by the Chamber of Commerce 
or the Executive Council, admitting a good but legitimate profit as necessarily 
due to the trade intermediaries of distribution. 

It is obvious, for example, that a Wine at £10 per hhd. would be found to take 
preference of another, which, though similar in character, could be purchased 
for one-half the price, while, on the other hand, it is quite within the range of 
experience that a Wine 50 per cent, cheaper than others might carry a ' ' double 
first," and that possibly upon an assessment as to merit enhanced by combina- 
tion with a consideration of its price. 

We merely desire to offer this and similar suggestions in order that, as the 
question of Italian Wine cannot, will not, and we feel ought not to be allowed to 
slumber, the next survey will result in a statement of facts, figures, and opinions 
even more satisfactory to serious workers than we can perhaps make them in the 
limits of this particular report. 

Another point we trust you will permit us to urge. 

In these hyper-sentimental days, when the burning question of temperance, as it 
is called, is on every platform, purity of Wine becomes a factor of excellence of 
inexpressible value and repute. 

The handiwork of nature being more cunning than that of man, a jury would 
especially after a more intimate study of your Wines, be able to detect the fanciful 
and foolish addition of roots, fruits, sugar, or other extraneous flavours to Wine, 
but it should in future be a condition that no spirit should have been added 
to Wines classified as containing nothing but that which is indigenous to them, 
and in all cases the natural or unnatural alcoholic force should be exactly stated 
on each sample submitted. 

In many cases exhibitors, upon request, kindly submitted their samples to 
our customary market test, with results at once interesting, satisfactory, and 
encouraging. 

In like manner we were furnished with the prices of many of the Wines, and 
in this particular again we have been agreeably and usefully instructed. 

We respectfully suggest that it would at all times be well to have a certificate 
of origin authoritatively furnished with each sample. 

Not that we have any very considerable doubts on the subject, so far as these 
tastings are concerned, but we feel constrained to record that in one instance 
certainly we had placed before us by an Italian house under Italian names, 
Wines which were unmistakably the produce of Portugal, Spain, and France. 

We will ask your permission to decline to give the name of the firm in question, 
content with pointing out a danger of commercial trickery, against which in future 
you will probably desire to protect yourselves. 

Further, so admirably, so courteously, so fairly, honourably, and earnestly 
bave your exhibitors placed their Wines before us, that, while anxious to be just 



SUPPLEMENT. 483 

and candid ourselves, we would prefer that no taint nor breath of suspicion should 
hang over either the exhibitors or our own efforts, and we authorise you, if you 
think well, not to mention this paragraph in our report, if upon consideration 
you think it kindly, right, or politic to avoid allusion to an incident which, had 
it occurred earlier in the tastings, would have trebled the labours and would 
have sensibly increased the anxieties of your jury. 

As to the Wines themselves, we wish to say a few words. 

We had no sooner begun to taste than it was at once seen that a large propor- 
tion of the wines submitted were undergoing the process, more or less, of active 
fermentation, and we decided to place " liors concours " each and every one of 
these, as being what is termed unmarketable, if not in some instances quite un- 
sound and unsaleable. 

Admitting, as we are free to admit after this Exhibition, the exceeding value 
of Italy's raw materials, to wit, the juice of the grape, such material in its primi- 
tive stages can have no place in the markets of this country, and, we should 
think, very little chance in any other. Contracts run here upon the line that 
Wine, when shipped, should require merely the ordinary cellar treatment before 
being bottled and presented to the consumer. 

We have neither the climate, the room, nor the technical skill, as a rule, 
available in our cellars to nurse Wine when crudely and carelessly shipped, 
scarcely to save it if going wrong. In such case Wine shipped too young and 
too soon may possess all the elements of fine development and still become 
hopelessly imperfect. 

It is more than probable that the inconsiderate storing and handling of the 
samples submitted to us by inexperienced persons may have caused a dis- 
appointment to some of your exhibitors, solely on the ground of that common 
difficulty, to which we are all liable, by reason of the ill-condition, or im- 
perfection of samples. 

In justice to your exhibitors, allusion should be made to this, as it may 
account for the exclusion of Wines which ought otherwise to have been in the 
competition, and it will emphasise our previous suggestion that counsel 
should be taken with exhibitors before exhibiting, particularly as to the samples 
submitted. 

The proportion of Wines we were compelled to reject on the grounds indicated 
must represent a loss in bulk of melancholy magnitude, if attributed to anything 
other than to accidental defect. 

We implore you to make known to your countrymen, as mellifluously as your 
sonorous language will permit, our opinion that it will be impossible to realise 
the fruits of their efforts or their vines, unless scrupulous regard be paid to the 
condition and more perfect fermentation of their Wines, before they submit thevi to 
competition or offer them for consumption. 

More careful attention, too, should be given to the selection of properly 
seasoned casks. 

The prejudices of the British consumer are well known to those whose mission 
it is to face them, and nothing has done more to arrest the progress of Italian 
Wines in the estimation of our countrymen, than the imperfect and unnecessarily 
crude manner in which they have been too frequently shipped, 

For Marsalas we opened a special taste, 



484 THE ITALIAN EXHIBITIOlSf. 

Criticism upon sliiiDments made by such old and respected houses as figure in 
this competition would tax as much the courage as the ability of this jury ; still, 
by way of comment, we get ourselves to record a hope that the time is not far 
distant when Marsala shippers will be able to take advantage of the improving 
taste of this country, and ship their Wines with age and with the spirit only 
which is indigenous to the Wine itself. 

Under the receut treaty with Spain, and the consequent adjustment of the 
tariff of duties upon Wines generally, this has now become possible, and the 
Sicilians, as well as the Spaniards, will do well to consider whether the time is 
not coming, if it be not already come, when the English consumer will have 
ceased to regard spirit and sweet as absolutely necessary additions to natural 
Wine. We submit the unduly stunted consumption of Marsala, as of Sherry, 
vindicates this observation. 

As to " Blending Wijies," of which you initiated a class, we have little very 
favourable to report. 

The name "Blending Wines" was unfortunately ill chosen, and the Wines 
were inconsiderately shipped. 

We feel strongly on this point. 

The Wines of Italy — the representative Wines, so lo speak — are so good, and 
are sufficiently prolific in quantity, that even in their own country we submit no 
attempt should be made to blend, alter, or deflect them in any fanciful manner 
to a false or artificial standard of imaginary excellence. 

Some of the sparkling Wines show great promise. 

No Wines have hitherto been discovered that seem to possess inherent 
qualities which enable them to be made sparkling, except those from the, 
valley of the Marne. 

Italy has, at this Exhibition at all events, challenged the pretensions of 
Champagne, and we are of opinion that not a few of her sparkling descriptions, 
if those submitted to us be the true type, will in future compel respectful con- 
sideration even from the tremendous army of the successful shippers of the. 
Champagne country. 

The Wines in very many instances have been carefully prepared and judiciously 
shipped. 

As to Vermouth we can only say it has been shown at this Exhibition to be 
good enough to be made a specialty for Italy. Our award of Diplomas in this 
class has given us much pleasure, as we think we see the probability of such a 
Wine Bitter being adopted by the fastidious palate of English consumers. 

We wish we could say as much, or speak so hopefully, of Italian Liqueurs. 

If words of ours could weigh with our friends in Italy, we should desire to 
discourage this useless advent of an impossible article. 

Impressed as every Englishman must be with the " high art " of the Italians, ■ 
even in matters of commerce, we cannot recognise in their Liqueurs the slightest 
merit either in their own fantastic originality or in the very indifferent copies of 
the fanciful manufactures of other countries. 

In most cases the gravest defect is the palpable impurity of the spirit used. 

Your Executive attendants, who so kindly assisted at our surveys, pressed 
upon us the desirability of completing our work by exhausting the Liqueurs, or 
we should have altogether avoided this, " the last straw," of abgyt 150 samples 



SVPPLEMENI: 485 

of eccentric concoctions, as putting too great a stress upon our physical endur- 
ance. Eescuing, however, some of the Liqueurs from the oblivion the others 
would have entailed upon them, we have awarded a few, a very few. Diplomas 
of Honour, and in future trust the " Liqueurs of Italy" may have the adjudica- 
tion of a better qualified jury, probably drawn 'from chemists, grocers, or 
perfumers. 

In respect of sundry samples labelled " Chartreuse," we should wish you to 
explain to the exhibitors, that this title is strictly protected to the proprietors of 
the Monastery and their successors, so that the sale of any but the genuine 
article being ultra vires we were compelled to decline to adjudicate upon them. 
Your Italian friends are probably not aware of the results of recent actions and 
of existing injunctions obtained by process of law in this country. 

The attempt, on the other hand, to produce Brandy from Wine from Italy 
should, we submit, be steadily persevered in. 

Grape Spirit of the quality hitherto furnished by France has become practically 
extinct, 

California, Spain, Portugal, and other countries are making a tremendous and 
not altogether unsuccessful attempt to fill the vacuum for high-class grape 
spirit, made possible by the afflictions of France in her Champagne vineyards 
round Cognac. 

Judging by the samples submitted by your Italian exhibitors, we hope they 
will not cease to continue their present efforts to supply that which, in the view 
of many, the human race will sorely miss both in health and in disease. 

In conclusion, we feel we have so much to say on the subject of Italian Wines, 
that we must ask forgiveness for the length to which we have permitted the 
report to run. We might, indeed, at once plead extenuating circumstances for 
this, inasmuch as your Executive Council delegated to us a task of absorbing 
interest, and riveted our attention to it by samples of brilliant and unexpected 
promise. 

Much has been done by Italy, but more remains to be done. 

We might have contented ourselves with the pleasure of tickling the representa- 
tives of every section of your Wine Exhibition with the irresponsible language 
of fulsome compliment or commendation, and this we should, in all fancied 
courtesy, have been tempted to do, were it not for the fact that we feel our 
serious interest in Italian Wines very considerably enhanced by the experience 
you have been so kind as to afford us. 

We trust in the near future the patriotic and legitimate aspirations of Italy, 
and our own expectations, will be fully realised. 

We cannot close this report without asking you to acknowledge, on our behalf, 
the very courteous and valuable facilities we have received from Messrs. Pavia, 
Melis, and the other gentlemen, who were so good as to render us valuable 
assistance, despite the numerous claims tha;t were pressing upon them in other 
directions ; and at the Avorst, please permit us to assure you that, though Italian 
Wines might by some mysterious process of calamitous j^ossibility never be 
heard of again, the remembrance of your kindly, as also of your hospitable, 
appreciation of our labours will well repay the exertions this, let us hope, 
auspicious occasion has called forth. 

We trust, too, we shall not be violating any of the canons of custom or good 



486 THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 

taste if we send a copy of this report to Mr. J. B. Whitley and the Executive 
Council, who have, upon every opportunity, made our work so easy and pleasant 
during our repeated visits to the Italian Exhibition. 

London, August 20, 1888, 



LECTUEE DELIVEEED BY MB. WILLIAM HUDSON IN THE CONCEET 
HALL OF THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION IN LONDON, 28th OF 
SEPTEMBEE, 1888, ON "WINE IN BELATION TO THE WINES 
OF ITALY." 

The chair was taken by Mr. John B. Whitley, Director-General, who, in 
introducing the lecturer, said : 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — To tell you that Italy is a country which interests 
the whole of the civilised world is quite superfluous. The birthplace of Dante, 
Galileo, Michael Angelo, Eaphael, and Volta has a right to be called the cradle 
of poetry, of the arts and sciences, the great fatherland of civilisation. 

Now, when about a year ago I ventured to invite to this Exhibition the 
artists, the manufacturers, and tbe producers of Italy, I referred to the im- 
possibility of judging, until all the various exhibits had arrived and been 
installed, in what way and to what extent each constituent of the wonderful 
whole which the name of Italy brings before the cultivated mind was to be 
displayed in the capital city of the modern Italians' warmest national friends 
and allies. 

Now, however, the organisation of the Exhibition is not only complete, but 
the public have had the opportunity of examining and studying it for several 
months. The public can therefore judge of the forces of Italy, and comprehend 
the immense work of regeneration accomplished in the Peninsula during the 
last thirty years. 

Thus the Exhibition has not only proved an advantage for Italy, but for all 
those from every quarter of the globe who have visited the first exclusively 
Italian Exbibition held beyond the boundaries of Italy ; for they have been 
enabled to see how greatly Italy excels in the fine arts, and in her industries 
and products. But among the last-mentioned, wine claims a foremost place 
and our special attention. This precious product of Italy's soil has such 
intrinsic merits that one of the principal objects we had in view in organising 
the Exhibition, was to show how Italy may become an eminently wine pro- 
ducing country. 

Several of the best experts in the matter of wines in the United Kingdom 
recently recognised this trutb, when as jurors they judged the respective merits 
of the wines which had been sent to this Exhibition from every part of Italy. 

Their verdict is so hopeful for the future of the cultivation of the vine beyond 
the Alps, that I have ventured to ask the chairman of that jury, my excellent 
friend Mr. William Hudson, in the interest of all those who like ourselves have 
at heart the introduction of pure wine into this country, to give a lecture on this 
most important subject, and thus to promote discussion on a matter of vital 
interest both for the English consumer and for the Italian producer. 



SUPPLEMENT. 487 

Mr. Hudson has courteously consented to let us know his views on this 
subject. And if the result of this our meeting is that 

". . . . il raggio del sol ohe si f^ vino, 
" Misto all 'umor che dalla vite cola," 

renders still warmer the friendship and draws still closer the bonds of mutual 
interest which unite Italians and Englishmen, I am sure that there is no one 
amongst us who will not rejoice thereat in his heart. 

And now, gentlemen, I have much pleasure in introducing to you Mr. 
Hudson. 

Mr. Hudson then spoke as follows : — 

Mr. Peesident, Ladies and Gentlemen, — I am not a lecturer, and yet have 
undertaken to lecture, but under circumstances which for me are so difficult 
and unusual, you will perhaps permit me to read a paper. 

My subject is " Wine in Eelation to the Wines of Italy." 

The title means so little, while it affords scope for so much, that I shall take 
credit for one master stroke of policy at least in this arrangement, in that 
I shall be able to wander at will with delightfully inconsequent ideas, and thus 
reap the advantage of a roving commission without running out of a course 
sufficiently broad, even for an amateur performer like myself. 

Mr. President might possibly have preferred that I should confine myself to 
Italian wines solely, for we are supposed (by a difficult effort of the imagination 
this season) to be surrounded by an atmosphere of all things Italian. And yet 
I feel convinced that for me, and I hope for you, my policy is the best, for wine 
in its general aspect, so much discussed, is really so little practically understood, 
that by attempting to dispel some of the mists which surround it we shall clear 
the course for the race of vignerons daily entering for competition, and Italy 
will assuredly not be last in any race for British support and all which that 
support and influence commands. 

Trained to wine and wine tasting from my boyhood, I came by a happy, or an 
unhappy, accident to be chosen at the early stages of this Exhibition as one of 
the jurors for Italian wine. In due time elected to be president of a jury, who 
I felt were exceedingly well chosen, and with whom I was proud to be associated, 
it became my duty to stick very closely to this work. To our astonishment we 
found ourselves face to face with a mammoth task — to wit, we had to adjudicate 
upon some 700 or 800 samples of Italian growths. 

I remember the gentlemen who represented both the Chamber of Commerce 
and the Executive Council at our preliminary meeting telling us the work would 
not take more than about two days. 

As busy men we did not at that time appreciate the poetical license accorded 
to the light-hearted jocularity of the Italian character. It certainly took ten 
days, and very hard working days we found them to be. How we kept at it, 
and in health so long, under somewhat difficult conditions, will ever remain 
a mystery, to be only partially accounted for by the fact that upon every 
occasion, whether it were at luncheon or at dinner, we had our healths proposed 
by enthusiastic workers, and duly drunk in the wine of the Italian country. 

Undoubtedly Italy has made a brave show of her wine products, a display 
which, if now properly supported, will never be forgotten nor neglected. 



488 THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 

The wines themselves have, however, been dealt with "in an exhaustive report, 
made to those by whom the jury were instructed, to wit the Chamber of 
Commerce and the Executive Council of this Exhibition. I should, therefore, 
unnecessarily occupy your time, perhaps, by alluding to the more technical 
aspect of the great wine display, except in very general terms. 

I understand neither of those august bodies I have mentioned object to the 
publication of that report, which has indeed by courtesy been already furnishe d 
to the trade press. 

The jury, I must say, were composed of serious men, and men whose ex- 
perience had taught them to discard all pandering to prejudices for the occasion, 
and each, it will be seen, signed the report after due consideration, so that 
I cannot but feel grateful to the journals which have helped to ventilate 
a question which, at this juncture, interests us all so much. 

I may say here to the honour and credit of those exhibitors who obtained 
Diplomas of Honour, they were submitted to a very tremendous and impartial 
test. 

No one of the judges, at the time of tasting, knew even the name of a wine, 
of a grower, a shipper, or his agent. The wines were tasted upon that which 
is now known in the wine market as Ihe O.N.P. system ("opinion, not 
prejudice"). This means that the samples were placed in a series of sentry 
boxes, as it were, behind a spring roller blind, with the glasses before them, but 
outside the curtain, and all were so placed by a totally indifferent person. In 
due time, and after repeated tastings, re-tastings, and references, the awards 
were made to letters or to numbers, the incidence of which was not understood 
until the results came to be submitted to the jury in committee and reduced to 
writing. Nothing could have been fairer, and I hope this statement of plan 
pursued will give the British public some confidence in the bond fide value of the 
diplomas for Italian wines distributed in this the 51st year of the reign of H.M. 
Queen Victoria. 

I desire to record this at the earliest oiaportunity, as the business of juries at 
Exhibitions has not always been conducted upon such rigid principles, and in 
consequence medals and diplomas have failed to command the respect they 
ought to be made to deserve, as certificates of merit given by competent 
authorities selected from the best schools of merchant trading, and officered 
by men of technical experience. 

And there is something more in this jplan adopted by the jury for wine. 
Hitherto, medals have been given to certain firms, and such medals have 
been affixed to every other article the house supplied, an appropriation of 
honour, I have always thought, which never could have been contemplated in 
the award, for the simple reason that, in all probability, many of the wines 
which bear ostentatious medals were never even shown at the Exhibition from 
which they purport to have issued. A gold medal, therefore, given to a firm 
has had little real and true significance. In contradistinction to this plan, my 
jury gave diplomas in each class or subdivision to a particular wine, and to that 
only, and we have reason to believe our recommendation in this respect will be 
adopted by the Chamber of Commerce for Italy. 

If I were to attempt to systematise my remarks, I should say, let us consider 
briefly some of — 



SUPPLEMENl, 489 

The claims of wine to our notice as a beverage, 
The reasons for hope in the future for Italian wines, and 
The difficulties of getting them into consumption. 

"We might, if time permitted, take counsel together as to the means of over- 
coming those difficulties, but that means a very big question indeed, and I can 
do little more, I fear, in this place, than acknowledge, first, the existence of 
them, and secondly, my belief that, like most other difficulties, they may be got 
over or got round. 

I should wish to begin by saying that the discovery of wine, like the origin of 
many other important arts, is enveloped in the obscurity of the earliest ages of 
the world. In the history of ancient nations it has generally been ascribed to 
those heroes who contributed most to civilise their respective countries, and to 
whom even divine honours were often rendered, in return for the benefits which 
they had presumably conferred upon mankind. 

But, without dwelling upon the traditions which have been handed down to 
us on this subject, it may suffice to observe that the use of it could not surely 
have continued long unknown, especially in those regions of the earth " where 
bloomy vines waved purple o'er the hill." It is possible the first portion of 
vinous fruit might have been pressed by accident, if not by design, and this, if 
allowed to remain for a short time undisturbed, would be found to have 
acquired new and surprising properties, while repeated trials would soon prove 
the value of the discovery. By degrees, no doubt, the method would be learned 
of preserving for constant use the beverage so obtained ; and various processes 
would be resorted to for enhancing its grateful qualities, knowledge of the art 
would rapidly spread, and its simplicity would recommend it to universal 
adoption. 

I think I remember to have read how some one else has somewhere said that 
Bacchus, after his education by the Nysean nymphs, traversed nearly the whole 
globe, introducing the culture of the grape and diffusing refinement wherever 
he went. This would seem to dignify Bacchus as a puissant god, whose 
assistance Italy should invoke in order to diffuse throughout the habitable 
globe one of her most valuable products, of which we have such varied 
specimens in this Exhibition. 

My early impressions of Mr. Bacchus were, that instead of " introducing the 
culture of the grape and diffusing refinement wherever he went," he displayed 
a much more rollicking disposition, and spent a deal of his time astride 
a Barolian or Falernian barrel, apparently proposing everybody's health. Upon 
these occasions, too, his attire was classical and must have been somewhat cold; 
thence, probably, we may take it that we were not indebted to Bacchus anyhow 
for the introduction of wine into this inclement country. 

Several writers of antiquity have been at much pains to describe the wines of 
their time, to detail the various modes of improving the flavour of them, of 
preserving them from deterioration, and of restoring them when spoiled. But 
I do not find the fermentation of the grape, the one thing needful to make wine, 
was ever conducted upon any well ascertained or fixed principles, and judging 
by our recent survey, I do not find our friends the Italians have made many 
discoveries or more than the average progress in this direction. 

Its primary cause, like that of other chemical agencies, will probably always 



490 THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 

remain hidden from our view, and we must rest satisfied with the knowledge of 
the principal conditions on which it depends, and by which the quality of its 
products are influenced. 

Nor, for the matter of that, can any of the great operations of nature be said 
to be more complete. 

Wine, then, let us be content to describe as juice of the grape, subjected to 
that which it seems must ever be considered to be the obscure phenomenon of 
fermentation. 

We cannot get away from the fact, however, that the art of wine making 
consists in a knowledge of the fixed laws which govern that fermentation, and 
in a control or modification of them. Looking at it thus, the art assumes 
a more simple and systematic form, and it becomes a comparatively easy 
though still a most serious task to arrange the principal varieties produced 
from the grape according to their respective characters. 

Having once ascertained the quality of the materials, and the conditions in 
which they are placed, the grower of wine can now in the majority of instances 
confidently predict the general result of his growth, and when it is found that 
the methods employed are defective, experience can often suggest the means of 
remedying imperfections and of giving increased value to the products. 

It is clear, then, that wine has the recommendation of antiquity (for what 
that may happen to be worth), and it is equally clear that the art of wine 
making has not only engaged the attention, puzzled the wits, and provoked the 
enterprise of mankind in all ages — it has done more, it has given congenial 
employment to the sons and daughters of labour, while wine has ever formed 
a theme for the poet, the philosopher, and the historian down all time. But 
" the past and the future are nothing in the face of the stern to-day." 

It will be conceded that the culture of the vine was never so well understood 
as at this particular epoch, for art and science have never been idle in assisting 
to perfect the process of wine making, so rudely and yet so successfully initiated 
by the men of old ; while in many countries, of the existence of which our pre- 
decessors never dreamt, the vine has, in recent years, been transplanted and 
cultivated, and its produce promises to become a considerable factor in the 
commerce of the world. 

Upon these grounds surely wine deserves respectful consideration. 

Gathering clouds impending over the horizon of commerce presage a summer 
storm of competition, which will burst, let us hope, into refreshing rains of 
bountiful supply to be absorbed by thirsty souls on a thirsty soil. The old 
wine-growing countries of Europe are, it is now seen, not the only countries 
that grow the vine and press the grape. The telegraph flashes the fact, cheap 
postage confirms it. Eailways lay bare to the world numberless inland villages 
and vine-lauds hitherto neglected or unknown, and swift steamers, huge 
carrying ships, bring their produce cheaply to our shores. Is this the time 
to hug our insolent insular prejudices, and to refuse even to look at the stores 
a bountiful Providence has showered at our feet ? Let us try to believe that all 
which is, is not all that can be, that the actual is not all the possible, and then 
this meeting will not have been wasted time, nor will our considerations turn 
out to be fruitless. 

I should, therefore, prefer to try to deal with the subject from a practical 



SUPPLEMENT. 491 

every-day and useful point of view, by notes taken from the book of observation 
and formulated by the necessities of experience. 

In Mr. P. L. Simonds' new work upon Popular Beverages, we are told that in 
one form or another we have to consume 5| lbs. of water every 24 hours. 
Hence I claim that wine should be considered to be an article of food, an item 
of our daily diet. Why it has not been allowed to take its proper position is 
traceable to many causes, foremost among which we may place the violation of 
natural laws in its manufacture, the spoliation of natural taste by the 
unrighteous and unwise addition to it of free sugar and alien alcohol. 

Despite the erection of county asylums, there are still left in our midst men 
who think (I fear they say it often without thinking) : "You will never get the 
British public to drink wine," and having started with this blunder-headed 
proposition, they oifer no reasons for their conclusion beyond the record of 
their own illogical and short-sighted presumptions, and they seem to be careful 
never to give the British public the chance of practically refuting them. 

The French proverb says we may not discuss taste nor colour, but taste, the 
evolution of public taste, is a great factor in the question before us, so if we 
may not discuss, we may, perhaps, be allowed to glance in passing, at some few 
of the changes which have taken place in our own time. 

There may be in this room those who will remember, for example, the port 
wine of the past, that early bottled, sweet, full-coloured, highly alcoholised, 
indigestible, manufactured liquid, which contained very little less than 38 per 
cent, of proof spirit (not of course its own), or nearly double that of Italian 
wine, which our dear deluded forefathers " sat over," and upon which light and 
elegant liquor of those times, they acquired the reputation — the glorious repu- 
tation then somewhat prized— of being two or three bottle men. We have 
changed all that. 

To-day brings evidence that some of the best authorities upon gout, for 
example, absolutely recommend port wine as a valuable stimulant, but the port 
they recommend is of a very different order to the port of the past — it is old, 
light, tawny, well and gradually fermented wine. 

So we note here one of those instances of a revolution in taste which go to 
make progress in light and natural wine possible of belief. 

I should not wonder if the spirit of progress makes it possible ere long for 
the consumer to believe the present fancy prices of Champagne may be held in 
check by the sparkling wines of Italy. They are dangerous rivals, believe me ; 
they hover on the flanks of France, and threaten to repeat a well-delivered 
attack upon a huge and not altogether justifiable monopoly. 

In conclusion, the advancement of public taste is registered by the unmis- 
takable barometer of that public opinion which sooner or later must assert 
itself. 

I know too little of beer to contest its merits far, but I do know that porter 
has gone out this many a day, and fourpenny (or light) has reigned in its stead. 
Indeed, the field is well-nigh held by German lager beer, the lightest and most 
perfectly fermented article, I venture to think — but only to think, mind — of 
modern times. 

These few instances must suffice to show the possibility that even in liquor, 
that which has been done may be done again and again, and they testify that 



492 THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 

every cycle of change has been in favour of good taste, and all changes have 
been on the side of lightness and purity. 

Professor Leone Levi, and other authorities, commercial and statistical, 
attribute the general depression and deflection of trade, in this country at all 
events, to the fact that as a rule men never get themselves to recognise the 
changes which have been going on so silently in their midst, even during the 
past generation, and consequently they make no corresponding effort to adjust 
themselves to the altered condition of affairs. Thus it seems to me to be neces- 
sary to use every effort on the one hand to arouse the slumbering energies of a 
too apathetic class of traders. 

At the threshold of our considerations, however, we are met, in apparent 
opposition, with a great popular sentiment in antagonism to wine, and to that 
which is somewhat contemptuously termed " the liquor traffic." 

No sensible " man of the world " — I use the phrase in its truest signification 
— can have much sympathy with that new order of nuisances called rabid 
teetotalers. They are frequently as mistaken in their opinions, I believe, as 
they are intemperate and injuditiious in the expression of them. 

I speak only, of course, of that brass band, green sash and banner division of 
blatant blunderers, who, with trumpet flourishes of insolent persistency, 
seek to bring down the walls of other men's citadels of enjoyment and legitimate 
beliefs by the mere clamour of intolerance. 

All the same, I honour the quiet, unobtrusive, but earnest worker who con- 
scientiously believes that total abstinence on his own part is the only method of 
insuring the like self-sacrifice on the part of his weaker fellow men. In this 
view even the blue ribbon, that gentle irritant, that inane insignia, may have its 
advantages for the cause, although some of us may not appreciate its use and 
j)urpose altogether. 

Truth lies, it is said, between two extremes, and I doubt not the result of the 
labours of conscientious workers for the extinction of the vice of drunkenness, 
and even of excessive drinking, will be found ultimately to produce a truer 
temperance, without total abstinence, and a more intelligent use of the gifts of 
Providence. 

I am able to say that, during a long and busy life in wine, aye and in spirits 
too, I have seen more closely and more correctly the results of the abuse of 
strong drink than most who claim to know so much about the subject. I have 
seen so much healthful, enjoyable, so much legitimate use of wine that — well, 
that I am here to-day to speak of wine, and yet to promote, I trust, the truest 
interests of temperance in the use of it. 

Surely we all want " something to drink"? I presume that proposition will 
give rise to no argument, much less to dissent. 

There are those who think we ought to drink water, varied only by different 
and diverse combinations, of eccentric manipulation, of highly seasoned syrups. 
No one doubts the value of water after all. The majority think, however, it is 
better there should be occasionally something in it. What is that something to 
be ? is the home-spun question of the day. I would wish to say. Wine. I ven- 
ture to think, as a beverage, there is nothing so wholesome and so refreshing as 
wine, unless it be wine and water. I suppose, speaking generally, we are the 
only nation that affects to despise the consumption of wine with water, and 



SUPPLEMENT. 493 

here, certainly, Italy steps in to help us ; for her wines, at the worst, are 
assuredly adapted for this purpose, whatever their epicurean value may ultimately 
be found to reach. 

The one great Britannic prejudice is in favour of beer. Now, beer, " bruta- 
lising beer," as it has been somewhat wrongfully called, is at best a crude, 
imperfectly fermented, unfinished article. The brewing of beer is generally 
carried on — and even then it is not completed — in the human stomach. 

Nor was the human stomach at one time, in Great Britain, unequal to the 
mammoth task imposed upon it. 

The ploughman formerly followed the plough, and then, perhaps, could drink 
that which the farmer or local brewer of the period provided for his refreshment, 
without danger, and perhaps, in some instances, with positive advantage to 
his hard-worked system — so could the haymaker, so could the dock-labourer, 
and the like. 

But now machines have taken the place of manual labour, not only in the 
workshops, but in the fields, and brain power is to a great extent substituted 
for muscular power. Thus, to the old class of labourers has succeeded a new class 
that can scarcely be expected to digest and assimilate beer. Ariother set of 
physical faculties altogether are called into play, requiring stimulants of some 
other kind. 

Multiply their cases by millions, and then by 365, and you get some notion of 
the demand there should be among the working classes for a mild stimulant 
and certain reconstituent like pure wine. 

Then why (not being too bigoted), I say again, in common with other nations, 
should we not encourage and facilitate a people in drinking wine, particularly 
wine with water ? It can be had cheaply enough, in reality as cheaply as beer, 
and from Italy, we have seen, copious supplies can be drawn. 

The alcoholic force of beer is upon the average, it may be roughly stated, 
10 per cent. In other words, it contains say about 10 degrees of proof spirit. 
Italian wines contain probably an average of 19 to 22, or even so much as 26 
degrees. If, therefore, alcohol be desirable, as I venture to believe it must ever 
be, wine diluted with an equal amount of water would provide the same amount 
•of alcohol as beer, and would provide it of the best character and in the best 
and most legitimate combination. 

Beer, how5ver, has somehow or other got itself to be believed to be what is 
vulgarly called " f7^e iVatzoTia/ Beuerar/e." Most persons carry the question no 
further than they did years ago ; they are at no pains to think it out, but con- 
tent themselves with the prejudice — it never rises to the dignity of a belief — 
that you will never get the British working man, even the working man of 
to-day, to drink wine, much less wine with water. 

But let us admit the popular prejudice in favour of beer. We have seen 
greater prejudices lived down. The public, the consuming public, travel now 
and have their eyes open, their views enlarged by contact with men of other 
nations they visit, and who in return visit them — let us not forget that. 

Exhibitors have done their best at this Exhibition, and the remembrance of 
1888 will be a monument to their energetic patriotism, whatever be the ultimate 
result of their efforts. Italy, if she has done nothing more, has vindicated her 
right to be classed amongst the wine-growing countries of Europe and. th.e 



494 THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 

world. Her wealth in mere money is not, we are told, in proportion to her 
ambition ; this is not an uncommon complaint, but she has a people who share 
with the Scotchmen that invincible clanship which binds them together, and 
that economy of resource which, when once enlarged, becomes an irresistible 
fulcrum of success. She has made good progress of recent years with her wines 
in the best, though not in the widest, channels. 

I am loth to mention names, as I might unintentionally exclude those I 
should have liked to chronicle, but Italy has sent a phalanx into our midst of 
her trained, hard-working, genial sons, and they will not be denied. 

Gancia, the Burgoyne of Italian wines, Curtopassi, Scala, the types of 
progress, Egidio Vitali, Grassi, and such men have done much for their country 
in one direction, and who shall gauge the value of the labour in another sphere 
of the patriotic Monicos, Romano, the Gattis, Sangiorgi, Pratti, Previtali, and 
others, who in tenor tones of Italian harmony do their " level best " to keep 
their Fatherland before a short-sighted but, nevertheless, appreciative world ? 

" One Bwallow, however, maketh not a summer." 

The cause of pure wine, of cheap wines, from Italy, as elsewhere, is mainly 
hindered by the difficulties of distribution. 

The distributors to the British public are, or should be, the licensed victuallers, 
our own much-abused countrymen. 

I shall not spare them the customary abuse. 

Unfortunately the very conditions under which these gentlemen hold their 
properties, and indeed their commercial lives, in London are terribly opposed 
to the selling of wiue, while in the country the condition of commercial serf- 
dom to which the publican is subjected is even worse. 

I really do not yet see very well, I confess, how the British public can obtain 
cheap wine to a sufficient extent without the distributive agency of the licensed 
victualler, or some similar licensed intermediation. 

In arrest of their help for the cause — as a cause — of cheap wine and good for 
the people, the licensed victualler is, generally speaking, practically, by loan or 
landlordism, under the thumb of the brewer, whose purpose it is obviously to 
sell his beer, and beer only. That fiat it is the mission of the licensed victualler 
to carry out. Therefore the national beverage of the working man is compelled 
to remain pretty much what it was before railways ran. The national beverage 
— Bass and Guinness notwithstanding— is " four-ale," the brewing of which 
highly scientific liquor, if commenced on Monday, the 1st, is finished, con- 
sumed, and paid for on or about the 5th of the same month or thereabouts. 
Can this mean properly fermented liquor ? Can the consumer accustomed to so 
crude a beverage as this be easily converted to the use of wine ? 

The brewery magnates, having legislated loans, mortgages, prices and qualities 
at their respective breweries, go down to the House of Commons to give an 
extra screw to the licensing laws for the preservation of a magnificent monopoly, 
and for the intelligent and progressive supply of the public wants, according to 
brewery lights and in harmony with the brewery interests. What chance of 
competition can the wine of any country have under such auspices ? 

Next for the good of public-house distribution comes that other presiding 
genius of strong drink — that bar sinister to progress at and over the bar — the 



SUPPLEMENT. 495 

gin distiller. These gentlemen also lend much money, and take what is called 
a second charge for then- loan upon the public-house, of course securing the 
supply of spirits, notably gin, whisky, and sometimes possibly some sort of 
wine, and that rarely or never cheap and light and good. 

Generally, however, some other energetic and adventurous attache to or col- 
lector for the greater house stipulates for the supply of wine, by virtue of his 
having negotiated a loan to the publican on behalf of his lorincipal, or having 
taken it on his own account, and constrains, if he not does compel, the free 
Briton to supply himself and his custoraers with " port " and "sherry," — he 
knows scarcely any other wine, for certainly under such a system an educated 
taste is an impossibility. 

Attracted by barbarous bannerets, such as "Iced Claret," tempted by the 
equally artistic suggestion of " Hot Sausages," for example, or some such 
ensign of refreshment on a public-house window, a stray inember of the public 
body may perhaps be induced to try a little " Chateau Lafitte," or something by 
description equally grotesque, at 3d. or 4d. per glass. Then says the licensed 
distributor : " The pubhc will not drink your — adjective — adjective stuff. With 
me it's beer, gin, and whisky: I sell a lot of port over the counter, a little 
sherry, and less claret, but my customers don't want none of your light Italian 
rubbish." 

What hope can we hold out from these the existing sources of distribution that 
the beautiful products, reaching us through unaccustomed channels, will be seen, 
much less drunk, if my contention be right, that the function of dissemination 
among the masses is mainly in the hands of men, mighty, and powerful, and 
wealthy, withal, but whose power of trading freely in a country of free trade is 
as limited, out of the groove laid down by vested interests and by iniquitous 
custom, as is that of the traffic in slaves, watched by our cruisers on the coast 
of Africa? 

It is of no use magnifying exceptions which go but to prove the existence of 
a rule, nor, on the other hand, superficially settling a difficult problem by saying 
the public are content with that which is supplied to them — that they do not 
want cheap wine. They do ivant cheap wine, and this is just the period wherein 
to introduce it. 

I have seen it partially proved by sales of good honest wine under the new 
tariff of duties, at Id. and 2d. the glass, strangely enough, though rarely 
enough, through the enterprising intervention of unfettered publicans. Poor 
mechanics, seamstresses, and washerwomen have fetched this wine away from 
public-houses in jugs, and let us hope, as I think, have consumed it with their 
families at their homes. Poor clerks with wives and children, not paid so well 
as the working classes, have gladly taken the wine at 9d. the bottle, and for all 
the practical purposes of hygiene have satisfied their needs as substantially as 
they could have done with wine at twelve times the price. So far as the ex- 
periment has been tried, I can vouch for its unquestionable success, and I for 
one am convinced the British public will drink wine if they can get it cheaply 
and in convenient measure. 

Italy teems to-day with wine by which the problem can be solved. 

It has been said, and experience confirms the opinion, that the best trained men 
' of business emanate from the drapery warehouses or Manchester school. It is 



496 THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 

common information, I believe, that in the " dry goods " line manufacturers 
are at this time designing, if not absolutely offering for sale, materials to 
be worn in the fashion next summer ; the winter goods having been already 
" placed." 

Highly intelligent and chosen men of energy direct these movements, and in 
consequence the most astonishing and wealthiest branch of the commerce of 
the country thrives and grows. The fashions of other countries, if not myste- 
riously forestalled, are sought for and adopted, the fabrics of other lands are 
secured and imported or surpassed by our home manufacturers. 

What, as compared with this notion of British enterprise, is the attitude of 
the wine merchant ? Contemptuous indifference as regards the importation of 
wine not comiug from the afflicted and diseased — if not the effete — wine-growing 
countries of Europe, and the idea of introducing anything new in wine is pre- 
posterous in their view! Your dry goods man offers you " stripes " this year, 
because you had " checks " last ; " bugles and buttons " to-day, because 
feathers and spangles are played out. He does not wait till they are " asked 
for," as does the merchant of wine, but offers them as an inducement to pur- 
chasers whose tastes he has watched keenly and intelligently, and thus he 
creates and leads a demand which he knows to be at once as volatile and as 
tractable as it is profitable to supply. 

Create for 21s a demand, and we loill endeavour to supply your ivants and 
wishes, say the wine distributors of to-day, the descendants of the men who, afore- 
time, went far afield, fearless and energetic, without our facilities, and vindicated 
their title to be called to the dignity and usefulness of the British merchant. 

We can feel for the purse-bound licensed distributor, whose intelligence is 
: made to succumb to the pressure of the almighty dollar, but we expect more 
from those who call themselves merchants, and whose part it ought to be to 
lead public taste, to encourage its growth, and to supply the means for its 
gratification. 

Heaven save this hitherto commercial country, and, by some celestial inter- 
vention, stimulate enterprise and remove this much bemoaned dulness of traders 
which paralyses trade. 

The wine display at this Exhibition must be for ever remembered as evidencing 
a determination by Italy to share more largely than ever in the commerce of the 
world, and to utilise under conditions favoured by modern development those 
spendid gifts of Nature of which her country can so surely boast. 

Still less can it ever be forgotten how anxiously, how energetically, how 
patriotically, may I say how successfully, those gentlemen have struggled, who 
are the founders and supporters of this Italian Exhibition, not only in the cause 
of wine, but in every interest of the Italian community. 

This is not the place wherein, nor are mine the lips whereby, due honour can 
be conveyed to those gallant gentlemen who have laboured in the cause of Italy 
I trust we may all live to see them recipients of honours they prize above all 
others by the gracious favour of their beloved monarch, that bold, courageous, 
charitable, chivalric king and Christian gentleman, who holds in his hand the 
wills of his people and in his heart the enthusiastic affection of his loving 
subjects. 

But, Sir, there is yet one other tribute to which Italians are not insensible, 



SUPPLEMENT. 497 

namely, that which I now tender them through you, the respectful sympathy 
and regard of all true-hearted Englishmen. 

The aspirations and vicissitudes of Italy have ever been of interest to all who 
strive to be free; and to use their freedom for the common weal. 

Side by side our people and kindred have fought and (though Heaven forfend) 
may have "to fight again, but the battle of life we wish to see perpetuated is that 
honest, holy strife of progress and civihsation which brings into kindliest contact 
men of all countries and climes, resulting in those victories of peace much more 
renowned than war. 



EXTEACT FKOM LANCET, OCTOBEE 13, 1888, ON THE SUBJECT OP 

WINES. 

" Those who believe that in cheap pure wines rests the solution of the tem- 
perance problem will have to fight the beer and gin monopolists. For the 
moment, not only is it impossible to introduce reform in our driiaking customs 
through the public-houses, but such wines as the publicans sell are either so 
dear or so bad that a prejudice against wine is, it would seem, purposely engen- 
dered. Fortunately good sense and good taste are gaining ground, and 
travelled Englishmen at least are creating a demand for wholesome and cheap 
wine, which, but for artificial obstacles, could be obtained as easily in London 
as in Paris and the north of France. Of late years the destrtiction of so many 
French vines by disease has rendered this somewhat more difficult. But now 
we are assured that Italy can make up and, in fact, more than compensate the 
deficiency. This is undoubtedly good news, and merits the earnest attention of 
all true advocates of temperance. When the juice of the grape is allowed to 
ferinent naturally, and no artificial means are emiployed to hasten the fermenta- 
tion, when no alcohol is added to the wine, and it only contains that which the 
process of fermentation itself produces, and when the wine is not artificially 
sweetened, we have a beverage of great utility as a stimulant, and which, as a 
stimulant, does the very minimum of harm. A population that drinks only 
such wines rarely produces a dipsomaniac. To engender a taste for such 
wine, to supply it at a price and in a manner accessible to all, is to siibstitute a 
wholesome drink for what is now too often but rank poison. If this reform could 
be accomplished, we should have realised in a very agreeable manner a prac- 
tical solution to the great drink problem. The number of drinkers would so 
decrease that the advocates of total abstinence would be reduced to the position 
they actually occupy in the wine-producing countries, where teetotalers are at 
once unknown and unnecessary." 



PEOPOSALS FOE THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FOEEIGN TEADE IN 
ITALIAN WINES MADE BY ME. JOHN E. WHITLEY, IN NOVEM- 
BEE, 1888, AT A MEETING OF ITALIANS INTEEESTED IN THIS 
IMPOETANT QUESTION. 

For several years past Italy has been actively endeavouring to find out how 
she can best turn to account her chief national product^- Wine. 

32 



498 THE ITALIAN EXHIBITION. 

On the occasion of a lecture kindly delivered on my invitation, this year, at 
the Italian Exhibition in London, by Mr. William Hudson, the best known judge 
of wines in the English market, I stated that one of the chief objects of the 
Exhibition was to enable those who were interested in the Italian wine business to 
develop this trade fully both in Great Britain and, through the London market, 
in other parts of the world. 

The Italian Exhibition held in London has enabled the English public to 
become acquainted with, and to appreciate, Italian wines more and better than 
has ever been the case before. 

Now, I am of opinion that Italy should not omit to avail herself at 
once of the reputation gained by her wines in England through this year's 
Exhibition, by making every effort to place these wines still more within the 
reach of the English public, and by not only maintaining, but increasing the 
favourable impression that has been made. 

I would therefore propose that a well-defined plan should be laid down for the 
formation of an Association, larger, more comprehensive, and of a more practi- 
cal character, than any that has yet been attempted in Italy for the development 
of the wine industry. 

The capital should be ample, and (seeing that the sales would take place in 
England) should be for the most part in English hands, for there is no doubt 
that where the parties interested reside, affairs are better looked after, and that 
he who risks his capital keeps his eyes open for his own and his clients' advan- 
tage. Nevertheless, a third or fourth portion should be reserved for Italian 
capitalists. 

In brief, the aim of this Association may be summed up under the following 
heads : — 

1. To establish six principal centres of production in the Peninsula. 

2. To purchase and collect those large quantities of wine which at present, 
unhappily, block the cellars of the small proprietors, who cannot succeed in find- 
ing a remunerative market. 

3. To collect these quantities of wine in the said centres, and form say sis 
different types of them. 

4. To open in London, where the chief centre of affairs would be, a dozen 
retail establishments, and at least one in each of the principal towns of England 
(about 30), where Italian wines, either "neat" or prepared to suit the local 
taste, could be obtained generally at a nominal price of about one penny the 
glass. 

5. To find out the most practical means of making known the best types of 
Italian wines, not only to the wine merchants in England, but to the clubs, 
hotels, and the various classes of society in general. 

Now, in order to be able to do all this, what is wanted is capital, because it is 
further necessary that the few small companies which now carry on the Italian 
wine trade in England, should be absorbed by this large Association which I 
propose to you, in order to make sure of being able to form and maintain con- 
stant types of wines. 

What is further wanted, is a general consensus of public opinion, an enthu- 
siasm, I would almost say, in favour of the enterprise ; that enthusiasm, I say, 
which arises from the determination to break down aU barriers which oppose 



SUPPLEMENT. 499 

the opening of new markets to our products, more especially among the wealthy 
and crowded populations of Great Britain. We, therefore, want order and 
clearness in our planning, but also enthusiasm when carrying out our plans. 

And Italy will ha\e all the more reason to be proud of this praiseworthy 
enthusiasm, because by inundating, so to speak, Engistnd with her wines, she 
might in a large measure banish from the midst of the English working classes 
the sad vice of drunkenness, offering to them, instead of poisonous compounds, 
a wholesome and refreshing beverage. 

In this country, and at this moment, no industry is so ripe for complete! 
development, so eager, I might almost say, to offer itself for a magnificent 
development as the wine industry. 

Therefore, gentlemen, allow me to suggest to you to select at this meeting a 
not too numerous committee, which may accurately examine these ideas with 
me. In this work, which promotes the good of the nation, the frank and hearty 
assistance of the Government and of individuals is necessary ; and if you, 
gentlemen, will formulate proposals which shall comprise such positive and real 
efforts as to induce the Government to facilitate the enterprise, I pledge myself 
to submit the matter to the consideration of my friends in England, according 
to the programme I have sketched ; and I do not hesitate to say that I would 
find the necessary capital. 

When this is obtained, something further will be necessary, viz., an energetic, 
intelligent, and honest administration. And may I add that Italy would then 
have reason to be grateful to such an Association as I propose ? I confidently 
venture, moreover, to declare that the Government itself will find in the project 
a way of escape from many responsibilities and anxieties ; for once the small 
proprietors and peasants know that they have a sure and constantly remunera- 
tive market for their products, it would follow that the crises now so frequent 
among them, with the misery they involve, will not fail to disappear. 



THE FRENCH EXHIBITION. 



LONDON, 1890. 
DIRECTOR-GENEEAL 

AND 

CHAIRMAN OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 
JOHN E. WHITLEY. 



EXECUTIVE 
Secbetaky 

DiRECTOB IN FkANCE - . - - 

Engineer ------ 

Special Commissioner 
Chief of Fine Art Section - 
Chief of Installation 
Directors of Decoration - 
Landscape Gardener - - - - 

Accountant - - - . . 

Chief Correspondent -. - 

Patent Agent ----- 

Chief of Admissions Department 

Press Kepresentatives 

Manager of Arena Section - 

Consulting Manager, Arena Section - 

Manager op the Louvre Theatre 

Inspector of Galleries 

Inspector of Police - - - - 



OFFICERS. 

VINCENT A. APPLIN. 

EUGENE HENEY. 

AETHUE CAEEY, C.E. 

LEON DUCHENE. 

JULIUS GUILLEMET. 

L. BONNIEE. 

EUBE, CHAPEEON & JAMBON. 

WILLIAM GOLDEING. 

ALFEED JOHNSON. 

W. F. COLLIVEE. 

ALFEED J. BOULT, M.LM.E. 

G. E. EUTTEE. 

T. BUENSIDE, AND E. EASETTL 

C. MALDEN-EECOLE. 

LESLIE SIMS. 

F. JESSETT. 

P. BEECPIEUX. 

P. CEONIN. 



honorary biblical committee. 
A. VINTEAS, Esq., M.D., Senior Physician to the French Hospital. 



Dr. a. G. BATEMAN. 

Dr. E. J. MAITLAND COFFIN. 



Dr. W. F. PEIDHAM. 
Dr. p. p. WHITCOMBE. 



ENGLISH RECEPTION COMMITTEE. 



chairman. 
Colonel J. T. NOETH. 



Sir Frederick Abel, F.E.S. 

HenryAdams, Esq., M.LM.E. ,M.LC.E 

John Addison, Esq., Q.C., M.P. 

The Hon. G. H. AUsopp, M.P. 

Sir Alex. Armstrong, K.C.B., F.E.S. 

John Barran, Esq., M.P. 

The Eight Hon. Lord Batemau. 

E. D. Baxter, Esq. 



vice-chairman. 
JOHN E. WHITLEY, Esq, 

Members (London). 

Lord Marcus Beresford. 
The Mayor of Bradford. 
The Eight Hon. Lord Bramwell, F.E.S. 
Colonel the Hon. Francis C. Bridge- 
man, M.P. 
J. Browne-Martin, Esq. 
F. C. Burnand, Esq. 
Thomas Burnside, Esq. 



SUPPLEMENT. 



501 



ENGLISH RECEPTION 
The Eight Hon. Lord Eaudolph 

Churchill, M.P. 
The Chevalier Stuart Cumberland. 
Sir Philip Cunliffe-Owen, K.C.B., 

K.C.M.G., CLE. 
The Hon. George Nathaniel Curzon, 

M.P., D.L., J.P. 
Sir John E. Dorington, Bart., M.P., 

M.A., J.P. 
The Lord Mayor of Dublin. 
Charles Locke Eastlake, Esq. 
The Eight Hon. Lord Esher, Master of 

the EoUs. 
Louis Fagan, Esq. 
Major S. Flood Page. 
Wm. Forbes, Esq. 
Lieutenant-General C. C. Eraser, V.C, 

C.B., M.P. 
Cav. E. Froehlich. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Galloway, 

K.T. 
Captain Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., 

E.E., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
The Hon. A. E. Gathorne-Hardy, M.P. 
Herbert Gladstone, Esq., M.P. 
Sir Juhan Goldsmid, Bart., M.P., 

D.L. 
The Eight Hon. Viscount Gort. 
The Hon. F. S. A. Hanbury-Traey, 

M.P., M.A. 
Augustus Harris, Esq., L.C.C. 
Joseph Hatton, Esq. 
Wm. Hays, Esq. 
The Eight Hon. Lord Hillingdon,D.L., 

J.P. 
G. Hoffmann, Esq. 
John HoUingshead, Esq. 
Sir Victor Houlton, M.A., G.C.M.G. 
The Eight Hon. Baron Huddlestou. 
Surgeon-General Sir W. Guyer Hun- 
ter, K.C.M.G., M.D., M.P. 
Henry Irving, Esq. 
Lewis H. Isaacs, Esq., M.P. 
J. S. Jeans, Esq. 

Francis Henry Jeune, Esq., M.A., Q.C. 

The Eight Hon. Sir Ughtred Kay- 

Shuttleworth, Bart., M.P., D.L., J.P. 



COMMITTEE (continued)— 
Henry Kimber, Esq., M.P. 
Lieut.-Col. Sir A. Kirby, J.P. 
Henry Du P. Labouchere, Esq., M.P. 
The Eight Hon. Lord Lamington, J.P., 

D.L. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Lathom. 
The Eight Hon. Lord Lawrence. 
Sir James J. Trevor Lawrence, Bart., 

M.P., P.E.S., J.P. 
Alderman Sir W. Lawrence, J.P. 
The Most Noble the Duke of Leinster. 
The Hon. W. Lowther, M.P., J.P. 
Justin McCarthy, Esq., M.P. 
Sir Morell Mackenzie, M.D. 
E. Marston, Esq. 
E. B. Marston, Esq. 
The Eight Hon. Lord Eobert Montagu, 

M.A. 
Alfred Montgomery, Esq. 
James Murray, Esq. 
The Eight Hon. Viscount Newark, 

M.P., D.L., J.P. 
The Mayor of Newcastle. 
Sir Charles M. Palmer, Bart., M.P. 
Henry Fell Pease, Esq., M.P. 
The Eight Hon. Sir Lyon Playfair, 

M.P., K.C.B., F.E.S. 
Alfred Powell, Esq. 
The Eight Hon. Lord Powerscourt, 

E.P. 
John Priestman, Esq. 
Sir E. J. Eeed, M.P., K.C.B., F.E.S. 
The Eight Hon. Lord Eowton, C.B. 
Sir David Salomons, K.C.B., J.P. 
Sir Saul Samuel, K.C.M.G., C.B. 
James H. Scott, Esq., F.S.S. 
Captain E. M. Shaw, C.B., D.L. 
General Sir Donald-Martin Stewart, 

Bart., G.C.B., G.C.S.L, CLE., LL.D. 
Leonard Stokes, Esq., P.A.A. 
Thos. Sutherland, Esq., M.P. 
General Sir E. C H. Taylor, K.C.B. 
The Eight Hon. Lord Tennyson, D.C.L. 
Sir Henry Thompson, M.B., F.E.C.S. 
Sir Henry W. Tyler, M.P. 
Professor John Tyndall, D.C.L., LL.D., 

F.E.S. 



502 



THE FRENCH EXHIBITION. 



ENGLISH RECEPTION COMMITTEE (continued)— 



Sir J. E. Somers Vine, F.E.G.S., 
F.S.S. 

The Earl De La Warr and Buckhurst, 
D.L., J.P. 

The Most Hon. the Marquis of Water- 
ford, K.P. 



Alfred Waterhouse, Esq., E.A. 

The Eight Hon. the Earl of Wharn- 

cliffe, D.L., J.P. 
Sir Samuel Wilson, M.P., D,L. 
Edmund Yates, Esq. 
Geo. Wyld, Esq., M.D. 



Members (Paris) 



FalconerAtlee,Esq.,C.M.G.,H.B.M.'s 
Consul in Paris, Second Secretary to 
the British Embassy. 

Sir Colville Barclay, Bart., C.M.G. 

Sir Edward Blount, K.C.B, 

Henry Blount, Esq. 

J. F. D. Bowden, Esq., British Vice- 
Consul, Paris. 

Henry Chapman, Esq., C.E., M.E. 

Captain A. W. Churchward. 

Campbell Clarke, Esq. 

J. Archer Crowe, Esq., C.B. 

Evan Barby Crowe, Esq. 

The Hon. Hector Fabre. 



G. P. Harding, Esq, 
Dr. The Hon. Alan F. Herbert. 
T. C. Hounsfield, Esq. 
E. G. Johnson, Esq. 
Eugene Laurier, Esq. 
T. Longhurst, Esq. 
J. Manby, Esq. 
Dr. J. Faure Miller. 
A. G. Mourilyan, Esq. 
J. L. Pollock, Esq. 
G. Sturrock, Esq. 

G. Austin Taylor, Esq., British Pro- 
Consul, Paris. 
W. H. Wyke, Esq. 



Honorary Secretary — Captain H. Bruce M. Carvick. 



THE WELCOME CLUB. 



Executive Committee. 



CHAIEMAN. 

Colonel J. T. NOETH. 

Vincent A. Applin, Esq. 

E. D. Baxter, Esq. 

Lord Esher. 

Colonel George FitzGeorge. 

Sir Julian Goldsmid, Bart., M.P. 

Augustus Harris, Esq. 

William Hays, Esq. 

Sir J. Heron-Maxwell, Bart. 

Sir Victor Houlton, G.C.M.G. 

L. H. Isaacs, Esq., M.P. 



VICE-CHAIRMAN. 

J. E. WHITLEY, Esq. 

J. S. Jeans, Esq. 

The Eight Hon. The Lord Mayor of 

London. 
Sir J. E. Millais, Bart. 
Colonel Mosley. 
Major Flood Page. 
John Priestman, Esq. 
Captain E. M. Shaw, C.B., D.L. 
E. Spencer, Esq., M.P. 
Charles Wyndham, Esq. 



Honorary Secretary — Captair> H, Bruce M. Carvick, 



SUPPLEMENT. 503 

FRENCH COMMITTEE. 

PRESIDENT. 

M. GUSTAVE SANDOZ; 

VICE-PEESIDENTS. 

Bakon DELOET DE GLEON, MM. OCTAVE DOIN, LEGEAND. 

HON. PRESIDENTS OF FINE ART SECTION. 

MM. CAEOLUS DUEAN AND J. L. GEE6mE. 

TREASURER. 

M. GASTON PILLOIS. 

SECRETARIES. 

mm. chassaing, haetmann, lamaille, eogee sandoz, 
vigneeon, and LAYUS. 

french committees for the selection of exhibits. 

Group I. 
Vegetable Products, Stuffs, Silks, Dress and Fashions. 
President. — M. Charles Legrand. 
Vice-President. — M. Neyret. 
Secretary. — M. Noirot-Biais. 

Members. — MM. Blondet, Breant, Diicher, Huot, Hussenot, Lecoustellier, 
Legrand, Lemaire, Neveu, Pelissier, L6on Tharel. 

Group II. 
Agricultural and Alimentary Products, Leather. 
President. — M. Germain Thomas. 
Vice-President. — M. Caen. 
Secretary. — M. Pelletier. 

Members. — MM. Emile Barrande, Chapu, Chevalier, ChevaUier-Appert, Comte, 
Dubosc, Max Dufossg, Estieu, Foulon, Eoublot, Leon Walter. 

Group III. 
Wines, Liqueurs, Beer and other Beverages, Oils. 
President. — M. Jarlauld. 
Vice-President. — M. Hartmann. 
Secretary. — M. Cirier-Pavard. 

Class 1. 
President. — M. Alfred AUain. 
Secretary. — M. Leguay. 

Members. — MM. Allain, Junr., Benoit, FolHot, Francjon, Guichard, Houdard, 
Jarlauld, Larronde, Mercier. 

Class 2. 
President. — M. Guy. 
Secretary. — M. D'Aurignac. 
Members.— MM, Fontbonne, Hartmann, Marnier-Lapostolle, 



504 THE FBENGH EXHIBITION, 

Class 3. 
President. — M. Velten. 
Vice-President.— M.. Koux. 
Members. — MM. Badaire, Cirier-Pavard. 

G90UP IV. 

Minerals, Metallurgy, Machinery, Horticultural and Agricultural Imjylements, 
Electricity, Railways, Coachhuilding, Architecture, BuildAng Materials. 
President. — M. Eug&ne Pereire. 
Vice-Presidents. — MM. Dru, Muhlbacher. 
Secretary. — M. G. Carr6. ^ 

Class 1. 
President. — M. Pierron. 
Vice-President. — M. Arrault. 
Secretary. — M. Carre. 
Members. — MM. Bauclie, Boutmy, Dru, Leroy-Dupre, L6tang, Odeliii, Vigneron. 

Class 2. 
President. — Count Deligny D'Alosno. 
Secretary. — M. Beaume. 

Class 3. 
President. — M. Boivin. 
Members. — MM. Camille, Faur6-Lepage, Moussard, Muhlbacher, Saunier. 

Class 4. 
President. — M. Sudrot. 
Vice-President. — M. Carr6. 
Members. — MM. Arrault, Bordas, Dru, Pombla. 

Group V. 

Chemical and Colonial Products, Perfumery, Applied Chemistry, Pharmaceutical 
Products, Medical and Surgical Appliances. 
President. — Dr. Eobin. 
Vice-President. — M. Galante. 
Secretary. — M. Chassaing. 

Class 1. 
President. — M. Wickham. 
Secretary. — Dr. Hubert. 
Members. — MM. Galante, Heiser, and Dr. Eobin. 

Class 2. 
President. — M. Ludovic Portes. 
Secretary. — M. Chouet. 
Members. — MM. Chassaing, Desonoix. 

Class 3. 
President. — M. Suillot. 
Secretary. — M. Chalmel. 
Members. — MM. De Laire, Auguste Perr(§. 



SUPPLEMENT. 505 

Group VI. 

Education, French Institutions, Art and Educational Materials, Paper, Printing, 
Bookhinding, Engravings, Photographs. 

President. — M. Octave Doin. 

Vice-President. — M. Layus. 

Secretary.— M.. E. Sandoz. 

Members. — MM. Aron, Deloncle, Haro, Lahure, Maunoury, Pillois, Poure, 
Thouroude. 

Group VII. 

Furniture, Decoration. 
President. — M. Quignon. 
Vice-President.— M.. PoUot. 
Secretary.— NL. Millot. 
Members. — MM. Neveu, Hollande, Soubrier. 

Group VIII. 

Artistic Industries, Jeioellery, Bronzes, Ceramics, Enamels, Watchmaking, Wrought 
Metals, Goldsmith's Work, Mosaics, Glass and Crystal Works. 
President. — M. Gustave Sandoz. 
Vice-President. — M. Flamant. 
Secretaries. — MM. Durand-Leriche and Vidie. 

Glass 1. 

President. — M. DScle. 

Secretary. — M. Guillaume. 

Members. — MM. Boin, Durand-Leriche, Flamant, Hubert, Lahaye, Vuilleret. 

Class 2. 

President. — M. Vidie. 

Secretary. — M. Lamaille. 

Members. — MM. Carpentier, Coutelier, Dasson. 

Class 3. 
President. — M. Thierry. 
Secretary. — M. James Vidie. 
Members. — MM. Berquin-Varangoz, Henrivaux, Taillardat. 

Group IX. 

Articles de Paris, Miscellaneous Industries, Toys. 
President. — M. Tarbouriech-Nadal. 
Vice-President. — M. Lemariey. 
Secretary. — M. Kahn. 

Members. — MM, Boudinet, Cormier, Degouy, Girard, Houlet, Loonen, Lucas, 
Vuitton, 



506 THE FBENGH EXHIBITION^ 

Group X, 

Products of the Sea, Fisheries and the Chase, Naval Architecture. 
President. — M. Pillois. 
Vice-President. — M. Eueff. 
Secretary. — M. Faur^-Lepage. 

Group XI. 
Music and Wlusical Instruments. 

President. — M. Thibouville-Lamy. 

Vice-President. — M. Lyon. 

Secretary. — M. Mangeot. 

Members. — MM. Blondel, Bord, Fontaine-Besson, Gand, Gaveau, Gouttiere, 
Masson, Silvestre. 

Group XII. 
Fine Arts. 

Hon. Presidents. — MM. Carolus Duran and J. L. G^rSme (Painter, Member 
Institute) ; President. — Le Baron Delort De GMon (General Commissioner for 
Egypt at the Universal Exhibition, Paris, 1889). 

Vice-Presidents. — M. Bartholdi, Sculptor ; M. Toulmouche, Painter ; M. Yon 
(Edmond), Painter. 

Secretaries. — M. Jourdain (Eoger), Painter ; M. La Touche, Painter. 

Members. — M. A. Aublet, Painter ; M. Barrias, Sculptor, Member French In 
stitute ; M. Benjamin Constant, Painter; M. Bdraud (Jean), Painter, M. 
BiUotte (E.), Painter; M. Boisseau, Sculptor; M. Carriers, Painter; M. 
Coutan, Sculptor; M. Delaunay (Elie), Painter, Member Institute; M. Desbou- 
tins, Engraver; M. Duez, Painter ; M. Dumaresq (Armand), Painter; M. Haro, 
Expert ; M. Hottot, Sculptor ; M. Lambert, Painter ; M. Eoty, Member Insti- 
tute ; M. Toch6 (Charles), Painter. 

Chief of Fine Arts Section and Assistants. — M. Guillemet (J.) ; M. Dupleix (A.), 
M. Glaudinont (E.), Chef de I'installation. 



LIST OF AWAEDS TO EXHIBITOES, 

Superior Revising Jury. — MM. Gustave Sandoz, President ; Lucien Layus, 
Secretary; Charles Legrand, Pelletier, Hartmann, Miihlbacher, Adrian, Doin, 
Quignon, Decle, Lamaille, Legras, Tarbouriech-Nadal, Pillois, Thibouville- 
Lamy. 

Grand Diplomas of Honour aioarded by the Superior Jury, — MM. Barbedienne, 
Menier ; la Society des Glaces de Saint-Gobain, and Thi6baut freres. 

Group I. 

VEGETABLE PRODUCTS — TEXTILE PRODUCTS AND FABRICS — SILKS — FASHIONS — 

WEARING APPAREL. 

Members of the Jury. — MM. Charles Legrand, Lemaire, Neyret, Noirot-Biais. 
Hors concours. — MM. Legrand freres, Lemaire, Charles Neyret et C^. 
Diploma of Honour. — M. H. Leprince. 



SUPPLEMENT. 507 

Diplomas of the 1st Class.— MM. Brouillet et C^, J. G. Deroy, E. Dumont, 
Mesdames veuve Harmand, Marie Meyer, veuve Eoger, MM. L. Scheier, Stock- 
mann freres. 

Diplomas of the 2nd Class.— MM. Bertrand, Bleuze et 0% Daniels et Weil, 
Leborgne, H. Schenck et C'=. 

Group II. 

AGEICULTUEAL AND ALIMENTARY PRODUCTS — SKINS AND LEATHER. 

Members of the Junj.— MM. Gustave Caen, Chevatlier- Apart, Maurice Estieu, 
Auguste Pelletier, Emmanuel Roublot, Leon Walter. 

Hors concours.—M. Chevallier-Appert, Compagnie Fran^aise des Chocolats 
(Pelletier et C^), MM. Masurel et Caen. 

Diploma of Honour. — M. Menier. 

Diplomas of the 1st Class.— MM. Btienne Aubert, Bouton et Henras, G. 
Dhoste, DandicoUe et Gaudin, Garcot et Tremblot, B. Guilloux, Mocquet et 
Lesage, Auguste Pellerin. 

Diplomas of the 2nd Class.— Yenve Marchand et Lecante, MM. Eispaud et 
Pellegrin, Savidan. 

Group III. 

WINES LIQUEURS BEER AND OTHER BEVERAGES — OILS. 

Members of the Jury. — MM. Hartmann, Marnier-Lapostolle, Nicols, 
d'Aurignac, AUain fils, Charles Benoit, Jules Folliot, Formont, Galichon, 
Jarlauld, Leguay, Stern, Cirier-Pavard, Eoux, Velten fils. 

Hors concours. — MM. Emile d'Aurignac, Charles Benoit, Claudon et C«, 
Jules Folliot, Georges Hartmann, Marnier-Lapostolle, Stern fils et frires, 
Velten. 

Diplomas of Honour. — MM. Guy et Grasset, Fontbonne, Mercier et C^, 
Beauchamp Machenaud, Simon VioUet, Achille Eavinet. 

Diplomas of the 1st Class.— MM. Albert Fleury, J. D. Coust6, Fr6d6ric 
Mugnier, M. Hurard, Madame veuve Emile Easpail, MM. Mailliez et C^, 
Brintet Moissenet et fils, Mangin et Lambinet, Campredon, Simonnet Febvre 
et fils, Joseph Perier fils et C^, le comte de Eichemont, L6on Leriche, Maydieu, 
Eieutord, d'Avenel, Malinet, Therese Picon et C^, Lillet freres. 

Diplomas of the 2nd Class.— M. Schwob, MM. Pollack, Seguin et C^, Lon- 
guelanne, Garric fils ain6, Karcher-Rcederer, G. du Martelez. 

Group IV. 

MINERALS MINERALOGY MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MACHINERY AGRICULTURAL 

IMPLEMENTS — ELECTRICITY RAILWAYS — COACH-BUILDING — CIVIL ENGINEERING 

PUBLIC WORKS ARCHITECTURE BUILDING MATERIALS, 

Members of the Jury.— MM. Miihlbacher, Arrault, Gustave Eoy, Bonnier, 
Boivin, Camille, Georges Carre, le comte Deligny d'Alosno, Leon Dru, Gasne, 
Jonte, Eugene Pereire, Pierron, Pombla, Sudrot, Tanquerel, Vincent. 

Hors concours. — MM. Alph. Camille jeune, J. Carr6 et ses fils, L. Gasne, 
E. Jonte, Miihlbacher, A. Pombla, Vincent. 

Diplomas of Honour, — Societe des Glaces de Saint-Gobain ; MM. Dorizon pere 



508 TEJE FBENGH EXHIBITION. 

et fils, Laurent Colas, E. Deschiens; Compagnie Generale des Asphaltes de 
France ; MM. Odelin freres ; Soci6t6 des Etablissements Decauville ain6. 

Diplomas of the 1st Class, — MM. Prudon et Dubost, Beyer freres, Baudrit, 
Charles Garnier, Louis Malen, Grauer et C^, Cauchois fils, J. Mazellet, Lemelle, 
Gilder, Eenard et Totey, Eoulet, Viville, La Sub^rine, Durand et Bonnot, 
Picard freres. 

Biplomas of the 2ncl Class. — MM. Paul Picard, Tahl et Baumann, T. Conte et 
frere, Eossignol, Liorel pere et C^, E. Carre, Mesle Bauchet, Haret freres. 

Group V. 

CHEMICAL AND COLONIAi PRODUCTS PERFUMERY — APPLIED CHEMISTRY PHARMA- 
CEUTICAL PRODUCTS — MEDICAL AND SURGICAL APPLIANCES. 

Members of the Jury. — MM. Adrian, Chouet, Buchet, Gustave Chalmel, 
Chassaing, Desnoix, Galante, le D^ Hubert, Auguste Perr6 fils, Wickham. 

Hors concours. — MM. Adrian et C«, Charles Buchet et C'^, Gustave Chalmel 
fils et gendre, Chassaing et C^ ; Maison du Docteur Pierre ; MM. Desnoix, 
A. Perr6 etfils, Wickham. 

Dijdomas of Honour. — MM. Brigonnet et Naville; Compagnie Fermi^re des 
Eaux de Vichy ; M. G. Borrel. 

Diplomas of the 1st Class. — MM. Gigiiet Leroy, Fayard et Blayn, Pinchon, 
Madame veuve Easpail et fils, MM. Victor Vaissier, Millet, Warrick freres, 
Docteur Eougeot, Lelasseur et C^. 

Diplomas of the 2nd Class. — MM. Achille Th6see, Ch. Cornu, Eebiere fils, 
G. Fromage, Eougier, L6on Pupat, Delcroix, Louat, Muraour fils, Merlin et C^, 
Eugene Eaynaud. 

Group VI. 

EDUCATION — FRENCH INSTITUTIONS — EDUCATIONAL AND ART MATERIALS — PAPER — 
PRINTING^ — BOOKBINDING ENGRAVING PHOTOGRAPHY. 

Members of the Jury.— MM. Doin, Layus, Boudet, Lahure, Maunoury, Eoger 
Sandoz, Thouroude. 

Hors concours. — MM. Boudet, Octave Doin, A. Le Vasseur et C^, Alexis 
Lahure. 

Diplomas of Honour. — MM. Braun et C^, Wittmann, Georges Petit. 

Diplomas of the 1st Class. — MM. HoUier-Larousse et C'=, Antoine et fils, Emile 
Testard, Graffe et Jougla, Minot et C<', Eouille, Soci6t6s Dinger, Papeteries de 
Eenage. 

Diplomas of the 2nd Class. — Librairie lUustree, MM. Henry Capelle, Alfred 
Laclais, Braunstein freres, Guillaume et C«, Eougeron, Vignerot et C^, Miss de 
Broen, MM. Th6zard fils, Gondolf, Vitou et C^ Tampier. 

Group VII. 

FURNITURE DECORATION. 

Members of the Jury. — MM. Quignon, HoUande, Millot, Gilbert Cuel, Masson, 
F6Ux Follot, Poiret, Soubrier. 

Hors concours. — MM. Quignon, Gilbert Cuel, Ateliers Froc Eobert, MM, 
3oubrier, Damon, Millot et Colin, 



SUPPLEMENT. 509 

Diplomas of Honour. — Society Fran^aise de Tranchage des Bois, MM. 
Kemon, Jansen. 

BiiAomas of the 1st Class.— MM. Mathey, Wallet, Dufin, Margotin. 

Diplomas of the Incl Class. — MM. Chauvet, J^mont, Travere, Perrault, Eliaers, 
Ribeyrotte, Meunier, Tixier, Eouget, Guillot, Lucas et Maugery. 

Gkoup VIII. 

ARTISTIC INDUSTRIES • — JEWELLEBY BRONZES CERAMICS — ENAMELS WATCH AND 

CLOCKMAKING WROUGHT METALS GOLD AND SILVER WORK MOSAICS GLASS 

AND CRYSTALS. 

Members of the Jury for Group VIII. — MM. Gustave Sandoz, Flamant fils, 
James Vidie. 

Class I. 

JEWELLERY GOLD AND SILVER WORK — WATCH AND CLOCKMAKING, 

Members of the Jury for Class I. — MM. Decle, Peconnet, Beaudouin, J. A. 
Guillaume, Bieli, Brunet, Chenaillier, Dreux, Fontaine-Besson, Galli, Leopold 
Hubert, Charles Jean, Lahaye, Margaine, Euault, Claudius Saunier. 

Hors concours. — MM. Gustave Sandoz, Alph. Decle, Lahaye, Peconnet, 
Beaudouin, Euault, Bieli, Galli et Chambin, Dreux, Margaine, Brunet. 

Diplomas of Honour. — MM. Besson, Prat, David. 

Diplomas of the 1st Class. — MM. Eoby, Felix Duchemin, Pouplier et Eam- 
bourg, L6on Vaguer, Alexandre Vaguer, Philippi, Eaga, Pochiet, Ucciani, 
Lefevre, Vaumarin, Louis Chevrier, Poinsignon, Buret, Chopard, Chargueraud, 
Eegad, P. Eadel Cleray, Jaillon, Huguenin et Chopard, Auguste Casiez. 

Diplomas of the 2nd Class. — MM. Lorier, Ducreux, Gossart, Bernard, Blondel, 
Vuillermoz et Mangon, Piel, Silvestre, Gelle, Cucy et Wattiaux, Louis Bonin, 
Fajardot, Bunon, Lercule. 

Class II. 

ART AND IMITATION BRONZES — WROUGHT METALS. 

Members of the Jury for Class II. — MM. Lamaille, Charpentier, Berquin 
Varangoz, Coutelier, Dalifol, Houdebine fils, Eoty, Pollock. 

Hors concours. — MM. James Vidie et fils, Berquin Varangoz, Hottot et 
Charpentier, Dalifol et C^, Houdebine pere et fils. 

Diplomas of Honour. — MM. Barbedienne, Thiebaut freres, Susse fr^res, 
Coupler fils et Drouard, Emile Colin et C^. 

Diplomas of the 1st Class. — MM. A. Basset, Soleau, Slot et Perzinka, Masse, 
Auguste Gouge, E. Dreyfous. 

Diplomas of the 2nd Glass. — MM. Jourdan, Poccard et Eichermoz, Clemencet, 
EouxeviUe, Kamioner Treves. 

Class III. 

CERAMICS — ENAMELS — MOSAICS — GLASS. 

Me7nbers of the Jury for Glass III. — MM. Houry, Legras, Taillardat, Gustave 
Thierry, James Vidie. 

Hors concours. — MM. Legras et C'=, Jules Houry. 

Diplomas of Honour. ^Soci^t^ des Glacea de Saint'Gobain, MM. Mellerio 
freres, Leveill6. 



510 THE FBENGH EXHIBITION. 

• Diplomas of the 1st Class. — MM. Sauvageot et C^, Picard et C^, Grand'- 
homme et Garnier, Peze et Mauger, Chineau, Enot. 

Diplomas of the 2nd Class. — MM. Chaumeil, Perreur, Gu^rillon, Gibrelle, 
Danielli, Grenot, Gossard fils. 

GeOUPS IX. AND X. 

GROUP IX : ARTICLES DE PARIS MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES TOYS. 

GROUP X : JIARITIME PRODUCTS — NAVAL ARCHITECTURE FISHERIES— THE CHASE. 

Memhers of the Jury. — MM. Tarbouriech Nadal, Gustave Kahn, Houlet, 
Boudinet, Cormier, Lemariey, Jules Lepage, N. Lucas fils, Vuitton, Gaston 
Pillois, Eueff. 

Hors concours. — MM. Cormier, Lemariey, Jules Lepage, N. Lucas fils, 
Vuitton. 

Diplomas of Honour. — MM. Evette, H. Didout fils, Colmont, EouUet et 
Decamps, Langerome, Tourneur et Micas. 

Diplomas of the 1st Class. — MM. Paul Girard, Henneguy et C'=, Madame 
Chevry, MM. DucoUet freres, A. Brezina, Eousseau freres, Goetschy et Bouyer, 
S. Notton et C«, D. Jugla, Louis Picot, Borgest, C. Benoit, Mayer-Mace, H. 
dinger, E. Denamur, Cornon Eey et C^, Lenoir. 

Diplomas of the 2nd Class. — MM. Joseph Vidou, Henri Kahn, Louis Eaze, 
Edmond Degardin, Th. Lamagnere, la Societe cooperative de Morez, A. Briots, 
P. Givord, Chaumat et C^, Simon, M. A. Beuard, Salomon Cahen, A. Decamps 
et G'', Toussaint, Coup-PieroUe, Eobert, Debray, Picard, Eugene Eonsin, Henri 
Menesser. 

Group XL 

MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

Members of the Jury. — MM. Aristide Cavaillie-CoU, Gust. Lyon, Mangeot, 
Masson, Euch, J. Thibouville-Lamy. 

Hors concours. — MM. J. Thibouville-Lamy, Pleyel Wolff et C'=, Fontaine- 
Besson. 

Diplomas of Honour. — Orgues Alexandre pere etfils, MM. Lecomte et C<=. 

Diplomas of the 1st Class. — M. H. Klein, 

Diplomas of the 2nd Class. — M. Trojelli. 



THE GERMAN EXHIBITION. 

LONDON, 1891. 

HONORARY PRESIDENT. 
H.E.H. THE DUKE OF SAXE-COBUEG-GOTHA. 

DIRECTOR-GENERAL 

AND 

CHAIRMAN OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 
JOHN E. WHITLEY. 

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND STAFF. 

Secretary : Vincent A. Applin. 

Engineer, and Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds : Arthur Carey, 
A.M.I.C.E. Office Assistants: C. Bartlett ; F. F. Cobb. Head Foreman: J. 
Hart. Assistants : A. J. Sharman ; T. H. Bishop. 

Special Commissioner : Leon Duchene. 

Secretary op Hon. German Committee : Hermann Hillger. 

Assistant- Secretary : Paul Stoeck. 

Director of Installations: P. Jaffe, from the Ministry of Pubhc Works, 
Berhn. Assistant Director : H. Hillger. Assistants : Carl Meyer ; Croft. 

Director of Fine Art Section : Fritz Gurlitt. Superintendent : P. Hilde- 
brandt. 

Bavarian Commissioner : Chevalier de Eeichel. 

Director of Literary Department : T. Boston Bruce. 

Chief Accountant : Alfred Johnson. Assistants : P. Penf old (Cashier) ; W. 
Eaiker ; E. P. Cherrill. 

Chief Correspondent : W. F. Colliver. 

Clerks in General Office : A. W. Isenthal ; A. Kreysing ; G. W. Lawn ; 
W. F. Eoss ; J. Silber ; S. Stone ; F. E. Gilder ; E. Lucchesi. 

Chief of Admissions Department : Alfred Johnson. Assistants: E. Eigden; 
E. J. Hogben; J. G. Jones; C. D. Jackson; D. Howell; E. E. Thole; Whit- 
well ; E. H. Gardner ; H. Groves ; W. Harland. 

Architects and Directors of Decorations : Emanuel Seidl and M. Diilfer. 
Scenic Artists : Zeno Diemer ; E. Lipps ; A. Marcks ; Charles Palmie ; J. 
Banks ; M. Weinholdt. 

Hon. Director op Musical Arrangements : J. H. Bonawitz. 

Superintendent op Illustrated Publications : Dr. A. Brodbeck. 

Assistant Superintendent : Col. P. Champion. 

Manager of Munich Theatre : H. Herrmann. 

Superintendent of Entrances : H. J. Banister. 

Sole Concessionnaires for Official Publications : Waterlow and Sons, 
Limited. 

Advertising Contractors : Partington & Co., Walter Hill & Co., Limited. 

Inspector op Police : J. Ellis. 

Head Gardener : W; Pratt. 



512 THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 

Messengers : H. Cobbett ; F. A. Cox ; H. Cramm ; E. J. Cumplen ; 
F. Goffin ; H. Keller ; G. Selle. 

Patent Agent: A. J. Boult, M.I.M.E., Fel. Tnst. P. A. 

Bankers : Brown, Janson & Co., The Alliance Bank, Ltd. (Kensington Brancli). 

Accountants and Auditors : Turquand, Youngs, Weise, 'Bishop and Clarke. 

Honorary Medical Committee : Hermann Weber, M.D., F.E.C.P. ; Felix 
Semon, M.D., F.E.C.P. ; Heinrich Port, M.D., F.E.C.P. ; E. J. Maitland Coffin, 
F.E.C.P. ; A. G. Bateman, M.B. ; J. H. Griffin, L.E.C.P. ; T. C. F. Naumann, 
M.D. ; P. P. Whitcombe, M.B. ; and E. G. Younger, M.D., M.E.C.P. 

ARENA SECTION. 

Directors : James Pain & Sons. 

Managers : Theodor Eeuss. Leslie Sims. 

Assistant Manager and Cavalry Instructor : Corp. Major W. Macpherson. 

Bandmaster : J. Jung. 

Drillmasters : W. Pasch. C. Weiss. Julius Paul. 

Superintendent of Admissions : G. W. Cruse. 

Honorary Veterinary Surgeon: C. Trevena Bray, M.E.C.V.S.L. 

HONORARY ADVISORY COUNCIL IN LONDON. 

president : 
Herr OSCAE EENST VON EENSTHAUSEN, London. 

members : 
Herr Otto Goldschmidt, London. Herr George Scheibler, London. 

Prof. Hubert Herkomer, London. Herr Charles Seviu, London. 

Herr C. Ed. Melchers, London. Herr A. A, Stenger, London. 

Herr Carl Meyer, London. Herr Theodor Vasmer, London. 

Prof. F. Max Miiller, Oxford. Herr G. Zwilgmeyer, London. 

honorary secretary : 
Dr. EDUAED CEUESEMANN, London. 

HONORARY COMMITTEE IN GERMANY. 

HON. PRESIDENT : 

HIS SEEENE HIGHNESS PEINCE BLUCHER VON WAHLSTATT. 

president : 
Herr B. W. VOGTS. 

MEMBERS. 

Prof. Dr. Andreas Achenbach, Diisseldorf. 

Prof. Dr. Adler, Berlin. 

Oberbiirgermeister Andree, Chemnitz. 

Prof. Alb. Baur, Diisseldorf. 

Prof. K. Becker, Berlin. 

Geh. Kommerzienrath Moritz Becker, Konigsberg-i-Pr. 



SUPPLEMENT. 513 

HONORARY COMMITTEE IN GERMANY (continued)— 
Oberbiirgermeister Becker, Koln a/Eh. 
Prof. E. Begas, Berlin. 

Oberprasident, Exc. Eud. v. Bennigsen, Hanover. 
Herr Gottfried Bergfeld (i. F ; Koch and Bergfeld), Bremen. 
Konigl Grossbritannischer Vice Consul H. v. Bleichroder, Berlin. 
Kommerzienrath Jul. Bliithner, Leipzig. 
Oberbiirgermeister Botticher, Magdeburg. 
Prof. Eugen Bracht, Berlin. 
Herr Wilhelm P. Brandt, Schriftsteller, London. 
Consul L. V. Bremen, Kiel. 
Major G. Biirklein, Miinchen. 
Heinrich Prinz zu Carolath-Schonaich, Frankfurt. 
Eedakteur Gustav Dahms, Berlin. 
Prof. Felix Dahn, Breslau. 
Herr Hugo Damm (i. F; Mundt & Co.), Berlin. 
Prof. Franz von Defregger, Miinchen. 

Herr G. Dehmann (i. F ; Eosskamp and Dehmann), Springe. 
Prof. Emil Doepler, d. J. , Berlin. 
Kommerzienrath Paul Dorffel, Berlin. 

A. Dollfus, Pras. d. Industriellen Gesellschaft Miihlhausen, i. E. 
Herr Sholto Douglas, Bergwerk-und Hiittenbesitzer, Berlin. 
Herr M. Duelfer, Munich. 
Stadtrath Otto Duvigneau, Magdeburg. 
Prof. Dr. Georg Ebers, Miinchen. 
Dr. Ernst Eckstein, Dresden. 
Prof. Gustav. Filers, Berlin. 
Prof. H. Eschke, Berlin. 
Prof. Ernst Ewald, Berlin. 
Director A. H. Exner, Leipzig. 
Herr Julius Martin Friedlander, Berlin. 
Prof. E. Gebhardt, Diisseldorf. 
Dr. jur. W. J. Gensel, Leipzig. 
Kommerzienrath J. A. Gilka, Berlin. 
Prof. C. H. Gotz, Karlsruhe. 
Prof. C. Graff, Dresden. 
General Director H. Gregor, Freiburg i. Schl. 
Geh. Kommerzienrath Herm. Gruson, Magdeburg. 
Dr. phil. Glissfeldt, Berhn. 
Prof. H. Gude, Berlin. 
Hof Kunsthandler Fritz Gurlitt, Berlin. 
Biirgermeister Hack, Miihlhausen i. Elsass. 
Kommerzienrath Friedrich Haenle, Miinchen. 
Prof. C. Hammer, Niirnberg. 
Count Henckel von Donnersmarck, Berlin. 
Capt. E. von Heuser, London. 
Stadtrath Eobert Heuser, Koln a/Bh. 
Dr. Paul Heyse, Miinchen. 



514 THE GJSBMAN EXHIBITION. 

HONORARY COMMITTEE IN GERMANY (continued)— 
Count Hochberg, Berlin. 
Dr. Hans v. Hopfen, Berlin. 
Prof. Emil Hiinten, Dlisseldorf. 
Konigl. Eegierungsbaumeister, F. Jaff6, Berlin. 
Dr. Jannasch, Berlin. 
Prof. P. Janssen, Dlisseldorf. 
Dr. J. Kahn, Miinchen. 

Dir. d. Kgl-Akad. d. Kiinste Friedr. Aug. v. Kaulbach, Miinchen. 
Prof. Hermann Kaulbach, Miinchen. 
Prof. Albert Keller, Miinchen. 
Prof. Ferd. Keller, Karlsruhe. 
Prof. Eugen Klimsch, Frankfurt a/M. 
Prof. Ludwig Knaus, Berlin. 
Director Wilhelm KoUmann, Bismarkhiitte. 
Herr H. Kraft (i. F. ; Kraft and Levin), Berlin. 
Prof. T. V. Kramer, Niirnberg. 
Herr W. v. Krause, Berlin. 
Herr Bruno Kruse, Berlin. 
Prof. J. Kiirschner, Stuttgart. 

Dir. B. Bitter von Lange, Miinchen. 

Geh. Kommerzienrath Eugen Langen, Koln a/Kh. 

Herr Lehmann, Offenbach a/Main. 

Franz Bitter v. Lenbach, Miinchen. 

Dr. Leyendecker, Kohi a/Eh. 

Herr Max Liebermann, Berlin. 

Kommerzienrath H. Lissaeur, Berlin. 

Herr Joh. Lohmann, Direktor d. N. D. Lloyd, Bremen, 

Herr Carl Lorck, Leipzig. 

Dr. Eugen Lucius, Frankfurt a/M. 

Capt. E. Liiders, Gorlitz. 

Kommerzienrath H. Lueg, Diisseldorf. 

Dr. Martins, Berlin. 

Dr. G. V. Mayr, Miinchen. 

Dr. Meidinger, Karlsruhe. 

Kommerzienrath J. F. Meissner, Leipzig. 

Prof. Dr. Adolph Menzel, Berlin. 

Prof. Dr. C. L. Neuhaus, London. 

Prof. Glaus Meyer, Carlsruhe. 

Prof. Paul Meyerheim, Berlin. 

Prof. Dr. Ludwig Nieper, Leipzig. 

Consul L. Offermann, Leipzig. 

Herr Charles Oppenheimer, Frankfurt a/M., Grossbritannischer General-Consul. 

Herr Arthur Pabst, Koln a/Eh. 

Prof. Georg Papperitz, Miinchen. 

Kommerzienrath Franz Eadspieler, Miinchen. 

General-Director E. Eathenau, Berlin. 

Chevalier de Eeichel, Miinchen, 



SUPPLEMENT. 515 

HONORARY COMMITTEE IN GERMANY {continued)— 
Prof. Dr. Carl Eeineeke, Leipzig. 
Herr Theodor Eeuss, Berlin. 

Landtags, u. Eeichstagsabgeordneter H. Eickert, Berlin. 
Dr. Jul. Eodenberg, Berlin. 
C. Saltzmann, Berlin. 

Eeichstagsabg. Philipp Samhammer, Sonneberg i. Th. 
Dr. Fr. v. Schauss, Mtinchen. 
Prof. C. Scherres, Berlin. 
General-Consul M. Schlesinger, Berlin. 
Director C. v. Schraudolph, Stuttgart. 
Prof. Dr. A. Schricker, Strassburg. 
Geheimer Hofrath Schroer, Berlin. 
Kommerzienrath E. Schwanhauser, Niirnberg. 
Dr. E. Schweichel, Berlin. 

Herr Louis Schwindt (i. F. ; Wolff and Schwindt), Karlsruhe. 
Prof. A. Seder, Strassburg. 
Consul H. Segnitz, Bremen. 
Herren Gabriel und Emanuel Seidl, MUnehen. 
Dr. W. V. Seidlitz, Dresden. 
Prof. Eud. Seitz, Miinchen. 
Herr W. Simmler, Diisseldorf. 
Prof. Carl Sohn, Dtisseldorf. 
Herr Friedrich Spielhagen, Berlin. 

Herr F. Sponnagel (i. F. ; von Bterle & Sponnagel), Berlin. 
Prof. H. Stiller, Diisseldorf. 

Herr C. J. Stock (i. F. ; Jos. Stock & Sohne), Kreuznach. 
Herr Paul Stotz, Stuttgart. 
Prof. Melchior zur Strassen, Leipzig. 

Konigl. Grossbritannischer General-Consul Freiherr von Tauchnitz, Leipzig. 
Consul Alfred Thieme, Leipzig. 

Herr Emil Trefftz (i. F. ; J. G. Trefftz & Sohne), Leipzig. 
Prof. Fritz v. Uhde, Miinchen. 
Prof. B. Vautier, Diisseldorf. 
Prof. H. W. Vogel, Berlin. 
Herr Ferd. Vogts, Berlin. 
Herr Alfred Waag, Pforzheim. 
Dr. J. J. Weber, Leipzig. 
Kommerzienrath Carl Weidert, Miinchen, 
Herr E. Werckmeister, Berlin. 
Prof. A. v. Werner, Berlin. 
Prof. Fritz Werner, Berlin. 
Kammersgerichtsrath Ernst Wichert, Berlin. 
Prof. M. Wiese, Hanau. 
Dr. Ernst v. Wildenbruch, Berlin. 
Kommerzienrath F. Wolff, M. Gladbach. 
Colonel V, Wulffen, Berlin. 

Secretary— B.iEB,vi, Hermann Hillgeb, 



516 THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 

ENGLISH RECEPTION COMMITTEE. 

PRESIDENT : 

JOHN E. WHITLEY, Esq. 

MEMBERS : 

His Grace the Duke of Leinster, P.O., D.L. 

The Most Noble the Marquess of Lome, K.T,, G.C.M.G. 

The Most Noble the Marquess of Exeter, P.C. 

The Eight Hon. the Earl of Coventry, P.C. 

The Eight Hon. the Earl of Wharncliffe. 

The Eight Hon. the Earl De La Warr and Buckhurst. 

The Eight Hon. the Earl Hardwicke, P.C. 

The Eight Hon. the Earl of Malmesbury. 

Field-Marshal Lord WiUiam Paulet, G.C.B. 

The Eight Hon. Lord E. Montagu. 

The Eight Hon. Lord Marcus Beresford. 

The Eight Hon. Lord Hillingdon. 

The Eight Hon. Lord Dorchester. 

The Eight Hon. Viscount Powerscourt, K.P. 

The Eight Hon. Lord Bramwell, P.C, F.E.S. 

The Eight Hon. Lord Hay of Kinfauns. 

The Eight Hon. Lord Mayor of London. 

The Hon. William Lowther, M.P. 

The Hon. S. F. A. Hanbury-Tracy, M.P., M.A. 

Sir Theodore Martin, K.C.B., LL.D. 

General Sir Henry P. De Bathe, Bart., D.L., J.P. 

Sir John Dorrington, Bart., M.P., M.A., J.P. 

Sir Frederick Abel, F.E.S. 

Sir Edwin Arnold. 

Sir George B. Bruce. 

Sir Oswald Brierly. 

Surgeon General Sir Wm. Guyer Hunter, K.C.M.G., M.P. 

Capt. Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., E.E. 

Sir Julian Goldsmid, Bart,, M.P. 

Sir Henry A. Isaacs. 

Sir James D. Linton, P.E.I. 

Sir Philip Cunliffe-Owen, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., C.I.B. 

Sir Charles M. Pahner, Bart., M.P. 

Sir Lyon Playfair, M.P., K.C.B., F.E.S. 

Sir Edward James Eeed, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., M.P. 

Sir H. H. Eoscoe, M.P., F.E.S. 

Sir David Salomons, Bart., D.L., M.A. 

Sir John Goode, K.C.M.G., F.G.S. 

Gen. Sir Donald M. Stewart, Bart., G.C.B. , G.C.S.I. 

Sir James Trevor Lawrence, Bart., D.L., M.P. 



SUPPLEMENT. 617- 

ENGLISH RECEPTION COMMITTEE (continued)— 
Sir G. Duckett, Bart. 
Sir Henry Thompson. 
Sir Henry W. Tyler, M.P. 
Sir Geo. C. M. Birdwood, K.C.I.E., C.S.I. 
Sir Saul Samuel. 
Sir Lepel Griffin. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., M.P. 
Sir Alexander Armstrong, K.C.B. 
Sir Edward Victor L. Houlton, G.C.M.G., M.A. 
Sir Samuel Wilson, M.P. 
The Hon. Mr. Justice Jeune. 
Henry Adams, Esq., M.I.M.E., M.I.C.E. 
The Eev. Dr. H. Adler. 
Vincent A. Applin, Esq. 
Edwin Lester Arnold, Esq. 
F. P. Artisani, Esq. 
J. G. Barnes, Esq. 
J. L. Bashford, Esq. 

E. D. Baxter, Esq. 

Wm. Beatty-Kingston, Esq. 

H. Bishop, Esq. 

H. L. Bischoffsheim, Esq. 

Wm. Black, Esq. 

Prof. J. S. Blackie. 

J. Browne-Martin, Esq. 

T. Boston Bruce, Esq. 

James Bryce, Esq., M.P. 

Arthur Carey, Esq., M.I.C.E. 

Captain H. Bruce M. Carvick. 

Hyde Clarke, Esq., F.S.S., V.P.A.I., V.P.E. 

The Chevalier Stuart Cumberland, F.R.G.S. 

F. Innes Currey, Esq. 
Israel Davis, Esq., M.A. 
Charles L. Eastlake, Esq. 
Louis Fagan, Esq. 

Captain Charles Fairholme, E.N. 

Major S. Flood-Page. 

James Forrest, Esq. 

Lieutenant-General C. C. Eraser, V.C, C.B., M.P. 

Harry Furniss, Esq. 

Herbert J. Gladstone, Esq., M.P., M.A. 

Sydney P. Hall, Esq. 

Sir Augustus Harris. 

Joseph Hatton, Esq. 



518- THE GERMAN EXHIBITION. 

ENGLISH BECEPTION COMMITTEE (continued)- 
Wm. Hays, Esq. 
Geo. Henschel, Esq. 
Henry Irving, Esq. 
L. H. Isaacs, Esq., M.P. 
J. S. Jeans, Esq. 
J. Scott Keltie, Esq. 
Colonel W. W. KnoUys. 
Andrew Lang, Esq. 
H. L. W. Lawson, Esq., M.P, 
Charles Lowe, Esq., M.A. 
Justin M'Carthy, Esq., M.P. 
Percy McQuoid, Esq. 
E. B. Marston, Esq. 
D. Christie Murray, Esq. 
Colonel J. T. North. 
Walter H. Pollock, Esq. 
Alfred Powell, Esq. 
John Priestman, Esq. 
Dr. B. W. Eichardson, F.E.S. 
Dr. I. Paul Eichter. 
Alfred De Eothschild, Esq. 
Dr. W. H. Eussell. 

Boverton Eedwood, Esq., F.E.S.E., F.LC. 
George Augustus Sala, Esq. 
G. Saunders, Esq. 
Eeuben David Sassoon, Esq. 
Lieut. -Col. T, Davies Sewell. 
Captain E. M. Shaw, C.B. 
W. J. Soulsby, Esq. 
M. H. Spielmann, Esq. 
Leonard Stokes, Esq., P.A.A. 
Henry Thompson, Esq. 
Charles Meymott Tidy, Esq., M.D. 
Prof. John Tyndall, F.E.S. 
Dr. M. Waldeck. 
Arthur Tannett Walker, Esq. 
W. H. Willans, Esq., J.P. 
W. L. Wyllie, Esq., A.E.A. 
Charles Wyndham, Esq. 
Edmund Yates, Esq. 

Hon. Secretary — Major-General F. W. B. Parry 

Secretary — Wm. Owen, Esq. 



SUPPLEMENT. 519 

"WELCOME CLUB" COMMITTEE. 

CHAIRMAN : 

JOHN E. WHITLEY, Esq. 

VICE-CHAIRMAN : 

Sir JOHN E. HEEON-MAXWELL, Bart. 



Vincent A. Applin, Esq. T. Nelson MacLean, Esq. 

Gen. Sir H. P. de Bathe, Bart. Col. Paget Mosley. 

E. D. Baxter, Esq. Col. J. T. North. 

Sir G. Birdwood, K.C.I.E., C.S I. Major S. Flood Page. 

H. Bischoffsheim, Esq. A. Powell, Esq. 

Sir G. Barclay Bruce. Viscount Powerscourt, K.P. 

Capt. H. B. M. Carvick. J. Priestman, Esq. 

Dr. E. Cruesemann. Alfred de Eothschild, Esq. 

0. Ernst von Ernsthausen, Esq. Dr. W. H. Eussell. 

Sir J. Guldsmid, Bart., M.P. Eeuben D. Sassoon, Esq. 

Sir Augustus Harris. Capt. E. M. Shaw, C.B. 

W. Hays, Esq. H. E. Schmettau, Esq. 

Major L. H. Isaacs, M.P. L. Alma Tadema, Esq., E.A. 

J. S. Jeans, Esq. Earl De La Warr & Buckhurst. 

H. L. W. Lawson, Esq., M.P. Sir Samuel Wilson, M.P. 

Hermann Lescher Esq. Charles Wyndham, Esq. 

Charles Lowe, Esq., M.A. Edmund Yates, Esq. 
Leopold Yates, Esq. 
Hon. Secretary — William Owen, Esq. 
Secretary — A. Knowles, Esq. 

THE JURY OF AJVARDS. 

President : 0. v. Ernsthausen, 5, Belsize Grove, Hampstead. 
Prof. Carl Becker, Berlin, Margarethen-Strasse. 
Dr. Cruesemann, London, 15, Philpot Lane, E.C. 
Otto Goldschmidt, London, Moreton Gardens, South Kensington. 
Prof. Hubert Herkomer, Dyreham, Bushey, Herts. 

F. Jaffe, Berlin, Enkeplatz 4. 

C. Ed. Melchers, London, 1, Fenchurch Avenue, E.C. 

Carl Meyer, London, 1, New Court, St. Swithin's Lane, E.C. 

Prof. F. Max Miiller, Oxford. 

Geo. Scheibler, London, 23, New Broad Street, E.C. 

Charles Sevin, London, Central Hill, Upper Norwood. 

A. A. Stenger, London, Westtield House. Thornton Eoad, Clapham Park, S.W. 
Theodor Vasmer, London, 65, Fenchurch Street, E.C. 

B. W. Vogts, Berlin, Lindenstrasse 38. 

G. Zwilgmeyer, London, Deutsche Bank, George Yard, Lombard Street, E.C. 

Secretary : Hermann Hillger, German Exhibition. 



520 THE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 

LIST OF AWAEDS TO EXHIBITORS. 
Group I. 

JUKOES, 

President: Henry Borckenstein, 129, Cheapside, E.G. 
Johannes Bergmann, 7, Bow Lane, E.G. 
R. Biichly, 38, Gooper Street, Manchester. 
B. W. Vogts, Berlin, Lindenstr. 38. 
Secretary : Hermann Hillger. 

First Class Diplomas of Honour. 

Augsburger Mechanische Tricotwaarenfabrik, Buntweberei und Faerberei von 
A. Koblenzer, Augsburg, for good Linen Underclothing, system P. Seb. Kneipp. 

J. D. Gruschwitz & Soehne, Neusalz a. 0., for best Manufacture. 

J. Heil, Wandsbeck, for good coloured Leather. 

The Lahmann Agency, London, for best cotton-wool Underclothing. 

Ludwig Maier & Co., Stuttgart, for excellently finished woollen Under- 
clothing. 

J. Marthaler Nachf., Zeitz, for well-made Gloves. 

Garl Mez & Soehne, Freiburg in Br., for very good Workmanship. 

Norddeutsche Filzschuh-Fabrik Paul Erfurth, Berlin, for best finish and 
elegant Workmanship. 

Ernst Papst, Aue in S., for handsome Workmanship. 

H. G. Petermann, Sebnitz in Sachsen, for tastefully finished artificial Flowers 
and leaved Plants. 

Oscar Prietsch, Wurzen, for well-made Garpets and tastefully arranged 
Colours and Patterns. 

Dehmann, Sporer & Friedrichs, Hannover-Linden, for the best Carpets and 
Strips. 

J. G. Schmidt, Erfurt, for the most beautiful artificial Flowers and handsome 
Decorations. , 

Schuette & Vorsteher, Barmen, for good Workmanship. 

Voigtlaender & Lesser, Plauen, for good Needlework. 

M. Wischmeyer, Bremen, for the best artistic Needlework. 

Albert Zimmermanh, Danzig, for good Workmanship. 

Stiehler & Eeuter, Annaberg, for best Finish. 

Second Class Diplomas of Honour. 

Bernhard & Klusmann, Berlin, for best Workmanship. 

D. Faust, Berlin, for well-finished Saddles and Riding Habits. 

Otto Gerlach & Co., Zschoppau, for well made artificial Flowers. 

Guenther & Neumeister, Scbneeberg, for linen Needlework. 

Gueth & Wolf, Guetersloh, for best Quality. 

Friedr. Hagemann, Bremen, for Underclothing. 

L. Krueger, Hamburg- Stein waerder, for Diving Apparatus and Utensils. 

Edmund Kuerth, Geringswalde, for Stocking Materials of good quality. 

H. R. Leichsenring, Groszenhain, for sound, lasting Workmanship. 

A. H. Londenberg, Hamburg, for artificial Flowers. 



SUPPLEMENT. 521 

L. Ososki & Co., Berlin, for well-finished Dressing Gowns. 

Frau Eeehten, Berlin, for Filigree work. 

Crescentia Party, Muenchen, for Needlework. 

Ed. Emil Eichter, Dresden, for Bath Shoes. 

N. Eichter & Co., Berlin, for the most handsome Fans. 

J. Eoehrs, Hamburg, for a Swinging Chair. 

G. Euedenberg & Co., Wuelfel b. Hannover, for Feathers and Feather Goods. 

Fraeulein Stockmann, London, for beautiful Needlework. 

Fraeulein Lenchen Weigel, London, for excellent Needlework. 

Group II. 



President : Otto Hehner, 11, Billiter Square, E.C. 
A. Domeier, 13, St. Mary-at-Hill, E.C. 
Hermann Eschwege, 6, Coleman Street, E.C. 
-J. Hasslacher, 6, Idol Lane, E.C. 
W. KUngenstein, 24, St. Mary Axe, E.C. 
Franz Moll, 66, St. James Street, S.W. 
C. Sevin, Central Hill, Upper Norwood. 
Secretary : Hermann Hillger. 

First Class Diplomas of Honour. 

Anheuser & Fehrs, Creuznach, for Ehine and Moselle Wines. 

Boehmisches Brauhaus, Berlin (A. Hoddick, General-Vertreter), for Crown 
Beer. 

C. Bolle, Berlin, for good Quality. 

Braunschweiger Conserven-Fabrik, Neubrueck, for good Preserves. 

J. A. Gilka, Berlin, for best Quality, 

Hansa Brauerei A.-G., Hamburg, for good light Beers. 

Hartwig & Vogel, Dresden, for the best Cocoa.. 

J. Hildebrandt, Pfungstaedt, for Marzen and Bock Beer. 

G. E. Hirsch, Berlin, for best Cigarettes. 

Georg Huebner, Hamburg, for good Chocolates. 

Carl Mampe, Berlin, for good Liqueurs. 

Mundt & Co., Berhn, for good Table Wines. 

S. Plouda, Koenigsberg, for best Marzipan. 

G. Pschorr, Muenchen, for good Beers. 

J. Eichardson & Co., Braunschweig, for Preserved Fruits. 

Eitter <fe Co., Dresden, for cheap, well-made Cigars. 

Euehman Bros., London, for excellent Preserved Meats. 

Gabriel Sedlmayr, Muenchen, for best Munich Lager Beers — purity, delicacy 
of flavour, and wholesomeness. 

Seidel & Co. , Breslau, for sweet Liqueurs. 

Gebr. StoUwerck, Coeln, for excellent Chocolate and Sweetmeats. 

Otto Voelker, Muenchen, for an important Invention. 

Gebr. Witte, Braunschweig, for well-smoked Meats and Sausages. 

Wilhelm Ziemer, Koenigsberg, for excellent Liqueurs. 



522 TEE GEBMAN EXHIBITION. 

Second Glass Diplomas of Honou